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(Of course, if you can see everything you intend to change, you don™t
have to open everything. Think of the three sections of the Tool Options
palette as a chest of drawers: You can open them all at one time or close
the ones you™re not working on and keep open the ones you need.)

You don™t need to put away the Tool Options palette before working on your
image. Leave it up so that you can make adjustments as you go. Drag it out of
the way, if necessary, like we just showed you.

Not all tools offer all the adjustments we discuss in the next few subsections.



Using convenient controls on
the Tool Options palette
You can make adjustments on the Tool Options palette by using the dialog
box gadgets you™re familiar with from other programs. You can click the Size
and other boxes and edit or type a new value or click either of the spin dial
buttons (the pair of up and down arrows) to increase or decrease a value.

In addition to the usual ways of adjusting values, Paint Shop Pro has a nifty
adjustment feature, as shown in Figure 9-5. Click the tiny down arrow at the
far right edge of the box for any numerical value, such as the Size box. Hold
the mouse button down, and a tiny ruler-like bar appears, with a pointer.
Keep the mouse button down and drag the pointer left or right to adjust the
value down or up, respectively.

Figure 9-5 shows a slider for the Paint Brush tool, although all or most of
these same controls exist for the other painting tools. Clicking the far right
down arrow for a given widget opens the adjustment slider, which gives
you a rough preview of what your tool will look like.



Figure 9-5:
The preview
adjustment
slider.




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If you repeatedly use the same tool with the same tool options, you can save
that tool™s settings as a preset. Presets allow you to load a bunch of tool
options in one click as opposed to entering them over and over again. Click
the Presets icon, and in the Presets fly-out box that appears, click the disk
(Save) icon. Type a memorable name for your settings in the Save Preset
dialog box that appears and press Enter. Click the Presets icon to put away
the fly-out. Thereafter, to choose your preset, click the Preset icon and
choose your preset by clicking its name in the fly-out box.



Making lines wider or narrower: Size
You most frequently adjust size. One size of tool definitely does not fit all.
Even Phil, Dave™s house painter, uses different sizes of brushes. (What an
artiste!) On the Tool Options palette, adjust the Size value to any value from
1 through 500 (from 1 to 500 pixels).

You can see just how big your tool is at any time by moving the cursor over
the image. Big brushes may need smaller step values (the number in the box
labeled Step) to avoid painting dotted lines.



Shaping clicks, lines, and line ends: Shape
Shape changes the way the painted (or erased) line looks when it ends or
bends. Shape also lets you stamp a shape by clicking the image, as though
you had a rubber stamp or were spraying paint through a template.

On the Tool Options palette, you have two options: You can go with a generic
round or square brush or with brushes that simulate chalk or watercolor, or
you can even select a variety of strange and unearthly brushes (like cherries,
comets, or fuzzy circles) to paint with, as shown in Figure 9-6.

Selecting a round or square brush couldn™t be simpler: Click the round or
square box on the Tool Options palette. If you want something a little more
esoteric, however, you can select a brush tip from the brush tip drop-down
menu, next to the Presets menu. As shown in Figure 9-6, you™re presented
with a gallery of brushes, called the Resource Manager, that you can scroll
through; double-click a brush tip to load it.

Using the various brush tips, you can make your lines look as though you
have drawn them with a calligraphic pen. Figure 9-7 shows you, from top to
bottom, the square, round, hard rake, and twirly spike brush shapes. The
twirly spike uses the background color as well as the foreground color from
the Materials palette. See Chapter 10 for more about the background color.



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Figure 9-6:
The round
and square
brushes and
a Resource
Manager
full of
brushes that
don™t exist in
nature!



As you make strokes, you see repeated stampings of this shape. The Step con-
trol (which we discuss in the section “Making lines more or less dotty: Step,”
later in this chapter) helps you change the separation between stampings.



Figure 9-7:
Different
brush
shapes
make
different
strokes.




Painting with a softer or
harder edge: Hardness
Hardness determines how sharp the edges of your tool are. Maximum hard-
ness (100) gives your tool a sharp edge; lower hardness applies a gradual
fade to the edge. Zero hardness gradually fades the edge all the way to the
center of the brush shape. At low hardness, you may need to decrease the
step to avoid creating a dotted line. Figure 9-8 shows you a single spot that
shows a hardness of 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20 (from left to right).

Reduce hardness to minimize jaggies (a staircase effect also called aliasing)
where your line bends.


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Figure 9-8:
The effect of
changing
hardness.




Making paint thinner or thicker: Opacity
Opacity is how thick (opaque or solid) your paint is. A value of 100 means
that your paint is completely opaque. Reduce opacity to make a more trans-
parent paint. A value of 50, for example, means that an individual spot of
paint (caused by clicking once with your mouse) is 50 percent transparent.
Overlapping spots cause each stroke, or click of the mouse, to add paint and
make the area more opaque. Figure 9-9 shows spots with an opacity of 100,
80, 60, 40, and 20 (from left to right).



Figure 9-9:
Out,
damned
spot! Single
spots with
decreasing
opacity.



A brush stroke (dragging with your mouse) is more opaque than a single spot
(clicking with your mouse) because strokes are simply repeated, overlapping
spots. If you increase the values of the step variable (which controls the
spacing of those spots), you make the stroke more transparent.

For the Eraser tool, opacity refers to how completely you erase. If you use
maximum opacity (100), you erase the line entirely. Use repeated strokes
or clicks with values less than 100 to shave the paint thickness and reduce
opacity.



Getting speckles of spray: Density
The word density doesn™t accurately describe this adjustment. The words
speckly-ness or speckle-osity are more accurate, but still confusing. Density
works like this: When density is at its maximum (100), you get nice, solid



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paint coverage (or eraserage, if you™re using the eraser). At lower settings of
density, you get random speckles, as though you were spattering or spraying.
Figure 9-10 shows you a single spot, at densities of 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20
(from left to right).



Figure 9-10:
The effect of
different
density
settings.



For the Airbrush tool to do its job (which is spraying paint), you must set the
density to less than 100. Yet, you can set density less than 100 for the Paint
Brush or Eraser tools too, and they also give a speckly result, similar to the
results you would get with the Airbrush tool.



Making lines more or less dotty: Step
It™s time you knew the truth: The Paint Shop Pro paint tools don™t apply paint
continuously as you drag. (Gasp!) No, they apply repeated stampings of the
brush™s shape. (Imagine a jackhammer tipped with a rubber stamp.) The Step
control determines the distance between those stampings.

If you set the step value at its maximum (100, or 100 percent), the shapes
don™t overlap; the step is 100 percent of the tool size, so you get a dotted line.
At 50, the shapes overlap halfway, and at 25 they overlap three-quarters (25
is often a good choice). Figure 9-11 shows you step values of 20, 40, 60, and
100 (from top to bottom). The larger the step values, the more dotted the
line.




Figure 9-11:
Increasing
step values.




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Very low step values use up lots of processor power because the computer
has to draw a new stamp every time the mouse moves. If you™re drawing and
the computer hesitates a moment before it renders the line on the screen,
you may consider raising the step value 10 or 20 percent.




Coloring within the Lines
By Using Selection
When you™re using painting tools in Paint Shop Pro and have selected an
area, those painting tools work only within that selection. This feature is
great for keeping you “within the lines” as you paint.

First, select the area you want to paint. (Refer to Chapter 3 to find out how
to make selections.) If you have chosen to use multiple layers in your image,
make sure that you™re on the layer that contains the object you want to paint.
(See Chapter 11 or the Cheat Sheet for help with layers.) Then, choose a
painting tool and paint! Feel free to scribble or spray paint over the edges;
the paint falls only within the selection.

Feathered selections work too, for blending the edges of your painting efforts
into the rest of the image. Paint Shop Pro applies less paint in the feathered
zone. Feathering expands the marquee to include feathered pixels outside the
selection, however. If the selection has Swiss-cheese-like holes in it (as the
Magic Wand tool selections often do), you may not notice the holes because
the feathered expansion covers them. As you paint, because the holes are
feathered areas, they reappear as fuzzy spots that resist being painted. If you
don™t want that effect, eliminate the holes in your selection before you apply
feathering. Refer to Chapter 3 for help.




Replacing Colors
Here™s your chance to fix that purple cow ” the one that people always
prefer to see, rather than be. The Color Replacer tool is your companion in
reconstructive cow coloring.

The Color Replacer isn™t a great tool for photographs. It tends to skip pixels,
and it also replaces, with a single color, the natural range of color values that
result from sun and shadow. Use this tool for cartoon cows with blocks of
color or the text COWs and you will be fine. For photographic cows, you™re
better off selecting a colored area and using the Colorize tool, as described in
Chapter 7. You™ll get a far more realistic result.



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Color replacement, like most Paint Shop Pro actions, works on only the active
layer and within any selection you may have made. If you have chosen to use
layers in your image, make sure that you™re working on the correct layer
during the following steps, or else replacement may not work.

Don™t be cowed. Here™s how to put new hue in your purple moo:

1. Click the Color Replacer from the color selection tool group, six but-
tons from the top of the Tools toolbar, as shown in Figure 9-12.
The cursor takes on a brush shape. As with the Paint Brush and other
painting tools, the brush size, shape, and other properties are controlled
by the Tool Options palette. Refer to “Controlling Strokes, Sizes, Shapes,
and Spatters: Tool Options,” earlier in this chapter.



Figure 9-12:
The Color
Replacer
hides in the
color
selection
tool group.



2. Hold down the Ctrl key and right-click in your image the color you
want to replace.
The Background Material box takes on this color.
3. Again, hold down the Ctrl key and left-click your new, replacement
color, either in the image or in the Available Colors area of the Color
palette.
The Foreground Material box takes on this color. Alternatively, you can
use any technique we describe in Chapter 10 to set a new foreground
material, complete with textures and gradients and whatnot.
4. To replace the color in specific areas, drag across those areas. Double-
click anywhere to replace the color everywhere.
Like most tools, the Color Replacer tool™s action is constrained by layers
and selections. If you have used layers in your image, color is replaced
only throughout the active layer. If you have a current selection, replace-
ment happens only within that selection.

The Color Replacer tool replaces a range of colors that are close to the one
you picked to be replaced. Adjust the Tolerance setting on the Tool Options
palette to control closeness. (Press F4 if you don™t see the Tool Options


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palette.) The larger the Tolerance setting, the broader the range of colors the
Color Replacer tool replaces. If you™re replacing a single, uniform color, set
the tolerance to zero. If you™re purpling a cow in a photograph, you need to
replace a range of browns (or blacks or whites, depending on the cow). Set
the tolerance higher in that event; try 25 or so, to start. In short, select one of
these methods:

If the Color Replacer tool replaces more than you want, decrease the tol-
erance. Press Ctrl+Z to undo the overenthusiastic replacement, and then
drag or double-click again.
If the Color Replacer tool doesn™t replace enough, increase tolerance
and then drag or double-click again.




Filling Areas
For flooding an area with nice, even color, nothing beats the Flood Fill tool,
except possibly spilling a glass of red wine on a white sweater. (Fortunately,
unlike with the wine spill, you can undo the Flood Fill tool™s actions by press-
ing Ctrl+Z.)

Using the Flood Fill tool, shown in the margin, you can fill an area with solid
color. You can not only fill with a simple color, but also fill areas with complex
gradients, patterns, or textures. You only have to choose a foreground mater-
ial in the Material Properties dialog box, as Chapter 10 relates.



Filling a selected area with solid color
The most basic kind of fill you can perform is filling a selected area with a
uniform color (the sort of work that Phil, Dave™s house painter, does). For
example, the sky in your photograph may be gray ” perhaps with clouds and
power lines running through it ” and you want to make it solid, cloudless
blue with no power lines. Here™s how to fill like Phil:

1. Use any of the selection tools to select the area you want to fill.
For example, click the sky in your picture with the Magic Wand tool.
Refer to Chapter 3 for help with getting exactly the selection you want.
The selection marquee indicates your selected area.
If you have chosen to use layers in your image, you must also select the
layer that contains the portion of the image you want to fill. See Chapter
11 for more help with layers. If you don™t use layers in your image, just
make your selection and move on to Step 2.



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Chapter 9: Basic Painting, Spraying, and Filling

2. Click the Flood Fill tool on the Tools toolbar.
Your cursor icon changes to the paint can, the Flood Fill tool icon.
3. Choose a foreground material to fill with.
For simple unpatterned, untextured fills, make sure that the Foreground
and Stroke Properties box is set to a solid color. Refer to Figure 9-2, near
the beginning of this chapter, to see how to choose just a plain color.
4. Open the Tool Options palette.
If the Tool Options palette isn™t visible on your screen, press the F4 key
on your keyboard to display the palette.
5. Make the following choices from the drop-down lists there:

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