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prohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasure only.

Nayikas,2 therefore, are of three kinds, viz. maids, women twice married, and
public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion that there is a fourth kind
of Nayika, viz. a woman who is resorted to on some special occasion even
though she be previously married to another. These special occasions are when
a man thinks thus:

This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others
besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman
though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and, in so doing, I shall not be
violating the ordinances of Dharma.
Or thus:
This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me;
there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.
Or thus:
This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and
exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she
becomes united with me she will cause her husband to abandon my enemy.
Or thus:
This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my
favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me
some harm.
Or thus:
By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine,
or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some
other difficult purpose.
Or thus:
By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast
riches which I covet.

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Kinds of sexual union according to dimensions, force of desire or
passion, time

Kind of Union
Man is divided into three classes, viz. the hare man, the bull man, and the
horse man, according to the size of his lingam.

Woman also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer, a
mare, or a female elephant.

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Of the embrace

This part of the Kama Shastra, which treats of sexual union, is also called `Sixty-
four' (Chatushshashti). Some old authors say that it is called so, because it
contains sixty-four chapters. Others are of opinion that the author of this part
being a person named Panchala, and the person who recited the part of the Rig
Veda called Dashatapa, which contains sixty-four verses, being also called
Panchala, the name `sixty-four' has been given to the part of the work in honour
of the Rig Vedas. The followers of Babhravya say on the other hand that this part
contains eight subjects, viz. the embrace, kissing, scratching with the nails or
fingers, biting, lying down, making various sounds, playing the part of a man,
and the Auparishtaka, or mouth congress. Each of these subjects being of eight
kinds, and eight multiplied by eight being sixty-four, this part is therefore named
`sixty-four'. But Vatsyayana affirms that as this part contains also the following
subjects, viz. striking, crying, the acts of a man during congress, the various
kinds of congress, and other subjects, the name `sixty-four' is given to it only
accidentally. As, for instance, we say this tree is `Saptaparna', or seven-leaved,
this offering of rice is `Panchavarna', or five-coloured, but the tree has not seven
leaves, neither has the rice five colours.

However the part sixty-four is now treated of, and the embrace, being the first
subject, will now be considered.

Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and woman who
have come together is of four kinds:





The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word which stands for
When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongside of a woman
and touches her body with his own, it is called the `touching embrace'.
On kissing

It is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between the embrace,
the kiss, and the pressing or scratching with the nails or fingers, but that all
these things should be done generally before sexual union takes place, while
striking and making the various sounds generally takes place at the time of the
union. Vatsyayana, however, thinks that anything may take place at any time,
for love does not care for time or order.

On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other things mentioned
above should be done moderately, they should not be continued for a long
time, and should be done alternately. On subsequent occasions, however, the
reverse of all this may take place, and moderation will not be necessary, they
may continue for a long time, and, for the purpose of kindling love, they may
be all done at the same time.

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On pressing, or marking, or scratching with nails

When love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching the body with
them is practised, and it is done on the following occasions: on the first visit; at
the time of setting out on a journey; on the return from a journey; at the time
when an angry lover is reconciled; and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

But pressing with the nails is not a usual thing except with those who are
intensely passionate, i.e. full of passion. It is employed, together with biting, by
those to whom the practice is agreeable.

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On biting, and the means to be employed with regard to women og
different countries

All the places that can be kissed are also the places that can be bitten, except
the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes. The qualities of good teeth
are as follows: They should be equal, possessed of a pleasing brightness,
capable of being coloured, of proper proportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.

The defects of teeth on the other hand are that they are blunt, protruding from
the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

The following are the different kinds of biting:

The hidden bite

The swollen bite

The point

The line of points

The coral and the jewel

The line of jewels

The broken cloud

The biting of the boar

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Of the different ways of lying down, and various kinds of congress

On the occasion of a `high congress' the Mrigi (Deer) woman should lie down in
such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a `low congress' the Hastini (Elephant)
woman should lie down so as to contract hers. But in an `equal congress' they
should lie down in the natural position. What is said above concerning the Mrigi
and the Hastini applies also to the Vadawa (Mare) woman. In a `low congress
the woman should particularly make use of medicine, to cause her desires to be
satisfied quickly.
The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down:
q The widely opened position

q The yawning position

q The position of the wife of Indra

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Of the various modes of striking, and of the sounds appropiate to them

SEXUAL intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of the
contrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The place of striking with
passion is the body, and on the body the special places are:

The shoulders

The head

The space between the breasts

The back

The jaghana, or middle part of the body

The sides

Striking is of four kinds:

Striking with the back of the hand

Striking with the fingers a little contracted

Striking with the fist

Striking with the open palm of the hand

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About women acting the part of a man; and of the work of a man

When a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress, without
having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission, lay him down upon
his back, and give him assistance by acting his part. She may also do this to
satisfy the curiosity of her lover, or her own desire of novelty. There are two
ways of doing this, the first is when during congress she turns round, and gets
on the top of her lover, in such a manner as to continue the congress, without
obstructing the pleasure of it; and the other is when she acts the man's part
from the beginning. At such a time, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and
her smiles broken by hard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom
with her own breasts, and lowering her head frequently, should do in return the
same actions which he used to do before, returning his blows and chaffing him,
should say, `I was laid down by you, and fatigued with hard congress, I shall
now therefore lay you down in return.' She should then again manifest her own
bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire of stopping the congress. In this way
she should do the work of a man, which we shall presently relate.

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Of the Auparishtaka or mouth congress

There are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, and those
that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as females imitate their dress,
speech, gestures, tenderness, timidity, simplicity, softness and bashfulness.
The acts that are done on the jaghana or middle parts of women, are done in
the mouths of these eunuchs, and this is called Auparishtaka.1 These eunuchs
derive their imaginable pleasure, and their livelihood from this kind of congress,
and they lead the life of courtesans. So much concerning eunuchs disguised as

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they wish to do
anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under the pretence of shampooing, a
eunuch of this kind embraces and draws towards himself the thighs of the man
whom he is shampooing, and after this he touches the joints of his thighs and
his jaghana, or central portions of his body. Then, if he finds the lingam of the
man erect, he presses it with his hands and chaffs him for getting into that
state. If after this, and after knowing his intention, the man does not tell the
eunuch to proceed, then the latter does it of his own accord and begins the
congress. If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputes with
him, and only consents at last with difficulty.

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Of the way how to begin and how to end the congress. Different kinds
of congress and love quarrels.

In the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant with perfumes,
attended by his friends and servants, the citizen should receive the woman,
who will come bathed and dressed, and will invite her to take refreshment and
to drink freely. He should then seat her on his left side, and holding her hair,
and touching also the end and knot of her garment, he should gently embrace
her with his right arm. They should then carry on an amusing conversation on
various subjects, and may also talk suggestively of things which would be
considered as coarse, or not to be mentioned generally in society. They may
then sing, either with or without gesticulations, and play on musical
instruments, talk about the arts, and persuade each other to drink. At last when
the woman is overcome with love and desire, the citizen should dismiss the
people that may be with him, giving them flowers, ointments, and betel leaves,
and then when the two are left alone, they should proceed as has been already
described in the previous chapters.

Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress, the lovers
with modesty, and not looking at each other, should go separately to the
washing-room. After this, sitting in their own places, they should eat some betel
leaves, and the citizen should apply with his own hand to the body of the
woman some pure sandal wood ointment, or ointment of some other kind. He
should then embrace her with his left arm, and with agreeable words should
cause her to drink from a cup held in his own hand, or he may give her water to
drink. They can then eat sweetmeats, or anything else, according to their
likings and may drink fresh juice,1 soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the
juice of mango fruits, the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed with
sugar, or anything that may be liked in different countries, and known to be
sweet, soft, and pure. The lovers may also sit on the terrace of the palace or
house, and enjoy the moonlight, and carry on an agreeable conversation. At
this time, too, while the woman lies in his lap, with her face towards the moon,
the citizen should show her the different planets, the morning star, the polar
star, and the seven Rishis, or Great Bear.

This is the end of sexual union.

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On marriage

When a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordance with the
precepts of Holy Writ, the results of such a union are the acquisition of Dharma
and Artha, offspring, affinity, increase of friends, and untarnished love. For this
reason a man should fix his affections upon a girl who is of good family, whose
parents are alive, and who is three years or more younger than himself. She
should be born of a highly respectable family, possessed of wealth, well
connected, and with many relations and friends. She should also be beautiful,
of a good disposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair, nails,
teeth, ears, eyes and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought to be, and
no one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sickly body. The man
should, of course, also possess these qualities himself. But at all events, says
Ghotakamukha, a girl who has been already joined with others (i.e. no longer a
maiden) should never be loved, for it would be reproachable to do such a thing.

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as described above,
thee parents and relations of the man should exert themselves, as also such
friends on both sides as may be desired to assist in the matter. These friends
should bring to the notice of the girl's parents, the faults, both present and
future, of all the other men that may wish to marry her, and should at the same
time extol even to exaggeration all the excellencies, ancestral, and paternal, of
their friend, so as to endear him to them, and particularly to those that may be
liked by the girl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise himself as an
astrologer, and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friend by
showing the existence of all the lucky omens (1) and signs, (2) the good
influence of planets, the auspicious entrance of the sun into a sign of the
Zodiac, propitious stars and fortunate marks on his body. Others again should
rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother by telling her that their friend has a
chance of getting from some other quarter even a better girl than hers.
Of creating confidence in the girl

For the first three days after marriage, the girl and her husband should sleep
on the floor, abstain from sexual pleasures, and eat their food without
seasoning it either with alkali or salt. For the next seven days they should bathe
amidst tire sounds of auspicious musical instruments, should decorate
themselves, dine together, and pay attention to their relations as well as to
those who may have come to witness their marriage. This is applicable to
persons of all castes. On the night of the tenth day the man should begin in a
lonely place with soft words, and thus create confidence in the girl. Some
authors say that for the purpose of winning her over he should not speak to her
for three days, but the followers of Babhravya are of opinion that if the man
does not speak with her for three days, the girl may be discouraged by seeing
him spiritless like a pillar, and, becoming dejected, she may begin to despise

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