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pupil should be darker than the iris.
9. Check the new, white glint in the right window against the original in
the left window.
If the new glint isn™t roughly the same size as the original, adjust the
Glint Size control up or down until they match. Feel free, however, to
make the new glint any size you like, including removing it altogether
by setting the glint size to zero. If you prefer the glint in the center of
the eye, click to enable the Center Glint check box. Otherwise, the glint
tracks the original one. Adjust the Glint Lightness control up or down
to match the brightness of the original glint. If the new glint has a notice-
ably sharper edge than the old, adjust the Blur control upward.

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10. Increase the Feather control to get a softer edge or to mute any
remaining red spots around the edge.
Alternatively, if the original photo is a bit blurry, try adjusting the Blur
control upward instead. Fool around with these two controls until the
edges look properly blended into the rest of the eye.
11. Click the Proof button (with the unlocked eye icon) to check your
results in the main image window.
(Drag the Red Eye Removal dialog box out of the way, if necessary; don™t
close it yet.)
Return to any earlier steps that seem necessary to adjust size, darkness,
coverage, glint, and so on.
If you decide that you need to give up and start again, click the Delete
Eye button. If you want to return all the settings to their original posi-
tions, click the Reset button in the upper-right corner.
If you can™t get acceptable coverage of the pupil, click the Cancel button
and see the following section.
12. Click OK.

When you™re done with one eye, repeat those steps for the other eye. When
you proof your work in Step 10, make sure that the eyes match!



Outlining problem pupils
As you undoubtedly remember from school, some pupils are troublemakers.
They don™t cooperate if you try to doctor their red eye. In that case, change
from using automatic red-eye removal to manual outlining.

Open the Red Eye Removal dialog box and zoom in as directed in Steps 1 and
2 in the preceding section. Rather than choose Auto Human (or Auto Animal)
Eye in Step 3, which tells Paint Shop Pro to automatically outline the red area,
choose one of these two manual outlining options:

Freehand Pupil Outline: Choose this option if you prefer to drag a con-
tinuous line around the red area to outline it. (This technique requires
a steady hand, but can give a more rounded outline.) When you release
the mouse button, Paint Shop Pro connects the line™s end with its
beginning.
Point-to-Point Pupil Outline: Choose this option if you prefer to click a
series of points around the red area. Paint Shop Pro draws a straight line
between the points. When you™re ready to complete the circle, don™t
click the starting point again. Instead, double-click somewhere short
of that point. Paint Shop Pro completes the circle for you.


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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

Drag or click an outline, according to your choice of options. After you out-
line the pupil, resume with Step 7 in the steps in the preceding section to
refine the red-eye correction.



Replacing pupil and iris
If the flash has affected the colored iris of the eye, first follow Steps 1 through
4 in the steps in the section “Reconstructing the pupil,” earlier in this chap-
ter. (In those steps, you open the Red Eye Removal dialog box, zoom in on an
eye, and click in its center.)

Then, after Step 3, follow these steps:

1. Enlarge the circle in the left window to cover an area equal to the iris
(not just the pupil) you need.
Drag any corner handle of the square frame surrounding the circle to
enlarge the circle. Often, the circle needs to overlap the top eyelid and
possibly a bit of the bottom.
2. Adjust the value in the Iris Size value box up or down, a little at a
time, until the iris and pupil size either matches the other eye or
simply looks correct.
Click the tiny up arrow or down arrow adjoining the Iris Size value box
to change the value by one.
3. Click the Hue selection box and choose an iris color from the list.
Choose from Aqua, Blue, Brown, Grey, Green, or Violet.
4. Click the down arrow to the right of the Color sample box and choose
a precise shade of color from the gallery that appears.
5. Adjust the Refine control left or right to set the shape and extent of
the iris.
The optimal setting of the Refine control occurs when the iris doesn™t
significantly overlap an eyelid and is reasonably round elsewhere. A
black spot with a white glint should cover the pupil of the eye.

Resume with Step 8 in the earlier section “Reconstructing the pupil.” From
here, you adjust the darkness of the pupil, set any feathering or blurring you
need, and adjust the glint size, if necessary.




Color-Correcting Photos
Sometimes, you take a photo and the entire thing is tinted with a color that
wasn™t there when you took the picture. The white drapes look a milky green,
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108 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

the yellow sunflowers are a bright emerald, and your family now possesses
an alien skin tone that makes them look like they™re auditioning for The
X-Files.

Would you recognize the correct color of that skin if you saw it? If so, you
have an easy way to correct the color of your photo: the Paint Shop Pro
Manual Color Correction effect.

Note that the Manual Color Correction effect adjusts the color of the entire
image so that your selected object (skin or fur, for example) is then the cor-
rect color. It presumes that every object in your photograph was shot in the
same terrible light. If it gets your selected portion of the image correct, the
entire image is then correct.

As with any other Adjustment tool, you can select a part of the image and
then color-correct only that area. So, if you want to keep your family a sickly
green while making the sunflowers yellow again, you can. Refer to Chapter 3
for details.

Ready? Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Manual Color Correction to give this
targeted tool its instructions. The Manual Color Correction dialog box
appears, as shown in Figure 6-5. (Refer to the color section of this book to see
the difference in colors.)




Figure 6-5:
Correcting
the entire
photo so
that Katy™s
skin tone is
correct.



1. Click the Preset Colors radio button and choose a likely-sounding cat-
egory from the menu that matches some portion of your object, like
Skintones or Hair.

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2. Click and drag in the left preview window to select a small swatch in
your image that matches the menu selection.
In this case, we have selected Skintones and have selected a tiny box of
skin on Katy™s cheek. We could also have selected Hair and selected her
bangs, if we had wanted.
Drag diagonally to define a rectangular area. For example, drag across
the forehead of your subject, to create a rectangle that surrounds a fairly
uniform skin color, if you intend to match the person™s skin tone to a
color. Choose an area that isn™t strongly affected by highlights or shad-
ows. Drag again if you want to change your selection.
If the area you want to define is irregular in shape, enable the Freehand
Selection check box. Then, drag (draw) the irregular shape you want to
use on the left window.
Use the zoom, drag, and locating features in the dialog box (see the sec-
tion in Chapter 7 about understanding the Paint Shop Pro dialog boxes)
to get to the right place in the left preview window, if necessary.
3. Click the down arrow to the right of the colored box next to the
Preset Target Color radio button.
A gallery of color appears.
4. Choose a color from the gallery that is what that swatch should look
like.
If you can™t find the color you want, click the Manual Target Color button
and then click in the Target box to choose a color from the Paint Shop
Pro Color dialog box. See Chapter 9 for the details of using this dialog
box.

Paint Shop Pro then alters the image in the right preview window, to match
the hue of your selected area to the hue of the color you chose in Step 4.

“But,” you may say, “the color doesn™t match exactly.” Don™t panic. Unless
you have previously fiddled with the check boxes in the Options section of
the Manual Color Correction dialog box, the color shouldn™t match exactly ”
yet. The Preserve Lightness and Preserve Saturation check boxes, which are
initially selected, cause your photo™s color to be corrected only to the hue (a
kind of fundamental color) of the color you have selected, and not to its satu-
ration or lightness. If you want to make the color match your chosen sample
exactly, you must clear both check boxes. However, you may find that you get
good results more easily by leaving both check boxes selected and choosing
different colors.



Bringing Your Photo into Focus
Paint Shop Pro offers three ways to clarify a blurry photo ” though none of
them is a complete fix for a bad shot. Remember that Paint Shop Pro can
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work with only the information you have given it, and although it can make
some educated guesses about what a picture should look like, there are limits
to its power. If your picture looks like a patch of white fog, all the sharpening
in the world won™t turn it back into the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

That said, Paint Shop Pro does a bang-up job of fixing photos that are slightly
out of focus. You can deblurrify a picture with two methods: sharpening and
edge enhancing.

How do sharpening and edge enhancing compare? The Enhance effect is
more dramatic, by focusing directly on even the tiniest edge, as shown in
Figure 6-6. The Sharpen adjustment makes a subtler (and usually more effec-
tive) change that influences a range of pixels around the edges of items in
your photo.



Figure 6-6:
The picture
on the
right is
sharpened;
the picture
on the left
is edge
enhanced.
The picture
in the middle
is William™s
godchild
Andy, and
you should
bow to his
cuteness.




Sharpening your snapshots
Sharpening is the first method you should try for fixing blurry photos, mainly
because it™s the most effective. To give it the old college try, choose Adjust➪
Sharpness and then choose one of these options from the menu that appears:

Sharpen: Does a little bit of metaphorical grinding and filing on the vari-
ous edges of your photo, by boosting the contrast at those edges. No
dialog box appears ” your image simply gets sharper.
Sharpen More: The same as Sharpen, but more so.


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Chapter 6: Fixing Broken Pictures

Unsharp Mask: Sharpens like its two siblings (Sharpen and Sharpen
More), but operates incognito, like the Lone Ranger. No, just kidding. It
wears not a mask, but rather an adjustment dialog box. To use this box™s
controls, refer to Chapter 5, where we discuss unsharp masking for set-
ting contrast and other adjustments in scanning software.

As with all these other photo fixers, you can apply them to a selected area.
Refer to Chapter 3 for details.



Edge enhancing
The Paint Shop Pro Enhance Edge effect is a close cousin to its sharpening
effect. Both find adjoining pixels that contrast in lightness (an edge) and then
make the contrast stronger by darkening or lightening those pixels. The pixels
gradually move toward fully saturated primary colors, plus white and black.

Choose Effects➪Edge Effects➪Enhance or its more powerful sibling, Enhance
More. Neither uses an adjustment box, but just immediately does its thing.




Removing Noise from Grainy Shots
Removing noise from an image sounds a bit illogical, like subtracting apples
from oranges or removing odor from a TV program. Okay, you can perhaps
imagine ways to do the latter, but apply that same imagination to how your
TV looks when you run a vacuum cleaner: The screen is covered with speck-
les. That™s graphical noise: pixels altered at random locations and in random
colors.

The trick with removing speckles is to avoid removing freckles or other
speckly stuff that™s supposed to be in the picture. (Unless, of course, you
want to get rid of the freckles!) For that reason, Paint Shop Pro offers several
choices, depending on what you need. Choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise
and then one of these menu selections:

Despeckle: Removes smaller, isolated speckles altogether and is good
for removing a light coating of dust. Speckles that are closer to each
other tend to form clumps, however.
Edge-Preserving Smooth: Gives an effect like rubbing carefully within
the shaded areas of a pastel drawing, using your finger. Speckles disap-
pear into a uniform shade, and you keep the sharp edges of those larger
areas. This effect is also good for removing the random discoloration of
pixels that often results from shooting digital photos in low light. In the
adjustment dialog box that appears, drag the Number of Steps slider to
the right to make a smoother image.

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The Edge-Preserving Smooth effect, turned up high, creates a nice oil-
painting-like effect on photos! See Color Plate C-11 in the color insert in
this book.
Median Filter: Removes speckles by removing fine detail, a kind of blur-
ring process in which each pixel is recalculated to be the average of its
neighbors. Contrast is lost at the detail level. An adjustment dialog box
appears in which you drag the Filter Aperture slider to the right to
remove increasingly large details.
Salt-and-Pepper Filter: Removes speckles of a particular size (or up to a
particular size) you choose. A Salt-and-Pepper Filter adjustment dialog
box appears, with these adjustments:
Speck Size: Adjust this value to match or slightly exceed the size
of the speckles you™re trying to get rid of. (You may have to zoom
in close to figure out how big your speckles are.)
Sensitivity to Specks: If the right preview window shows clusters
of specks remaining, increase this value. Too high a value blurs
your photo.
Include All Lower Speck Sizes: Enable this check box to remove
specks of Speck Size and smaller. Otherwise, you just remove
specks close to Speck Size.
Aggressive Action: Enable this check box to remove specks
more completely. Otherwise, you may simply reduce the specks™
intensity.
Texture-Preserving Smooth: Sounds like a sophisticated grade of
peanut butter, but in reality blurs and reduces the contrast of tiny
specks while preserving the larger variations that give texture to grass,
wood, water, and the like. The result is sort of like a crunchy peanut
butter without small, gritty chunks. An adjustment dialog box appears in
which you adjust the Amount of Correction value upward to minimize
specks.

You can always select an area by using the Paint Shop Pro selection tools, to
add or remove noise from only that specific area (refer to Chapter 3).




Don™t Want No Moir©
Scanned-in photos from print media (books, magazines, newsletters, and PC-
printed images, for example) often have moir© patterns. (Refer to Chapter 5
for more information about moir© and ways to avoid it in the first place.)

You can fix moir© patterns by choosing Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪Moir©
Pattern Removal. The rather simple Moire Pattern Removal dialog box
arrives, to do your bidding.
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The Moire Pattern Removal dialog box offers two controls: Fine Details and
Remove Bands. Adjusting Fine Details upward (sliding it to the right) blurs
your image and removes fine, grainy moir© patterning. Adjusting Remove
Bands upward counters the distracting bands that often are part of moir©
patterning.




Unearthing JPEG Artifacts
When photos are stored in JPEG format, as they often are, the result is nice,
small files. But JPEGs that have been heavily compressed to save space often
exhibit strange patterns and checkerboard patterns around text and other
objects with sharp edges. Figure 6-7 shows those patterns, also called artifacts.



Figure 6-7:
This dog
grew a few
artifacts
when it was
stored as a
JPEG
image. The
JPEG
Artifact
Removal
effect
uproots
them.



Compressing JPEG files is normally something you should do ” done cor-
rectly, it squeezes the file size down to as much as 10 percent of its original
size without noticeable image degradation. To find out how to compress a
JPEG file effectively, see Chapter 15.

To clean up JPEG images, choose Adjust➪Add/Remove Noise➪JPEG Artifact
Removal. The JPEG Artifact Removal expert appears on your doorstep, in the
form of the dialog box shown in the figure.

After checking your image by either looking in the right preview window or
proofing your choice, choose the strength (Low, Normal, High, or Maximum)
needed to clean up your artifacts. Another casualty in JPEG files is a certain
amount of detail, which you can restore by increasing the value in the
Crispness value box.

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