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Figure 4-7: By freezing certain columns and rows, they remain visible while you scroll
the worksheet.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003

If you press Ctrl+Home while the worksheet has frozen panes, the cell selector moves to the
top-left unfrozen cell. You can move into the frozen rows or columns by using the direction keys
or your mouse.

Zooming in or out for a better view
Excel enables you to zoom in or out to scale the size of your worksheets. Normally,
everything you see onscreen is displayed at 100 percent. You can change the zoom
percentage from 10 percent (very tiny) to 400 percent (huge). Using a small zoom
percentage can help you to get a bird™s-eye view of your worksheet to see how it™s laid
out. Zooming in is useful if your eyesight isn™t quite what it used to be and you have
trouble deciphering tiny type. Figure 4-8 shows a window zoomed to 10 percent and a
window zoomed to 400 percent.

Figure 4-8: You can zoom in or out for a better view of your worksheets.

You can easily change the zoom factor of the active worksheet by using the Zoom tool on the
Standard toolbar. Just click the arrow and select the desired zoom factor. Your screen trans-
forms immediately. You can also type a zoom percentage directly into the Zoom tool. If you
choose Selection from the drop-down list, Excel zooms the worksheet to display only the
selected cells (useful if you want to view only a particular range).

Zooming affects only the active worksheet, so you can use different zoom factors for different
worksheets. Also, if you have a worksheet displayed in two different windows, you can set a
different zoom factor for each of the windows.
Chapter 4 ¦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations 95

If your worksheet uses named ranges, you™ll find that zooming your worksheet to 39 percent or
less displays the name of the range overlaid on the cells. This is useful for getting an overview
of how a worksheet is laid out.

You can also set the zoom percentage by using the View_Zoom command. This command
displays the Zoom dialog box, where you can select an option or enter a value between 10
and 400.

In some situations, using a zoom factor other than 100 may cause some strange display prob-
lems with Excel, especially if charts and graphics are used. If you experience any odd display
problems, setting the zoom factor is 100 may fix it.

Saving your view settings
If you create a number of different worksheet views for different purposes, you may want to
save those view settings so that you can easily recall them without going through all of the
necessary setup steps each time you want to use the same view. To save your view settings,
create a named view.
A named view includes settings for window size and position, frozen panes or titles, outlin-
ing, zoom factor, the active cell, print area, and many of the settings in the Options dialog
box. A named view can also include hidden print settings and hidden rows and columns. If
you find that you™re constantly fiddling with these settings and then changing them back,
using named views can save you lots of effort.
To create a named view, begin by setting up the view settings the way you want them (for
example, hide some columns). Then select View_Custom Views to display the Custom
Views dialog box. Click the Add button and provide a name in the Add View dialog box that
appears (see Figure 4-9). You can also specify what to include in the view by using the two
check boxes. Click OK to save the named view.

Figure 4-9: Use the Add View dialog box to create a named view.

The Custom Views dialog box displays a list of all named views. To select a particular view,
just select it from the list and click the Show button. To delete a named view from the list,
click the Delete button.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003

Monitoring cells with a Watch Window
In some situations, you may want to keep track of the value in a particular cell. As you
scroll throughout the worksheet, that cell may disappear from view. Using a Watch Win-
dow can help.
The Watch Window is actually a special type of toolbar. To display the Watch Window
toolbar, choose View_Toolbars_Watch Window. Then click Add Watch and specify the cell
that you want to watch. The Watch Window will display the value in that cell. You can add
any number of cells to the Watch Window, and you can move the toolbar to a convenient
location. Figure 4-10 shows the Watch Window monitoring two cells.

Figure 4-10: Use the Watch Window toolbar to monitor the value in one or more cells.

Working with Rows and Columns
This section discusses some worksheet operations that involve rows and columns. Rows
and columns make up an Excel worksheet. Every worksheet has exactly 65,536 rows and
256 columns.

One of the most commonly asked questions about Excel is How can I increase the number of
rows and columns? Unfortunately, there is no way to do it. The number of rows and columns is
fixed, and you can™t change them.

Inserting rows and columns
Although the number of rows and columns in a worksheet is fixed, you can still insert and
delete rows and columns if you need to make room for additional information ” perhaps to
include additional items in a calculation, for example. These operations don™t change the
number of rows or columns. Rather, inserting a new row moves down the other rows to
accommodate the new row. The last row is simply removed from the worksheet if it is
empty. Inserting a new column shifts the columns to the right, and the last column is
removed if it™s empty.

If the last row (row 65,536) is not empty, you can™t insert a new row. Similarly, if the last column
(column IV) contains information, Excel won™t let you insert a new column. Attempting to add a
row or column displays the dialog box shown in Figure 4-11.
Chapter 4 ¦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations 97

Figure 4-11: You can™t add a new row or column if doing so would move nonblank cells
off the worksheet.

To insert a new row or rows, you can use any of the following techniques:
¦ Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Select the Insert_Rows command.
¦ Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Insert from the shortcut menu.
¦ Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to insert and then select
Insert_Rows. If you select multiple cells in the column, Excel inserts additional
rows that correspond to the number of cells selected in the column and moves the
rows below the insertion down.
The procedure for inserting a new column or columns is similar, but you use the
Insert_Column command.
You also can insert cells, rather than just rows or columns. Select the range into which you
want to add new cells and then select Insert_Cells (or right-click the selection and choose
Insert). To insert cells, the other cells must be shifted to the right or shifted down. Therefore,
Excel displays the Insert dialog box shown in Figure 4-12 to learn the direction in which you
want to shift the cells.

Figure 4-12: You can insert partial rows or columns by using the Insert dialog box.

Deleting rows and columns
You may also find that it™s necessary to delete rows or columns in a worksheet. For example,
your sheet may contain old data that is no longer needed.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003

To delete a row or rows, use any of the following methods:
• Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border and then select Edit_Delete.
• Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
• Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to delete and then select
Edit_Delete. In the dialog box that appears, choose the Entire row option. If you
select multiple cells in the column, Excel deletes all selected rows.
Deleting columns works in a similar way. If you discover that you accidentally deleted a row
or column, select Edit_Undo (or Ctrl+Z) to undo the action.

Hiding rows and columns
If necessary, you can hide rows and columns. This may be useful if you don™t want users to
see particular information or if you need to print a report that summarizes the information in
the worksheet without showing all the details.
To hide rows or columns in your worksheet, select the row or rows that you want to hide and
then choose Format_Row_Hide. Or select the column or columns that you want to hide and
then choose Format_Column_Hide.

You also can drag the row or column™s border to hide the row or column. You must drag the
border in the row or column heading. Drag the bottom border of a row upward or the border of
a column to the left.

A hidden row is actually a row with its height set to zero. Similarly, a hidden column has a
column width of zero. When you use the arrow keys to move the cell pointer, cells in hidden
rows or columns are skipped. In other words, you can™t use the arrow keys to move to a cell
in a hidden row or column.
Unhiding a hidden row or column can be a bit tricky because selecting a row or column that™s
hidden is difficult. The solution is to select the columns or rows that are adjacent to the hidden
column or row. (Select at least one column or row on either side.) Then select
Format_Row_Unhide or Format_Column_Unhide. Another method is to select Edit_Go
To (or its F5 equivalent) to select a cell in a hidden row or column. For example, if column A is
hidden, you can press F5 and specify cell A1 (or any other cell in column A) to move the cell
pointer to the hidden column. Then you can use the appropriate command to unhide the column.

Changing column widths and row heights
Often, you™ll want to change the width of a column or the height of a row. For example, you
can make columns narrower to accommodate more information on a printed page. Or you
may want to increase row height to create a “double spaced” effect.
Excel provides several different ways to change the widths of columns and the height of rows.
Chapter 4 ¦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations 99

Changing column widths
Column width is measured in terms of the number of characters of a fixed pitch font that will fit
into the cell™s width. By default, each column™s width is 8.43 characters. This is actually a rather
meaningless measurement because most of the fonts you will use are proportional fonts ” the
width of individual characters varies; for example, the letter i is much narrower than the letter W.

Tip If hash symbols (#) fill a cell that contains a numerical value, the column isn™t wide enough to
accommodate the information in the cell. Widen the column to solve the problem.

Before you change the width, you can select multiple columns, so that the width will be the
same for all selected columns. To select multiple columns, either click and drag in the column
border or press Ctrl while you select individual columns. To select all columns, click the
Select All button in the upper-left corner of the worksheet border (or press Ctrl+A). You can
change columns widths by using any of the following techniques.
• Drag the right-column border with the mouse until the column is the desired width.
• Choose Format_Column_Width and enter a value in the Column Width dialog box.
• Choose Format_Column_AutoFit Selection. This adjusts the width of the selected
column so that the widest entry in the column fits. If you want, you can just select cells
in the column, and the column is adjusted based on the widest entry in your selection.
• Double-click the right border of a column header to set the column width automati-
cally to the widest entry in the column.

To change the default width of all columns, use the Format_Column_Standard Width com-
mand. This displays a dialog box into which you enter the new default column width. All col-
umns that haven™t been previously adjusted take on the new column width.

After you manually adjust a column™s width, Excel will no longer automatically adjust the column
to accommodate longer numerical entries.

Changing row heights
Row height is measured in points (a standard unit of measurement in the printing trade ” 72
points is equal to 1 inch). The default row height depends on the font defined in the Normal
style. Excel adjusts row heights automatically to accommodate the tallest font in the row. So,
if you change the font size of a cell to 20 points, for example, Excel makes the column taller
so that the entire text is visible.
You can set the row height manually, however, by using any of the following techniques. As
with columns, you can select multiple rows.
¦ Drag the lower row border with the mouse until the row is the desired height.
¦ Choose Format_Row_Height and enter a value (in points) in the Row Height
dialog box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003

¦ Double-click the bottom border of a row to set the row height automatically to the
tallest entry in the row. You also can use the Format_Row_AutoFit command
for this.
Changing the row height is useful for spacing out rows and is almost always preferable to
inserting empty rows between lines of data.

This chapter covered the basic spreadsheet operations to get you functional with Microsoft
Office Excel 2003. You also learned some of the new features in Excel 2003, such as the side
by side feature.
¦ Remember that Excel functions much the same way a binder does; you can add or
delete worksheets, move one to the “top,” etc. You interact with the different sheets
by using the tabs at the bottom left of the page and by using the typical Microsoft
functions for restore, minimize, etc.
¦ To create and display a new view of the active workbook, choose Window_New
¦ If you want to compare two sheets in the same workbook, use the Window_New
Window command to create a new window for the active workbook. Activate the
first window; then choose Window_Compare Side by Side With.
¦ Excel provides another option for viewing multiple parts of the same worksheet. The
Window_Split command splits the active worksheet into two or four separate panes.
¦ To remove the split panes, choose Window_Remove Split.
¦ A named view includes settings for window size and position, frozen panes or titles,
outlining, zoom factor, the active cell, print area, and many of the settings in the
Options dialog box. To create a named view, begin by setting up the view settings
the way you want them (for example, hide some columns). Then select
View_Custom Views to display the Custom Views dialog box. Click the Add
button and provide a name in the Add View dialog box.
¦ You can add or delete rows or columns from your spreadsheet using one of
several methods: Selecting the row/column and right clicking your mouse and
making the appropriate selection, or using the Edit menu for deleting and the
Insert menu for adding.
¦ To hide rows or columns in your worksheet, select the row or rows that you want to
hide and then choose Format_Row_Hide. Or select the column or columns that you
want to hide and then choose Format_Column_Hide.
¦ You can also change the width and/or height of columns or rows, using one of the four
methods discussed within the chapter.
¦ ¦ ¦

PowerPoint . . . .

In This Chapter

Action Plan Identifying your
audience and purpose

Choosing an appropriate
presentation method

Planning the visual
image to convey

C an you guess what the single biggest problem is when most
people use PowerPoint? Here™s a hint: It™s not a problem Deciding whether to use
with the software at all. It™s that they don™t think things through multimedia effects
carefully before they create their presentation, and then they
have to go back and make major modifications later. You™ve Deciding whether
probably heard the saying, “If you don™t have time to do it right, handouts are
how are you going to find time to do it over?” This sentiment is appropriate
certainly applicable to creating presentations.
Planning your rehearsal
This chapter outlines an 11-point strategy for creating the
times and methods
appropriate PowerPoint presentation right from the start. By
considering the issues addressed here, you can avoid making
. . . .
false assumptions about your audience and their needs and
avoid creating a beautiful presentation with some horrible flaw
that makes it unusable. Spend a half hour or so in this chapter
and you can save yourself literally days in rework later.

Step 1: Identifying Your Audience
and Purpose
Before you can think about the presentation you need to create,
you must first think of your audience. Different audiences respond
to different presentation types, as you probably already know from
real-life experience. A sales pitch to a client requires a very
different approach than an informational briefing to your
coworkers. Ask yourself these questions:
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003

¦ How many people will be attending the presentation? The attendance makes
a difference because the larger the group, the larger your screen needs to be so
that everyone can see. If you don™t have access to a large screen, you have to
make the lettering and charts big and chunky so that everyone can read your
¦ What is the average age of the attendees? Although it™s difficult to generalize
about people, it™s especially important to keep your presentation light and entertain-
ing when you™re presenting to a very young audience (teens and children). Gener-
ally speaking, the older the audience, the more authoritative you need to be.
¦ What role will the audience take in relation to the topic? If you are rolling
out a new product or system, the managerial staff will likely want a general
overview of it, but the line workers who will actually be operating the product
need lots of details. Generally speaking, the higher the level of managers, the
more removed they will be from the action, and the fewer details of operation
they need.
¦ How well does the audience already know the topic? If you are presenting to a
group that knows nothing about your topic, you want to keep things basic and
make sure that you define all the unfamiliar terms. In contrast, with a group of
experts you are likely to have many follow-up questions after the main presenta-
tion, so you should plan on having some hidden backup slides ready in anticipa-
tion of those questions.
¦ Does the audience care about the topic? If the topic is personally important to
the attendees (such as information on their insurance benefits or vacation sched-
ule), they will likely pay attention even if your presentation is plain and straight-
forward. If you must win them over, however, you need to spend more time on
the bells and whistles.
¦ Are the attendees prejudiced either positively or negatively toward the topic?
Keeping in mind the audience™s preconceived ideas can make the difference between
success and failure in some presentations. For example, knowing that a client hates
sales pitches can help you tailor your own to be out of the ordinary.
¦ Are the attendees in a hurry? Do your attendees have all afternoon to listen to you,
or do they need to get back to their regular jobs? Nothing is more frustrating than
sitting through a leisurely presentation when you™re watching precious minutes tick
away. Know your audience™s schedule and their preference for quick versus thor-
ough coverage.
Next, think about what you want the outcome of the presentation to be. You might want more
than one outcome, but try to identify the primary one as your main goal. Some outcomes to
consider include the following:
¦ Audience feels good about the topic. Some presentations are strictly
cheerleading sessions, designed to sway the audience™s opinion. Don™t discount
this objective ” it™s a perfectly legitimate reason to make a presentation! For
example, suppose a new management staff has taken over a factory. The new
Chapter 5 ¦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan 103

management team might want to reassure the workers that everything is going to
be okay. A feel-good, Welcome to the Team presentation, complete with gim-
micks like company T-shirts or hats, can go a long way in this regard.
¦ Audience is informed. Sometimes you need to convey information to a group of
people and no decision is involved on their part. For example, suppose your
company has switched insurance carriers and you want to let all the employees
know about their new benefits. An informational presentation can cover most of
the common questions and save your human resources people lots of time in
answering the same questions over and over.
¦ Audience members make individual decisions. This presentation is a kind of
sales pitch in which you are pitching an idea or product to a group but each
person says yes or no individually. For example, suppose you are selling time-
share vacation condos. You may give a presentation to a group of 100 in an
attempt to sell your package to at least a few of the group.
This presentation type can also have an informational flavor; you are informing
people about their choices without pushing one choice or the other. For example,
if your employees have a choice of health plans, you might present the pros and
cons of each and then leave it to each employee to make a selection.
¦ Audience makes a group decision. This is the kind of presentation that scares a
lot of people. You face a group of people who will confer and make a single
decision based on the information you present. Most sales pitches fall into this
category. You might be explaining your product to a group of managers, for
example, to try to get their company to buy it.
Think about these factors carefully and try to come up with a single statement that
summarizes your audience and purpose. Here are some examples:
¦ I am presenting to 100 factory workers to explain their new health insurance choices

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