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q Men who are free from any ties

q Men who hold places of authority under the king

q Men who have secured their means of livelihood without difficulty



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PART VI
CHAPTER II
Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife




When a courtesan is living as a wife with her lover, she should behave like a
chaste woman, and do everything to his satisfaction. Her duty in this respect, in
short, is, that she should give him pleasure, but should not become attached to
him, though behaving as if she were really attached.

Now the following is the manner in which she is to conduct herself, so as to
accomplish the above mentioned purpose. She should have a mother
dependent on her, one who should be represented as very harsh, and who
looked upon money as her chief object in life. In the event of there being no
mother, then an old and confidential nurse should play the same role. The
mother or nurse, on their part, should appear to be displeased with the lover,
and forcibly take her away from him. The woman herself should always show
pretended anger, dejection, fear, and shame on this account, but should not
disobey the mother or nurse at any time.
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PART VI
CHAPTER III
Of the Means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is beginning
to be Weary, and of the way to get rid of him



Money is got out of a lover in two ways:
By natural or lawful means, and by artifices. Old authors are of opinion that
when a courtesan can get as much money as she wants from her lover, she
should not make use of artifice. But Vatsyayana lays down that though she may
get some money from him by natural means, yet when she makes use of
artifice he gives her doubly more, and therefore artifice should be resorted to
for the purpose of extorting money from him at all events.

Now the artifices to be used for getting money from her lover are as follows:

q Taking money from him on different occasions, for the purpose of purchasing

various articles, such as ornaments, food, drink, flowers, perfumes and clothes,
and either not buying them, or getting from him more than their cost.
q Praising his intelligence to his face.

q Pretending to be obliged to make gifts on occasion of festivals connected with

vows, trees, gardens, temples, or tanks.1
q Pretending that at the time of going to his house, her jewels have been

stolen either by the king's guards, or by robbers.
q Alleging that her property has been destroyed by fire, by the falling of her

house, or by the carelessness of her servants.
q Pretending to have lost the ornaments of her lover along with her own.

q Causing him to hear through other people of the expenses incurred by her in

coming to see him.
q Contracting debts for the sake of her lover.

q Disputing with her mother on account of some expense incurred by her for

her lover, and which was not approved of by her mother.
q Not going to parties and festivities in the houses of her friends for the want of

presents to make to them, she having previously informed her lover of the
valuable presents given to her by these very friends.
q Not performing certain festive rites under the pretence that she has no

money to perform them with.
q Engaging artists to do something for her lover.

q Entertaining physicians and ministers for the purpose of attaining some

object.
q Assisting friends and benefactors both on festive occasions, and in

misfortune.
q Performing household rites.

q Having to pay the expenses of the ceremony of marriage of the son of a

female friend.
q Having to satisfy curious wishes including her state of pregnancy.

q Pretending to be ill, and charging her cost of treatment.

q Having to remove the troubles of a friend.

q Selling some of her ornaments, so as to give her lover a present.

q Pretending to sell some of her ornaments, furniture, or cooking utensils to a

trader, who has been already tutored how to behave in the matter.
q Having to buy cooking utensils of greater value than those of other people, so

that they might be more easily distinguished, and not changed for others of an
inferior description.
q Remembering the former favours of her lover, and causing them always to be

spoken of by her friends and followers.
q Informing her lover of the great gains of other courtesans.

q Describing before them, and in the presence of her lover, her own great

gains, and making them out to be greater even than theirs, though such may
not have been really the case.

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PART VI
CHAPTER IV
About a Reunion with a former Lover



When a courtesan abandons her present lover after all his wealth is exhausted,
she may then consider about her reunion with a former lover. But she should
return to him only if he has acquired fresh wealth, or is still wealthy, and if he is
still attached to her. And if this man be living at the time with some other
woman she should consider well before she acts.

Now such a man can only be in one of the six following conditions:

He may have left the first woman of his own accord, and may even have left
q

another woman since then.
q He may have been driven away from both women.

q He may have left the one woman of her own accord, and been driven away

by the other.
q He may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be living with

another woman.
q He may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the other of his

own accord.
q He may have been driven away by the one woman, and may be living with

another.

Now if the man has left both women of his own accord, he should not be
resorted to, on account of the fickleness of his mind, and his indifference to the
excellences of both of them. As regards the man who may have been driven
away from both women, if he has been driven away from the last one because
the woman could get more money from some other man, then he should be
resorted to, for if attached to the first woman he would give her more money,
through vanity and emulation to spite the other woman. But if he has been
driven away by the woman on account of his poverty, or stinginess, he should
not then be resorted to.

In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord,
and been driven away by the other, if he agrees to return to the former and
give her plenty of money beforehand, then he should be resorted to.

In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord,
and be living with another woman, the former (wishing to take up with him
again) should first ascertain if he left her in the first instance in the hope of
finding some particular excellence in the other woman, and that not having
found any such excellence, he was willing to come back to her, and to give her
much money on account of his conduct, and on account of his affection still
existing for her.

Or, whether, having discovered many faults in the other woman, he would now
see even more excellences in herself than actually exist, and would be prepared
to give her much money for these qualities.



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PART VI
CHAPTER V
Of different kinds of Gain



When a courtesan is able to realize much money every day, by reason of many
customers, she should not confine herself to a single lover; under such
circumstances, she should fix her rate for one night, after considering the place,
the season, and the condition of the people, and having regard to her own good
qualities and good looks, and after comparing her rates with those of other
courtesans. She can inform her lovers, and friends, and acquaintances about
these charges. If, however, she can obtain a great gain from a single lover, she
may resort to him alone, and live with him like a wife.

Now the sages are of opinion that, when a courtesan has the chance of an equal
gain from two lovers at the same time, a preference should be given to the one
who would give her the kind of thing which she wants. But Vatsyayana says
that the preference should be given to the one who gives her gold, because it
cannot be taken back like some other things, it can be easily received, and is
also the means of procuring anything that may be wished for. Of such things as
gold, silver, copper, bell metal, iron, pots, furniture, beds, upper garments,
under vestments, fragrant substances, vessels made of gourds, ghee, oil, corn,
cattle, and other things of a like nature, the first - gold - is superior to all the
others.

When the same labour is required to gain any two lovers, or when the same
kind of thing is to be got from each of them, the choice should be made by the
advice of a friend, or it may be made from their personal qualities, or from the
signs of good or bad fortune that may be connected with them.

When there are two lovers, one of whom is attached to the courtesan, and the
other is simply very generous, the sages say that the preference should be
given to the generous lover, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that the one who is
really attached to the courtesan should be preferred, because he can be made
to be generous, even as a miser gives money if he becomes fond of a woman,
but a mail who is simply generous cannot be made to love with real
attachment. But among those who are attached to her, if there is one who is
poor, and one who is rich, the preference is of course to be given to the latter.

When there are two lovers, one of whom is generous, and the other ready to do
any service for the courtesan, some sages say that the one who is ready to do
the service should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that a man who
does a service thinks that he has gained his object when he has done
something once, but a generous man does not care for what he has given
before. Even here the choice should be guided by the likelihood of the future
good to be derived from her union with either of them.



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PART VI
CHAPTER VI
Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts; and
lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans



It sometimes happens that while gains are being sought for, or expected to be
realized, losses only are the result of our efforts. The causes of these losses
are:
q Weakness of intellect

q Excessive love

q Excessive pride

q Excessive self conceit

q Excessive simplicity

q Excessive confidence

q Excessive anger

q Carelessness

q Recklessness

q Influence of evil genius

q Accidental circumstances



The results of these losses are:
q Expense incurred without any result

q Destruction of future good fortune

q Stoppage of gains about to be realized

q Loss of what is already obtained

q Acquisition of a sour temper

q Becoming unamiable to every body

q Injury to health

q Loss of hair and other accidents



Now gain is of three kinds: gain of wealth, gain of religious merit, and gain of
pleasure; and similarly loss is of three kinds: loss of wealth, loss of religious
merit, and loss of pleasure. At the time when gains are sought for, if other
gains come along with them, these are called attendant gains. When gain is
uncertain, the doubt of its being a gain is called a simple doubt. When there is a
doubt whether either of two things will happen or not, it is called a mixed
doubt. If while one thing is being done two results take place, it is called a
combination of two results, and if several results follow from the same action, it
is called a combination of results on every side.

We shall now give examples of the above.

As already stated, gain is of three kinds, and loss, which is opposed to gain, is
also of three kinds.

When by living with a great man a courtesan acquires present wealth, and in
addition to this becomes acquainted with other people, and thus obtains a
chance of future fortune, and an accession of wealth, and becomes desirable to
all, this is called a gain of wealth attended by other gain.

When by living with a man a courtesan simply gets money, this is called a gain
of wealth not attended by any other gain.



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PART VII
CHAPTER I
On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of tonic
medicines



When a person fails to obtain the object of his desires by any of the ways
previously related, he should then have recourse to other ways of attracting
others to himself.

Now good looks, good qualities, youth, and liberality are the chief and most
natural means of making a person agreeable in the eyes of others. But in the
absence of these a man or a woman must have resort to artificial means, or to
art, and the following are some recipes that may be found useful.

An ointment made of the tabernamontana coronaria, the costus speciosus or
arabicus, and the flacourtia cataphracta, can be used as an unguent of
adornment.

If a fine powder is made of the above plants, and applied to the wick of a lamp,
which is made to burn with the oil of blue vitrol, the black pigment or lamp
black produced therefrom, when applied to the eyelashes, has the effect of
making a person look lovely.

The oil of the hogweed, the echites putescens, the sarina plant, the yellow
amaranth, and the leaf of the nymphae, if applied to the body, has the same
effect.

A black pigment from the same plants produces a similar effect.

By eating the powder of the nelumbrium speciosum, the blue lotus, and the
mesna roxburghii, with ghee and honey, a man becomes lovely in the eyes of
others.

The above things, together with the tabernamontana coronaria, and the
xanthochymus pictorius, if used as an ointment, produce the same results.

If the bone of a peacock or of a hyena be covered with gold, and tied on the
right hand, it makes a man lovely in the eyes of other people.

In the same way, if a bead, made of the seed of the jujube, or of the conch
shell, be enchanted by the incantations mentioned in the Atharvana Veda, or by
the incantations of those well skilled in the science of magic, and tied on the
hand, it produces the same result as described above.

When a female attendant arrives at the age of puberty, her master should keep
her secluded, and when men ardently desire her on account of her seclusion,
and on account of the difficulty of approaching her, he should then bestow her
hand on such a person as may endow her with wealth and happiness.

This is a means of increasing the loveliness of a person in the eyes of others.



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PART VII
CHAPTER II
Of the means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging the
Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts



If a man is unable to satisfy a Hastini, or Elephant woman, he should have
recourse to various means to excite her passion. At the commencement he
should rub her yoni with his hand or fingers, and not begin to have intercourse
with her until she becomes excited, or experiences pleasure. This is one way of
exciting a woman.

Or, he may make use of certain Apadravyas, or things which are put on or
around the lingam to supplement its length or its thickness, so as to fit it to the
yoni. In the opinion of Babhravya, these Apadravyas should be made of gold,
silver, copper, iron, ivory, buffalo's horn, various kinds of wood, tin or lead, and
should be soft, cool, provocative of sexual vigour, and well fitted to serve the
intended purpose. Vatsyayana, however, says that they may be made according
to the natural liking of each individual.

The following are the different kinds of Apadravyas:

q `The armlet' (Valaya) should be of the same size as the lingam, and should

have its outer surface made rough with globules.
q `The couple' (Sanghati) is formed of two armlets.

q `The bracelet' (Chudaka) is made by joining three or more armlets, until they

come up to the required length of the lingam.
q `The single bracelet' is formed by wrapping a single wire around the lingam,

according to its dimensions.
q The Kantuka or Jalaka is a tube open at both ends, with a hole through it,

outwardly rough and studded with soft globules, and made to fit the side of the
yoni, and tied to the waist.

When such a thing cannot be obtained, then a tube made of the wood apple, or
tubular stalk of the bottle gourd, or a reed made soft with oil and extracts of
plants, and tied to the waist with strings, may be made use of, as also a row of
soft pieces of wood tied together.

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