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Protection task pane shown in Figure 16-2.




Figure 16-2: Protect Word documents using this task pane.
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2. Under Formatting restrictions, check the checkbox if you want to limit formatting
to a selection of styles, and then click Settings to open the Formatting Restrictions
dialog box (see Figure 16-3).




Figure 16-3: Specify formatting restrictions on a shared document here.

3. Uncheck any styles you don™t want to allow in the document, or click the
Recommended Minimum button to have Office automatically select what it
considers to be a minimum number of styles. Click All to check all styles and None
to uncheck them all.
4. If you want to allow AutoFormat to override these formatting restrictions, check
that box at the bottom of the dialog box, and then click OK.
5. Back in the Document Protection task pane, if you want to allow only certain types of
editing in the document, check the Editing restrictions box. This activates a drop-
down list with four options: Tracked changes (all changes are permitted, but they™re
automatically tracked), Comments (no changes are permitted, but comments can be
inserted), Filling in forms (no changes are permitted, but data can be entered into
forms), and No changes (no changes are permitted ” the document is read-only).
6. Next, enter any exceptions to the editing rules. If you have established user groups,
they™re listed; otherwise, click More users and enter the user names for those to
whom you want to give greater editing access in the Add Users dialog box that
appears.
7. Finally, back in the Document Protection task pane, click the Yes, start enforcing
protection button if you™re ready to apply the protection settings to your document.
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Protecting documents in Excel
To protect an Excel worksheet or workbook:
1. Choose Tools_Protection.
2. From the submenu, choose which part of your Excel document you want to protect:
a particular worksheet or the workbook. You can also choose to protect and share
your workbook (more on sharing workbooks a little later in this chapter).
3. If you choose Protect Sheet, you™ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 16-4. Here
you can enter a password to unprotect the sheet, and then choose from the long
list provided which actions you™re willing to allow users of the worksheet to
perform.




Figure 16--4: Set protection for Excel worksheets here.

4. If you choose Protect Workbook, you™ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 16-5,
which contains three options:
• Structure prevents users from adding, deleting, moving, hiding, or unhiding
worksheets.
• Windows prevents users from moving, hiding, unhiding, resizing, or closing
workbook windows.
• Password allows you to enter a password that users must have before they can
unprotect the workbook.
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Figure 16-5: Protect elements of your workbook here.

5. Protect and Share Workbook brings up a dialog box with only one box you can
check, to prevent those sharing the workbook from turning off change tracking.
You can enter a password that they™ll have to know before they can do so.
6. Allow Users to Edit Ranges opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-6. Here you
can apply passwords to specific ranges within your worksheet. Even if the
worksheet as a whole is protected, users who have the password can edit the ranges
you specify. You can also click Permissions to specify which users are allowed to
edit the range without a password, and just so you don™t forget, you can even paste
permissions information into a new workbook so you can refer to it easily.




Figure 16-6: You can make ranges available for editing to those with the correct
password even if the rest of the sheet is protected.


Protecting files in Access and PowerPoint
You™ll learn about protecting Access files in detail later in this chapter. You need to use file
system features to protect PowerPoint files; talk to your system administrator.
Chapter 16 ¦ Collaborating on a Network 379


Using Information Rights Management tools
In previous versions of Office, the only way to protect sensitive information was to limit
access to it, as described in the preceding sections. That didn™t necessarily prevent the
people who were granted access from copying the information and/or sending it to someone
who wasn™t supposed to have access to it.
Information Rights Management (IRM) is a new feature in Office 2003 that gives you
greater control over files even when they™re no longer on your computer or network. No
matter where the file goes, the permissions you™ve assigned go with it, so that only those
users you™ve approved can read or change it; you can also restrict printing and forwarding.

In order to use IRM, you must have access to a computer running Windows Server 2003, with
Windows Rights Management activated. If you are working in a networked environment, con-
Note
sult your network administrator for details. As of this writing, Microsoft offers a trial Internet-
based service for individuals based on the .NET passport system; follow the prompts the first
time you attempt to use the feature to sign up for that service if it™s available (because it™s just a
trial service at this writing, it may not be by the time you read this book). Undoubtedly other
providers of public IRM servers will come forward as well.

Whenever you create a document in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, you can set IRM policies
for it by choosing File_Permission to open the Permission dialog box (see Figure 16-7).




Figure 16-7: The Permission dialog box allows you to enter the e-mail addresses of
users you™d like to be able to read or change a document™s content.

Check the Restrict permission to this document box to activate the Read and Change
options. Enter the e-mail addresses of users you want to give Read permission to (they can
read the document but can™t change, print, or copy its content) and those you want to give
Change permission to (they can read, edit, and save changes to the document but can™t print
it). Click the Read and/or Change buttons to access e-mail addresses in your Address book.
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To fine-tune permission, click More Options. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-8.




Figure 16-8: Fine-tune the permissions you grant with these controls.

At the top is a list of all the users you™ve given permission to access the document and the
access level they currently have (your name shows up at the top of the list with Full
Control). Highlight the user whose permissions you™d like to fine-tune, and then choose
from the options in the Additional permissions for users area. You can:
¦ Set an expiration date for the user™s permission.
¦ Allow users to print content.
¦ Allow a user with read access to also copy content.
¦ Give specific users permission to read a document, print a document, copy a
document, or edit a document, or any combination of those; you can also set an
expiration date.
¦ Allow users to access the content programmatically ” that is, to open the file in the
same program that created it and edit its content.
Under Additional settings, you can enter a link to an e-mail address (or other hyperlink) that
will pop up whenever a document with restricted permission is forwarded to an unauthorized
individual, so that that individual can request permission to view it. If you leave this blank,
unauthorized individuals simply see an error message.
Chapter 16 ¦ Collaborating on a Network 381

You can also choose to allow users to view the content in a browser; a Rights-Management
Add-on for Internet Explorer makes this possible. Otherwise, IRM-protected files can be
opened in Office 2003 only.

Tip If you generally provide the same permissions to many different users, click Set Defaults to
make those permissions the default set.


Network administrators can create permission policies that define who can access documents,
workbooks, and presentations and what editing capabilities (if any) they have. For example, a
Note
company might define a policy called “Confidential” that allows documents to be opened only by
users whose e-mail addresses use the company™s domain name. Once these policies have
been defined, they appear in alphabetical order on a submenu under File_Permission; au-
thors simply choose the one they want to use.


Sharing Excel Workbooks
One of the most common types of Office documents shared on a network is an Excel
workbook because workbooks frequently contain budgetary or sales information that is
constantly being updated by a variety of users. Excel lets multiple users share a workbook so
they can all work on it at the same time; it also lets you combine several workbooks into a
single workbook.

Creating a shared workbook
To create a shared workbook:
1. Choose Tools_Share Workbook. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-9.




Figure 16-9: The Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box shows you who
currently has the workbook open.
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2. If you want more than one person to be able to edit the workbook at the same time,
or to combine several workbooks into one shared workbook, check the box at the
top of the dialog box.
3. To fine-tune the way the workbook is shared, click the Advanced tab (see Figure
16-10). In the Track changes section, choose the number of days you want to track
changes ” if at all.




Figure 16-10: The Advanced tab lets you choose your method of tracking, updat-
ing, and dealing with conflicting changes.

4. In the Update changes section, choose when you want changes made to the
workbook to be updated: whenever the file is saved, or automatically how ever
often you specify. If you choose to automatically update changes, you can choose
to save your changes and see everyone else™s changes at the specified interval, or
just see everyone else™s changes at the specified interval without saving yours.
5. Sometimes two or more users will make conflicting changes to the workbook ”
changes that are mutually exclusive. You can decide here how to deal with those
changes either by having Excel ask you which change should take effect or by
replacing any conflicting changes with your own changes every time you save.
6. Click OK.
Here™s one example of a shared workbook being useful: A sales group could share a
common workbook, with each salesperson in the group recording his or her sales as they
occur; that would give the sales manager the ability to monitor their sales, and the progress
of the group as a whole, in “real time.”
Chapter 16 ¦ Collaborating on a Network 383


Reviewing changes
Once a workbook is being shared, you can review changes in it by choosing Tools_Track
Changes_Accept or Reject Changes. Choose the changes you want to review in the Select
Changes to Accept or Reject dialog box shown in Figure 16-11. You can filter the changes
you want to look at by using the three fields. The When field lets you look for changes made
on a specific date; the Who field lets you look at changes made by everyone, everyone but
you, only you, or only any other user who has made changes; and the Where field lets you
specify a range of cells in which to look for changes.
Any changes found are brought to your attention in the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box
(see Figure 16-12). You can choose to accept or reject any or all of the changes brought to
your attention.

Tip
Choose Tools_Highlight Changes to highlight any changes made throughout the workbook.




Figure 16-11: Use this dialog box to select the changes you want to review.




Figure 16-12: Changes made to the workbook are brought to your attention here.

You can merge different versions of the same shared workbook into a single workbook by
choosing Tools_Compare and Merge Workbooks. Track Changes must be turned on (and
the workbook must be shared) for this to work.
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Collaborating in PowerPoint
You can send your PowerPoint presentation to others for comment and revision, and then
combine all the reviewed presentations into one for easy review.

Note The easiest way to send a presentation for review is to choose File_Mail Recipient (for Re-
view). This feature, common to most Office applications, is discussed later in this chapter.

To do so, open the presentation you want to combine reviewed presentation with and choose
Tools_Compare and Merge Presentations. Browse for the presentations you want to merge,
and then click Merge.
PowerPoint opens the Revisions Pane and the Reviewing toolbar to allow you to sort
through all the suggested revisions and decide whether you want to apply them (see
Figure 16-13).




Figure 16-13: PowerPoint™s Revisions Pane shows you all the changes reviewers have
made to your presentation.

PowerPoint points out the suggested revisions in several ways. In the Revisions Pane, you
can see graphical representations of the altered slides, or you can view them as a list. You
can choose whether to look at the changes suggested by all reviewers, or just those made by
specific reviewers. The names of reviewers who made changes to a particular slide appear
above the thumbnail of the slide, color-coded. Click the name of any reviewer whose
changes you want to accept.
Chapter 16 ¦ Collaborating on a Network 385

You can also call up a shortcut menu by pointing at the thumbnail and then clicking the
downward-pointing arrow that appears beside it. The shortcut menu also lets you apply
changes by the current reviewer, show only that reviewer™s changes, preview animation (in
case there was a change to an animation) and, finally, finish off your review of that
reviewer™s changes by clicking Done With This Reviewer.
The list version of the changes in the Revisions Pane is a little different; it shows a list of
changes to the slide (text edits, new graphics, etc.), and a separate list of Presentation
changes (slide transitions, for instance). The Previous and Next buttons at the bottom of the
task pane take you from slide to slide.
The Reviewing toolbar, also visible in Figure 16-13, is very similar to Word™s Reviewing
toolbar. You can step from item to item, choose to apply or unapply, edit and delete
comments, choose which reviewers™ changes you want to see, end the review, and toggle the
Revisions pane off and on.

Caution
Clicking End Review discards all unreviewed changes in the merged presentation, so don™t
click it until you™re certain you™re done.

You can also toggle markup on and off. The Markup feature shows callouts detailing
changes made to the presentation without obscuring the presentation or affecting its layout
(see Figure 16-14). Accepting a change is as simple as checking it off in the markup callout.




Figure 16-14: PowerPoint™s Markup feature provides a way to see changes in the
context of the slide they™re on.
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Sharing Access Databases
The information in the typical Access database is valuable not only to people working in
Access but also to people working in all other Office applications. Typically, the Access
database changes constantly as changes are made to the data in it; by drawing on it, network
users can ensure that their own Office projects always contain the most up-to-date
information.
If you don™t need any extra security on your Access database, you can share it just as you
can any other file in Office (see the first part of this chapter). If you do need extra security,
however, Access can provide it in several ways: passwords, permissions, user groups and
accounts, and encryption.

Using passwords
A password is the easiest way to protect a database. Every time a user tries to access a
password-protected database, he or she is asked to provide a password. Without it, the
database can™t be opened.
To set a password for a particular Access database:
1. Choose File_Open.
2. In the Open dialog box, find the database you want to assign the password to and
select it.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Open button and choose Open Exclusive. This
ensures that no one else can open the database while you are assigning a password
to it.
4. The database opens. Now choose Tools_Security_Set Database Password.
5. In the Set Database Password dialog box, enter the password once in the Password
field and then enter it again in the Verify field (all you™ll see are asterisks).

Note Remember, passwords are case-sensitive, are limited to 15 characters, and can contain letters,
numbers, and/or symbols.

6. Click OK.
Once the password is set, it doesn™t matter if you™re the user who created the database and
assigned the password to it: If you forget or lose the password, you can™t open the database
(at least, not without the use of a third-party password-cracking tool like the ones available
at www.lostpassword.com ” the existence of which is why a password provides only
low-level security).
To remove the password, open the file exclusively again, and then choose
Tools_Security_Unset Database Password. Enter the password and click OK.
Chapter 16 ¦ Collaborating on a Network 387


Creating user and group accounts
If a password doesn™t provide enough security, you might want to set up user accounts and
groups, which will require users to supply both an account name and a password before they
can access a database. This is called user-level security.
To set up user and group accounts:
1. Open a database.
2. Choose Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts. This opens the dialog box
shown in Figure 16-15.




Figure 16-15: Add new users and new user group accounts here.

3. By default, Access creates two groups: Admin and Users. Admin users can perform
administrative functions such as adding users and groups; users can access only the
database itself.
4. By default, Access creates an Admin user called, unimaginatively, Admin. Choose
it from the Name drop-down list, and then click the Change Logon Password tab.
Type the password you want to use in the New Password and Verify fields. (Once
you™ve closed the database and Access, the next time you open it you™ll have to log
on using this account name and password.)
5. Click the Users tab.
6. To create a new account, enter the name of the user in the Name box, and then
select the group you want to add him or her to; click the New button.
7. Enter the name of the user and the personal ID ” a string of four to 20 characters
of your choice that Access combines with the user™s name to identify that user in
the group.
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8. Click OK to create the new account.
9. To create a new group, click the Groups tab, click the New button, and enter a
name and personal ID for the new group.
10. To delete a user, click the group he or she is a member of in the Available Groups
list; then locate the name in the Name list and click Delete. To delete a group, click
the Groups tab, highlight the group you want to delete, and click Delete.

Securing the database
Access makes securing the database easy by providing a wizard. Choose
Tools_Security_User-Level Security Wizard, and then follow the instructions, providing
information as needed. At one point you™re asked to choose which objects in the database
should be secured. All secured objects will thereafter be accessible only by users in the
Admin group until you grant other users permissions.
The Wizard makes a backup copy of your database and then encrypts the original.

Note
You can™t run this wizard if the database is open in exclusive mode.


Assigning permissions
To assign permissions, choose Tools_Security_User and Group Permissions. This opens
the dialog box shown in Figure 16-16.




Figure 16-16: You can limit the access of certain users or groups of users to specific

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