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turn that hue into light pink and subtracting saturation can turn it into a
murky red.
You almost never fiddle with hues because you usually don™t want to
change the core colors. You want to make your hues brighter or more
vivid or have them stand out more. Change the hue and you risk turning
your sister™s lovely brown skin into an ugly fuschia with the exact
shades and tones as the old color.
Brightness: Brightness is a measure of how light your colors are,
independent of their actual hue. A basic blue hue with lots of brightness
may be a sky blue, whereas that same blue with low levels of brightness
may become a dark navy. Taken to its logical limits, a 100 percent bright
image is pure white, whereas an image with no light is jet black.
Adding more brightness makes a picture lighter; subtracting brightness
makes it darker. You want to change the brightness in your images a lot.
Saturation: Technically, saturation measures the amount of gray in a
color. (Yes, most colors have some gray in them.) Realistically speaking,
saturation measures how pure a color is; high levels of saturation mean
that very little gray is mixed in. (An image with no saturation, inciden-
tally, is a black-and-white photo ” all grays, no colors.)
Hues with too much saturation look artificial and garish, like an Andy
Warhol painting. On the other hand, hues with too little saturation are
muddied and indistinct.
Most digital photographs suffer from too little saturation, incidentally.
Reducing the saturation levels can make your image pop!

In addition, color has a secret fourth element. This element doesn™t define
a specific color; instead, it looks at all the colors in your image as a whole.
Contrast measures the range of lights and darks that exist in the colors in your
photo. A high-contrast image has lots of high- and low-brightness colors, with
little in between, which makes it look kind of like the image shown in Figure 7-4.

A low-contrast image, on the other hand, has colors that are almost entirely
composed of the same brightness. This sounds good, but you need contrast
to be able to distinguish things ” witness what happens in Figure 7-5.

Quite often, changing the contrast of your image makes things more visible
and sharper.

Where do you start? Well, here™s a guilty confession: Even though we™re big-
shot authors of Dummies books, quite often we can™t pinpoint the exact prob-
lem with our family snapshots. Usually, the problem gets solved via a quick
adjustment of contrast and saturation ” but, sometimes we have to go delv-
ing through pretty much all the items listed in this chapter before our photos
are changed to our satisfaction. Don™t be afraid to roll up your sleeves and
muck around until everything™s picture perfect!
TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
124 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs




Figure 7-4:
In this
image with
ridiculously
high
contrast
values,
notice how
it™s almost
all black or
all white.




Figure 7-5:
A low-
contrast
image; if this
looks like a
big gray box
on the page,
that™s
because
it pretty
much is.




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125
Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color


Tweaking contrast and brightness
We have been trying for years to be brighter, and now Paint Shop Pro has
shown us the light. Just what is brightness, though? If you increase the bright-
ness of an image, it looks whiter. This whitening affects all shades uniformly,
sort of like using bleach in mixed laundry: Lights get whiter, and so do darks.

Because brightness alone rarely does the job, Jasc puts the Paint Shop Pro
adjustments for brightness and contrast together. Contrast is a bit like a laun-
dry brightener that makes the lights lighter and the darks darker. (It isn™t too
picky about keeping your colors exactly right, though.)

Although Paint Shop Pro offers several ways to adjust contrast, for photos, the
Automatic Contrast Enhancement effect is a great place to start. It simultane-
ously fiddles with brightness and contrast ” two interlinked attributes ” to
optimize your photo™s appearance. Whether your photo has too little contrast
or too much, this tool can help.

Choose Adjust➪Automatic Contrast Enhancement and the Automatic Contrast
Enhancement control, as shown in Figure 7-6, rushes to your aid. This effect
has three control areas: Bias (or lightness), Strength (amount of effect), and
Appearance (amount of contrast).



Figure 7-6:
The
“cardinal”
rule for
contrast
problems is
to try the
Automatic
Contrast
Enhance-
ment dialog
box first.



In the figure, a photo we took of a cardinal (through a window) suffers from
poor contrast ” a dark fate for such a bright bird. The Automatic Contrast
Enhancement effect restores his outstanding appearance. Use the controls of
this effect in the following ways:

If your photo needs contrast adjustment, use the Appearance controls. If
your photo needs more contrast, click Bold; for less contrast, click Flat;
and, if it™s just right, click Natural.

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126 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs

If your photo needs lightening or darkening, use the Bias controls. If it™s
overall too dark, click Lighter; if it™s too light, click Darker; if it™s just
right, click Neutral.
For a greater effect on contrast and brightness, click Normal in the
Strength area. Otherwise, choose Mild.



Intensifying (or dulling)
colors through saturation
The more common problem with photos is dull colors that need more inten-
sity. However, if you™re shooting Ronald McDonald, for example, at a sunny
tulip festival, we can imagine that you may need duller colors, too. Either
way, the Automatic Saturation Enhancement effect fills the bill.

Choose Adjust➪Automatic Saturation Enhancement to enter the land of more
intense (or dimmer) colors. The Automatic Saturation Enhancement dialog
box glimmers onto your screen.

Figure 7-7 shows the dialog box in action. Showing you intensified colors in
a black-and-white illustration is a bit too much of a challenge, however, so
please turn to the color section of this book for some examples of the kinds
of results you can achieve.

Controls in the Bias area determine whether you intensify or dull your colors.
Choose Less Colorful to dull your colors or More Colorful to intensify colors.
Normal may intensify or dull your colors, depending on how intense they
are now.




Figure 7-7:
Brightening
up a dull
day at the
farm with
Automatic
Saturation
Enhance-
ment.




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127
Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

Controls in the Strength area determine to what degree you dull or intensify
colors (according to your choice in the Bias area). Choose Weak to barely
affect colors, Normal to moderately affect them, or Strong to have the most
effect.

If you have people in your image, the Automatic Saturation Enhancement may
brighten their faces by mistake, by amplifying a healthy pink into a drunkard™s
blush. Or, it may dampen a vibrant brown into a sallow gray. If you have people
in your picture, check the Skintones present check box to warn Paint Shop Pro
to leave those pinks and browns alone!



Altering an overall tint
Are your overalls the wrong tint? Paint Shop Pro can™t fix that laundry
problem ” unless, of course, you have a picture of your overalls.

Images, whether the subject is overalls or not, sometimes have ” or need ”
an overall tint. Portraits taken in a forest setting, for example, tend to make
people look a bit green because of the light reflected off the leaves. Or, you
may want to add a slight orange tint to a sunset picture.

Paint Shop Pro, as it does with most color controls, gives you several ways to
alter tint:

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Red/Green/Blue: The Red/Green/Blue
dialog box that appears is the simplest control for altering overall tint.
Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Color Balance: Color Balance and
Curves tint shadows, midtones, and highlights separately.

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Red/Green/Blue and the Red/Green/Blue
dialog box appears. Like all dialog boxes for commands on the Adjust menu,
it has preview windows and proofing controls, plus one sliding control for
each primary color: Red %, Green %, and Blue %.

To make your image more red, green, or blue, the solution is straightforward:
Increase the value for that color. (Decrease it for less of that color.) Values
range from “100 to +100.

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Color Balance and the Color Balance dialog
box appears. It works much like the Red/Green/Blue dialog box, but you get
to choose whether the controls apply to shadows, midtones, or highlights.
Choose by first clicking the corresponding radio button (such as Shadows)
for the tonal range you want to change; then move the sliders toward what-
ever tone you want more of (Red, for example).



TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
128 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs


Fun with Colors
Not all color adjustments have to improve your photos. You can also alter
photos by turning them black-and-white, tinting them with shades, or turning
them into silk-screen paintings!



Going gray with a tint: Colorizing
We all go gray. Some of us try to add an attractive tint when that happens.
The same scheme can be even more attractive when applied to images.

Paint Shop Pro calls this process colorizing. But, unlike the colorizing you
may have seen used to make old black-and-white movies look as though they
were shot in color, colorizing in Paint Shop Pro imparts only a single hue to
the image. In effect, the result is a grayscale (monochrome) image done in
your chosen hue rather than in gray ” kind of like all of those Che Guevera
pictures, where he™s standing against a red background.

The best Paint Shop Pro tool for this process is the Colorize tool, and it works
like this: Choose Adjust➪Hue and Saturation➪Colorize to display the Colorize
dialog box. The Colorize dialog box grabs its crayons and reports for duty.

The Colorize dialog box sports two adjustments:

Saturation: Increase this value to determine how much color is applied.
If you set it to 0, the image is strictly grayscale (black and white). At 255,
the image has no gray, but is purely the hue you choose by adjusting the
Hue control.
Hue: Click and hold the tiny down arrow at the right end of the Hue
value box. A rainbow-colored slider appears. Drag to the hue you want
and then release the mouse button.



Going totally gray or negative in one step
You™re just one step away from going as gray as William™s grandfather or
becoming as negative as a political ad. The Paint Shop Pro commands for
Greyscale and Negative Image, on the Adjust menu, are simple enough to do
their work in a single step: You get no dialog box and have no adjustments
to make.




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129
Chapter 7: Adjusting Your Picture™s Brightness, Contrast, and Color

Choose Adjust➪Color Balance➪Negative Image and Paint Shop Pro gives you
the negative of your image. Lights become darks, darks become lights, and
colors switch to their opposing colors on the color wheel. Reds become cyans,
yellows become blues, and so on. Changing an image from positive (normal) to
negative isn™t often useful, but sometimes you need to go the other way. That
event occurs when you (or whoever is supplying your images) is using a film
scanner and scans a film negative. The Negative Image command gives you the
normal (positive) image you want.

To turn your color image into shades of gray (like a black-and-white photo),
choose Image➪Greyscale. Going grayscale affects the entire image, even if you
have selected an area. If you want to turn just a certain area grayscale, select
that area and use the Hue/Saturation/Lightness dialog box, as described ear-
lier in this chapter, to set the Saturation control to the minimum.



Posterize
The Posterize control isn™t on the Adjust menu, like the other advanced con-
trols we discuss in this section, but it does interesting things with colors.
Choose Effects➪Artistic Effects➪Posterize to launch the Posterize dialog box.

In posterizing, an image takes on the appearance of a silk-screened poster,
made up of areas of a few uniform colors. Posterizing reduces the number
of colors that appear and results in blocks of color, like a paint-by-numbers
painting.

The dialog box for posterizing has only one adjustment, named Levels. Reduce
the value to reduce the number of colors or increase it to increase colors. The
value in Levels determines the number of levels of brightness in the image.



Threshold
The threshold control (choose Adjust➪Brightness and Contrast➪Threshold)
gives you images in pure black and pure white, as shown in Figure 7-8. With a
threshold control, you™re telling Paint Shop Pro, “Turn any pixel with a bright-
ness below a given threshold black, and turn any pixel above that threshold
white.”

The dialog box for this layer has a single adjustment. Reduce the Threshold
value for a lower threshold (more white) and increase it for a higher thresh-
old (more black). You can use a threshold value between 1 and 255.




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130 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs




Figure 7-8:
Threshold
allows you
to turn an
everyday
William into
a poster for
Night of the
Living Dead.




TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 8
Heavy-Duty Photo Alterations:
Adding People and Removing Zits
In This Chapter
Removing facial blemishes
Adding people, places, and things to your photos
Removing people, places, and things from your photos
Focusing on creating a soft focus
Blurring your picture
Dealing with hue-related madness




T he problem with photos is that they are, in the end, depressingly accu-
rate. In William™s mind, he is a slim 180 pounds, has a full head of hair,
and possesses white teeth bright enough to make the Osmond Brothers jeal-
ous. But when his photos show up on-screen, they always reveal William to
be a man with a generous pot belly, a growing bald spot, and yellowing teeth.
(This is, incidentally, why Wiley does not allow author signings for Paint Shop
Pro For Dummies.)

William can improve the quality of his pictures all he wants ” but in the end,
that just makes his bald spot clearer and more vibrant. What William wants
to do is to change the nature of his photo.

Fortunately, Paint Shop Pro is extremely good at altering details. With Paint
Shop Pro, you can remove zits, cover up ugly carpets, and even put people in
photos who weren™t there when you took the picture. Wouldn™t it be nice to
have a pimple-free photo of you standing next to Britney Spears?

If that sounds interesting, let™s rock on!




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132 Part II: Prettying Up Photographs


Retouching Skin Blemishes and
Other Small Ugly Spots
Making small changes to an image to improve it is called retouching. Not sur-
prisingly, if you want to spruce up your images, your best friend is the
friendly finger of the retouch tool group, as shown in Figure 8-1. The retouch
tool group, which lurks on the toolbar, is kind of a virtual fingertip with which
you can rub away many defects, like Mom rubbing a bit of soot off your nose.




Figure 8-1:
When I think
about you, I
retouch
myself: the
retouch tool

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