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Vaihinger, Hans. Commentar zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. 2 vols.
Stuttgart: W. Spemann and Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1881“
92.
Van Cleve, James. “Four Recent Interpretations of Kant™s Second Analogy.”
Kantstudien 64 (1973): 69“87.
Problems from Kant. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Van Cleve, James and Robert E. Frederick, eds. The Philosophy of Right and
Left. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.
Walker, Ralph C. S., ed. Kant on Pure Reason. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1982.
Walsh, W. H. Kant™s Criticism of Metaphysics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Uni-
versity Press, 1975.
White, Morton. “The Analytic and the Synthetic: An Untenable Dualism.”
Reprinted in Semantics and the Philosophy of Language, ed. Leonard Lin-
sky, 272“86. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1952. (First published
1950.)
Wolff, Robert Paul. Kant™s Theory of Mental Activity. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1963.
Wood, Allen. Kant™s Rational Theology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
1978.
Works cited
316
Young, J. Michael. “Kant™s View of Imagination.” Kantstudien 79 (1988):
140“64.

g ener al wo rks not c it ed
Beck, Lewis White. Studies in the Philosophy of Kant. Indianapolis: Bobbs-
Merrill, 1965.
Dicker, Georges. Kant™s Theory of Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
H¨ ffe, Otfried. Immanuel Kant. Trans. Marshall Farrier. Albany: State Uni-
o
versity of New York Press, 1994.
Nagel, Gordon. The Structure of Experience: Kant™s System of Principles.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
Pippin, Robert B. Kant™s Theory of Form: An Essay on the Critique of Pure
Reason. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
Walker, Ralph C. S. Kant. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.

a nth olog ies not c it ed
F¨ rster, Eckart, ed. Kant™s Transcendental Deductions: The Three ˜Critiques™
o
and the ˜Opus postumum™. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Harper, William A. and Ralph Meerbote, eds. Kant on Causality, Freedom,
and Objectivity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
Kitcher, Patricia, ed. Kant™s “Critique of Pure Reason”: Critical Essays. Lanham,
Md.: Rowman & Little¬eld, 1998.
Wolff, Robert Paul, ed. Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays. Garden City,
N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1967.

b ib li og ra phies
Ameriks, Karl. “Recent Work on Kant™s Theoretical Philosophy.” American
Philosophical Quarterly 19 (1982): 1“24. Contains an extensive bibliog-
raphy of works before 1982.

The North American Kant Society (NAKS) maintains comprehensive on-
line bibliographies of works on Kant, from 1986 to the present, intended for
use by members of the Society. They may be accessed at www.naks.ucsd.edu.
The website also has information for those wishing to join NAKS.
Index




absolute 14“15 Ameriks, Karl 191n, 213n, 220n, 222n, 312
absolute subject see Paralogisms of pure Amphiboly of concepts of re¬‚ection 66,
reason 82n, 170, 201, 204“7, 241
absolute whole see illusion, transcendental Analogies of experience 76, 98, 163“92
action, empirical versus intelligible First, Principle of substance 166“73, 176,
character 259“61 191, 288
see also freedom Second, Principle of causality 173“83,
actuality 248, 288
category of 98“9 Third, Principle of causal
schema of 141 interaction 183“6
see also quality, categories of analytic and synthetic judgments see
Adams, Robert 224n, 311 judgment, analytic and synthetic
Adickes, Erich 307, 311 analytic and synthetic methods 290“8
aesthetic, transcendental 36“72 Analytic of principles 136“7, 143“61,
arguments of 47“57 163“92
strategy of 46 Anselm, Saint 268, 271, 312
affection, double, doctrine of 307“8 Anticipations of perception 97, 149“62
af¬nity, principle of see continuity of forms Antinomy of pure reason 201, 213, 226“63,
agreement and opposition see re¬‚ection, 266, 277, 298
transcendental First 228“9, 232“9, 247, 256
Al-Azm, Sadik J. 227, 234n, 238n, 240n, Fourth 229, 248“53, 262, 267, 276,
243, 246“7, 311 300
algebra 292“3, 297 mathematical and dynamical 257, 262“3
Allison, Henry E. 311“12 meaning of 227
and Analogies of experience 168, 169, 173, organization of 228“30
Second 67, 229, 239“44, 256“7
176, 178
and Antinomy of pure reason 230n, 234, solutions to 230, 253“63, 287
Third 229, 244“8, 249“50, 257“61
235, 236n, 258“9, 260“1
and categories 96n, 98n, 99, 112, 116“17, veri¬cationist reading of 230“1
see also God; in¬nity
118n, 121, 125, 125n
and Paralogisms of pure reason 215, 218 appearance 104“5, 113
and Refutation of idealism 190n, 191n, contrast to illusion 60
contrast to things in themselves 21, 306
192n
and Schematism 136, 140“1, 142, 142n meaning of 37, 39“40, 41“2, 44
and Transcendental aesthetic 59, 62 real in appearance 151
and transcendental idealism (two-aspect transcendental vs. empirical 62“3
see also idealism, transcendental;
view) 65, 306, 307
alteration, de¬nition of 169 phenomena and noumena


317
Index
318
apperception, transcendental (transcendental Buroker, Jill Vance 65n, 312
Space and Incongruence: the Origin of
unity of, t.u.a.) 100, 110“15, 118“23,
Kant™s Idealism 4, 26, 65“6, 202n,
192
as opposed to empirical 113“14, 119, 203n, 306
124
in Paralogism of pure reason 213“25 Canon of pure reason 298“304
presupposes a manifold 120 Carson, Emily 292n, 295n, 296, 312
principle of is analytic 119, 217 Cassirer, Ernst 2n, 4, 310
and time-determination 164 categories (pure concepts of understanding)
see also “I think” as conditions of the possibility of
apprehension experience 127“31
is always successive 159“61 de¬nition and meaning of 93“100
synthesis of 107“9 mathematical contrasted to
a priori (cognition), de¬nition and criteria dynamical 95“6, 144“5, 230
of 27“9 metaphysical deduction of 73“101
see also cognition; judgment and principles of pure understanding 163
Aquinas, Saint Thomas 275, 278, 312 table of 95“9
architectonic transcendental deduction of 16“17, 73,
of pure reason 1 103“34
and structure of Critique 10 see also Schematism
argument from design 267, 278“82 Caterus 271
causal interaction see Analogies of
Aristotle 7, 18, 74, 84
categories of 76, 80 experience, Third
arithmetic causality
construction in 292“3 category of 163
lacks axioms 148, 297 empirical laws 178“81
as synthetic a priori cognition 32“3, 56“7, ¬rst 229
and freedom see Antinomy of pure reason,
68“70
association of perceptions 110, 118, 123“4, 125 Third
see also Hume principle of 173“83
axioms 284, 291 schema of 174, 183, 185
in mathematics 146 simultaneous with effect 182“3
none in philosophy 291 character, empirical versus intelligible (of
see arithmetic; geometry action) 259“61
axioms of intuition 145“9, 150, 152, Chipman, Lachlan 142, 143n, 313
Clarke, Samuel 44, 228, 239
297
coexistence see Analogies of experience,
backdrop thesis 168“9, 175, 176“7 Third; simultaneity of cause and
belief, contrast to knowledge and effect
cogito, see “I think”
opinion 302“3
Bennett, Jonathan F. 161n, 169, 178n, 236n, cognition 107, 122
a posteriori (empirical) and a priori
249, 312
Berkeley, George 7“8, 45, 47, 74, 312 (pure) 19, 27“9
limits of see idealism, transcendental
dogmatic idealism of 12, 25“6,
philosophical as opposed to
189
Bird, Graham 98n, 312 mathematical 291“7
Blomberg Logic 101n requires synthesis 108
synthetic a priori 9, 27“34, 36, 44, 68“72,
Boyle, Robert 25
Brittan, Gordon G., Jr. 68n, 70, 70n, 71, 135, 143
see also objective reality; objective validity
173n, 291n, 312
Broad, C. D. 91, 98n, 312 color 40, 43, 48, 49, 61, 62, 67“8, 155,
Brook, Andrew 106, 312 159
Index 319
concepts of categories (in ¬rst edition) 106“15
de¬nition of 38“9 of categories (in second edition) 116“34
empirical, formation of 286“90 strategy of 197“9
as functions of judgments 80“4 de¬nition, in mathematics and in
and intuitions 38“9 philosophy 284, 290, 295“6
logical as opposed to real use of 99 demonstration 284, 294“5, 297
mathematical 80, 104, 290 Descartes, Ren´ 1, 25, 61, 156n, 313
e
and cogito 7, 132, 190
objective reality of 106“7, 127“8
pure (a priori) 104 and dualism 166, 196“7, 223“4
of re¬‚ection see re¬‚ection, transcendental and ontological proof 268, 271
schematism of see Schematism and personal identity 221, 222
and singular judgments 101, 102 and problematic idealism 12, 76, 136, 186,
thoroughgoing determination of see 189“97
thoroughgoing determination, rationalism of 7, 15, 20, 39, 74
principle of determinability, principle of 265
determination see thoroughgoing
transcendental vs. empirical uses of pure
concepts 202“3 determination, principle of; time
see also categories; deduction discipline of pure reason 290“8
Concerning the ultimate ground of the divisibility, of matter in space see Antinomy
differentiation of directions in space 4 of pure reason, Second
consciousness see apperception Dohna-Wundlacken Logic 101
constitutive principles see principles, D¨ r¬‚inger, Bernd 80n, 85n, 313
o
constitutive vs. regulative Dummett, Michael 35, 313
construction
ens entium 266
in mathematics 140, 201, 284, 290“5
ens originarium 266
ostensive vs. symbolic 292“3
ens realissimum 265“7, 284
of spaces and times 148n
ens summum 266
contingency, empirical as opposed to
intelligible 251 Erdmann, Benno 172n, 173n
continuity of forms, principle of 286, 287“8 Euclid 70, 294“5
event see Analogies of experience, Second
contradiction, principle of 265
and analytic judgments 29, 144 existence
Copernicus, Nicolas 1 cannot be constructed 165
Copernican revolution 17“21 not given by concepts 196
cosmological proof of the existence of and ontological argument 269“74
God 267, 274“8, 282 experience 164
analogies of see Analogies of experience
cosmology, rational 211“13, 226“63
explanation, empirical see science,
critical project 6“9
Critique of the Power of Judgment 5, 6, 204, methodological principles of
extensive magnitude see magnitude
264, 288
Critique of Practical Reason 5, 6, 19, 253, 258,
faith see belief
282, 304
Critique of Pure Reason Falkenstein, Lorne 96n, 148n, 149, 149n,
Second (B) edition of 12 150, 155n, 161, 313
structure of 10 on innate ideas 133“4
on transcendental aesthetic 37, 41, 47, 49,
deduction 50, 54n
empirical vs. transcendental 104 on transcendental idealism 66“8
metaphysical deduction of Feder, Johann Gottlieb Heinrich 12
categories 73“101 Fischer, Kuno 64
objective and subjective 103, 106 form, contrasted to matter 42
transcendental 9, 103“34 Frederick II (the Great) 5
Index
320
Frederick William II 5“6 happiness 299, 300“2
freedom Henrich, Dieter 116, 313
as idea of reason 212“13 Herder, Johann Gottfried 3
as opposed to determinism 23“4, 229, Herz, Marcus 4
highest good, concepts of 212“13, 299, 300“2
244“8, 257“61
see also Antinomy of reason, Third Hintikka, Jaakko 39n, 101, 102, 313
practical 9, 245, 258“9, 299“304 Hume, David 105“6, 130, 135, 314
transcendental 244“8, 253, 257“61, 300 and the argument from design
Frege, Gottlob 18, 34, 76, 85, 89, 91, 273, (physico-theological proof ) 278“81
and empirical idealism 63
282, 313
Frege“Russell program 68“70 empiricism of 4, 7“9, 74, 195
Friedman, Michael 173, 173n, 180“1, 243n, and self-consciousness 113“14
skepticism of 75“6, 136, 163, 166, 170, 173,
291n, 292“3, 293n, 313
functions see judgment; understanding 176, 198, 246, 298
future life see soul, immortality of and synthetic a priori knowledge 19, 20,
27“8, 30, 58
Galilei, Galileo 1, 21 theory of association 16, 33“4, 105“6,
Gardner, Sebastian 231, 231n, 305n, 306, 123n, 124, 198
307, 307n, 308, 313
Garve, Christian 12, 226 idealism
Gaunilo 271 dogmatic as opposed to problematic 189
genera, principle of 286“8 empirical 189“96, 197
geometry kinds of 24“7
see also idealism, transcendental;
axioms of 146n, 297
construction in 292“5 Refutation of idealism
non-Euclidean 68, 70“1 idealism, transcendental 9, 36, 57“64, 131,
and pure intuition of space 56 182, 224, 299, 305“9
as synthetic a priori cognition 32“3, 68, meaning of 190
non-spatiotemporality thesis (NST) 60,
70“1
see also demonstration; mathematics 64“8, 305“6, 308“9
Gibbons, Sarah 140, 142, 143, 313 and proofs for the existence of God 264,
Gochnauer, Myron 190n, 313 269
God and skepticism 197
idea of 227, 264, 289“90 two worlds vs. double-aspect views 305“9
as ideal of reason 265“7, 299, 301“3 unknowability thesis (UT) 21“4, 26“7,
and moral laws (moral theology) 264, 36, 64“8, 203, 305, 307“9
use to resolve antinomies 226, 230“1,
267, 282, 284, 301“3
proofs of existence of 201 254“63
see also things in themselves
in rational theology
(unconditioned) 211“13, 264“79 ideas of reason 201
Gram, Moltke 174n deduction of 208“13
gravity 151, 181, 281 positive (regulative) use of 284“90
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals 5, identity
and difference see re¬‚ection,
6, 253, 258, 304
Grice, H. P. 34, 313 transcendental
of indiscernibles see Leibniz, on identity
Grier, Michelle 288“9, 313
on the Antinomy of pure reason 227, 228, of indiscernibles
personal 221
231n, 240n, 241, 242, 249“50
on the paralogism of pure reason 219“20 illusion, transcendental 201“13, 224n,
on transcendental illusion 207n, 208, 226“63, 264“79, 290
image see Schematism
209“10, 225
Guyer, Paul 75n, 138n, 142, 160, 192n, 227n, imagination 128“9, 131
in synthesis 94, 109“10
230n, 233n, 306, 313
Index 321
presupposes outer sense 194“5 of experience and of perception 125n
faculty of see understanding
productive and reproductive 128“9, 148
role in Schematism 136 and ideas of reason 211“12
immateriality of soul see soul, immateriality logical forms or functions of 80“100
of modality of 85, 90“2
and objectivity see objective reality;
immediacy of knowledge 195“6
immortality of soul see soul, immortality of objective validity
impenetrability 152, 243 power of 137
imperative, categorical 18“19 problematic 81, 91“2
incongruent counterparts argument 4, 65“6 quality of 87“8
in¬nity quantity of 86“7
concepts of 233“4 re¬‚ective as opposed to determinative 82,
of space and time 54“5 204“6, 288
in¬‚uence (in¬‚ux), physical see interaction, of relation of 88“90
mind with body supreme principle of analytic 144
innate ideas and knowledge 7, 20, 74, supreme principle of synthetic 144
and synthesis 121, 124“7
132“4
inner and outer see re¬‚ection, synthetic a priori 9, 27“34
transcendental
inner sense Kant, Immanuel, life and works 6
and apperception 131“2 Kemp Smith, Norman 106n, 112n, 148n,
and outer sense 37, 42“3, 189, 224 204n, 227n, 233n, 234n, 249, 314
time as form of 112“13 Kitcher, Patricia 220n, 314
knowledge see cognition
intellect
intuitive vs. discursive 116n, 119 Knutzen, Martin 2
see also reason; understanding Kuehn, Manfred 2n, 310
intensive magnitude, see magnitude
interaction Langton, Rae 306, 314
of mind with body 223“4 law of least action 287“8
see also causality laws
of freedom (moral laws) see freedom,
intuition
de¬nition of 37“40, 43 practical
of nature see causality, empirical laws
empirical 40, 130“1
Lectures on the Philosophical Doctrine of
formal 130“1, 140“1
Religion 264
intellectual 7, 39, 116n, 119, 135, 203“4,
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 2, 27, 63“4,
206
space and time as pure forms of 36, 287, 314
on arithmetic 68“9
44“64, 77
see also axioms of intuition; cognition; idealism of 26
concepts; sensibility on identity of indiscernibles 202, 205“6
irreversibility 175, 177“80 on phenomena and noumena 202
see Analogies of experience, Second on pre-established harmony 223“4
“I think” 118“23, 132 and Principle of Suf¬cient Reason 243
and transcendental illusion 213“25 rationalism of 4, 7, 15, 20, 39, 74, 202“6,
see also apperception; Descartes 228
on space and time 26, 44n, 45, 47, 66,
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 305 202, 238
James, William 112 Locke, John 1, 47
J¨ sche Logic 39n, 79n, 101
a empiricism of 7“8, 15, 74, 75, 105,
judgment 288
aesthetic 137 on personal identity 221, 222
analytic and synthetic 27, 29“35 on primary and secondary qualities 25,
de¬nition of 81“2, 124“7, 137 61
Index
322
logic method
division into analytic and dialectic 79“80 analytic and synthetic 290“8
general as opposed to critical 298
transcendental 78“9 doctrine of 201, 290“303
Kant and contemporary 85“93 mathematical and philosophical
pure as opposed to applied 78“9 290“8
as a science 17“18 modality
transcendental 77“9, 137 categories of 98“9, 186
Longuenesse, B´atrice 161n, 314
e of judgments 85
principles of see Postulates of empirical
Lovejoy, Arthur O. 174, 177, 314
thought
magnitude schemata of 141“2
see also actuality; necessity; possibility
extensive 145“9, 154, 156
intensive 145, 149“62 Moore, G. E. 236n
morality see freedom, practical; freedom,
mathematics
method of, contrasted to philosophical transcendental
method 290“8
see also algebra; arithmetic; geometry Naragon, Steven 94n, 314
matter nature
contrasted to form 37, 42 unity of 185
see also re¬‚ection, transcendental see also causality, empirical laws
divisibility of see Antinomy of pure necessary being 229, 248“53, 262, 267“82
see also Antinomy of pure reason, Fourth;
reason, Second
Maupertuis™s law of least action 287“8 theology, rational
maxims of reason see reason, principles of necessity
of a priori cognition 19“21, 28“9, 32“3, 51,
(maxims)
McGinn, Colin 273“4, 314 63, 100
measurement see magnitude; scales; category of 98“9
synthesis and causality 178

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