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levels as desired using the toolbar. If you haven™t used any of Word™s nine built-in
Heading styles, everything in the document will be shown as body text. As you promote
text to a heading level, Word applies the appropriate style.

Don™t select text while promoting or demoting, simply place the insertion point in the
Note
paragraph. In some cases, if text is selected and you promote Word will apply the Head-
ing style to the selected text, not change the outline level or change the paragraph style.

As you promote and demote headings, you can see the current level by looking at the
Style box on the Formatting toolbar. In addition, if you want to view all of your styles at
once, you can display the style area. Choose Tools_Options, click the View tab, and then
enter a measurement in the Style Area Width box. When the style area is displayed, you
can adjust its width by dragging the vertical line that divides the style area from your
document text. You can also close the style area display by dragging the vertical line to
the left until the style area disappears.

Rearranging your outline
As you create an outline, don™t worry about getting the arrangement and levels exactly
the way that you want them. The beauty of working with outlines is that you can enter
your thoughts as they occur and later rearrange the text in a flash by moving sections up
and down.

Selecting in Outline view
Before you rearrange an outline, you need to understand how selection works in Outline
view. The following list describes selection techniques that apply specifically to outlines:
¦ When you click a plus icon, the heading and all of its subordinate levels are
selected.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 437

¦ When you click a box symbol, or a minus sign, only that paragraph of body text is
selected.
¦ When you click in the selection bar to the left of a paragraph, only that paragraph is
selected. Therefore, if you click in the selection bar next to a heading with a plus
sign, only that heading (and not any of its subordinate levels) is selected.
¦ You can select multiple headings or paragraphs by dragging up or down the
selection bar.
¦ You can use any standard Word technique for selecting text in an outline paragraph,
but once a selection crosses to a new paragraph, both paragraphs are selected in
their entirety. In other words, you cannot select only a portion of more than one
paragraph in Outline view.

Tip
If your text moves when you try to select it, you may have accidentally dragged a plus or
minus symbol instead of clicking it. In this situation, choose Edit_Undo and try again.

Promoting and demoting outline levels
To promote or demote a heading, place your insertion point anywhere in the heading and
then use one of the following methods:
¦ The Outlining toolbar. Choose the Promote or Demote button to change the
heading level. Choose the Demote to Body Text button to change any heading to
body text.
¦ Keystroke shortcuts. Press Alt+Shift+left arrow to promote a heading to the next
level, or press Alt+Shift+right arrow to demote a heading to the next level. For the
first three heading levels, you can also press Alt+Ctrl+#, with # standing for the
outline level to which you want the text assigned. For example, to change a heading
to level two, press Alt+Ctrl+2.
¦ The mouse. Drag the plus symbol to the left or the right. When you place the
mouse pointer over an outline icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed arrow, and
as you drag, a vertical line appears at each heading level. Release the mouse button
when you reach the desired level.
You can promote or demote multiple headings or body text paragraphs at the same time.

Here™s a great trick for globally promoting or demoting outline headings. Suppose that
Tip
you want to change all level two headings to level three headings. Simply use Word™s
Find and Replace feature. Choose Edit_Replace. Then, with your insertion point in the
Find What text box, choose More_Format_Style and select the Heading 2 style from
the Find What Style list box. In the Replace With text box, select the Heading 3 style
from the Replace With Style list box. Finally, click Replace All. You can also use the
Styles and Formatting task pane, using the Select All button.
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When you use the Outlining toolbar buttons to promote or demote a heading, only the
actual paragraph where your insertion point is located is moved. Unless you select an
entire section by clicking the plus icon or by using any other selection method,
subordinate levels aren™t affected ” with the following exceptions:
¦ Body text is always promoted or demoted along with its heading.
¦ Any outline elements that are collapsed under the heading are always moved along
with that heading.
If a heading is collapsed, any structural changes that you make to that heading affect any
subordinate headings or body text paragraphs. This makes it easy to move sections of a
document. Simply collapse your outline to its highest level, and then promote, demote,
and move the headings.

Moving outline headings
Before you move headings, decide whether you want to move only one particular heading or
all of the subheadings and body text associated with that heading. If a heading is collapsed
when you move it, any subordinate text moves with that heading. If the heading is expanded
to show its subordinate levels, however, some movement techniques move only the specified
heading. You can take advantage of this to move whole sections without going through the
process of selecting text. With the outline collapsed, dragging any plus icon will move all of
its associated text.
To move a heading without moving any of its associated subheadings or body text, use the
Move Up or Move Down button on the Outlining toolbar or press the Alt+Shift keys in
combination with an up- or a down-arrow key. Whenever you drag a plus icon, all of the text
associated with that heading is moved.
When you place your mouse pointer on a plus icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed
arrow. Then, as you drag up or down, a horizontal line with a right arrow is displayed.
Release the mouse button when the line is positioned where you want the text to be located.
To move multiple headings, select the headings that you want to move. Then hold down the
Shift key as you drag the last heading icon in your selection. Make sure that you don™t drag
any heading except the last one. Once you click any heading in a selection other than the last
one, your selection is cleared and only the heading where your mouse pointer is at is selected.

Outline view is a handy way to rearrange table rows. When working in a table, you can
Tip
move a row or selected rows to a new location by switching to Outline view and then
dragging them.

Using keyboard shortcuts
When your fingers are already on the keyboard, pressing a keystroke combination is often
easier than lifting your fingers off the keyboard to use the mouse. For example, if you™re
all set to type a body text entry, press Ctrl+ Shift+N rather than choosing the Demote to
Body Text button. Table 18-2 lists some of the most useful keystroke shortcuts for
working with outlines.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 439

Tab and Shift+Tab are two handy keystroke shortcuts in Outline view. With your insertion
point in a heading, pressing the Tab key demotes that heading to the next level, and
Note
pressing Shift+Tab promotes that heading to the next level (or promotes body text to a
heading). These keystrokes have this effect only in Outline view, however. To promote
or demote a heading in Normal view, use the Alt+Shift+arrow key combinations. To in-
sert an actual tab character in Outline view, press Ctrl+Tab.

Table 18-2
Keystroke Shortcuts in Outlines
To Do This Use These Keys
Switch to Outline view Alt+Ctrl+O

Switch to Normal view Alt+Ctrl+N

Promote a heading or body text
to the next level Alt+Shift+left arrow (or press Tab)

Demote a heading to the next level Alt+Shift+right arrow (or press Shift+Tab)

Promote or demote a heading Alt+Ctrl+1 through Alt+Ctrl+3. Note that
to a specific level keystrokes are assigned only for the first
three levels.

Demote a heading to body text Ctrl+Shift+N

Move a paragraph up Alt+Shift+up arrow

Move a paragraph down Alt+Shift+down arrow

Show all headings and body text,
or show all headings without body text Alt+Shift+A

Show only the first line of body text,
or show all body text Alt+Shift+L

Show or hide character formatting / on the numeric keypad

Expand selected headings Alt+Shift++ on the numeric keypad

Collapse selected headings Alt+Shift+- on the numeric keypad


Viewing both Outline and Normal view at once
One way to work effectively with outlines is to split the document screen into two panes.
In one pane, you can display your document in Outline view, and in the other pane, you
can display your document in Normal view. This way, you can take advantage of Outline
view to rearrange your text while simultaneously viewing the result of your actions in the
full document.
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To split your document into two equal panes, double-click the split bar (at the top of the
vertical scroll bar) or choose Window_Split. You can also simply drag the split bar to tailor
the size of the panes. To restore the split window to its original condition, double-click the
split bar or choose Window_Remove Split. Figure 18-4 shows an outline in split view.




Figure 18-4: An outline split into two panes.


Printing an outline
When you print from Outline view, only the visible portion of your document is printed. For
example, if your outline is collapsed to level one, only the Level 1 headings are printed. The
Outline symbols don™t appear on a document printout, though.
Before you print from Outline view, expand or collapse your outline to display what you
want to print. To print your document as it should appear in its final form, switch to Normal
or Print Layout view before you print.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 441


Copying an outline
In Outline view, if you select and copy headings that include collapsed subordinate text, the
collapsed text is also copied. Unfortunately, you cannot copy just the visible headings with
Word. You can, however, quickly list those headings in a table of contents and then omit the
page numbers. For more information about creating a table of contents using the Index and
Tables command (Insert menu), see Chapter 12 of Wiley™s Word 2003 Bible.
After you create a table of contents, click in it and press Ctrl+Shift+F9 to convert the table
of contents to regular text. You can then copy the headings from the table of contents.


Understanding Master Documents
Suppose that you want to add all your data into one colossal document or take several
existing documents and turn them into one larger document. If you do this, you may find
yourself running into a couple problems:
¦ Word begins to function less efficiently when a document is too large. (What™s too
large? There™s no hard-and-fast rule, it all depends on the speed of the computer
you have, the amount of memory, the number of images in the document, the
number of links to external content, and so on.) Certain tasks such as scrolling and
searching can take longer to accomplish, and the possibility of a system error
increases.
¦ Only one person can work on any given file at a time. Therefore, if everything is
crammed into the same file, you lose the capability to have different people
working on a project.
With the master-document feature in Word, however, you can consolidate several
documents into a large framework. This provides the consistency and other advantages of
working with one large document and also keeps the convenience of working with
individual subdocuments. In addition to these advantages, the master document feature
enables you to
¦ Cross-reference items among several documents.
¦ Use the Outline view tools to rearrange items spread among several documents.
¦ Create indexes, tables of contents, and lists that span several documents.
¦ Easily assign consistent page numbering, headers, and other formatting across
multiple documents.
¦ Print multiple documents with one command.
A book is ideally suited to the master document feature. Each chapter can be a
subdocument, and the elements common to the entire book can be contained in the master
document itself.
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In earlier versions of Word, the master-document feature has a reputation for being a little
Note
unstable. With today™s faster computers, master documents may not be as necessary as
before.


The Master Document view
Imagine an outline view that combines multiple documents. That™s Master Document
view. In effect it™s an extension of Outline view, and uses the Outlining toolbar ” the
buttons on the right side of the bar that we haven™t looked at yet.
What™s the point? Imagine you have a very large document, perhaps hundreds of pages
long, with lots of pictures. Such a document can get unwieldy ” moving around can take
a long time, Word can slow down, and so on. On the other hand, having everything in one
document is rather nice ” you can use Outline view to move things around, search the
entire document to find things, create tables of contents and indexes spanning all the
documents, and so on. The answer, the compromise, is the master document. Bring all the
text into one document when you need it there, but work on small portions, in individual
files, when you don™t.
You can create a master document from scratch or combine existing documents into a
master document. Turn on Master Document view by choosing View_Outline. The last
eight buttons on the bar are master-document buttons, but the last seven are not always
displayed. Click the Master Document View button to expand or contract the toolbar; the
button also changes the document display, though until you™ve actually created a master
document you won™t notice any difference.

You might think of the master document as a sort of interactive index inside a normal
document. A master document contains two things: normal document stuff ” text and
Note
graphics, tables and text boxes, and so on ” and links to other documents. Those links
can be used to pull in the information from the documents to which the master docu-
mented is linked.

Figure 18-5 shows the Master Document buttons on the Outlining toolbar, and Table 18-3
identifies and describes those buttons.




Figure 18-5: The Master Document buttons.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 443


Table 18-3
Master Document Buttons on the Outlining Toolbar
Button Name Action
Master Document Switches between Master Document and
View Outline views, and expands and contracts
the toolbar.

Expand/Collapse Expands the master document, by
Subdocument pulling in data from the subdocuments,
or collapses the document, by removing
the information and displaying the links to
the subdocuments.

Create Turns selected headings and text into
Subdocument subdocuments, automatically saving a
new document and creating a link from the
master document to the subdocument.

Remove Pulls the data from the subdocument
Subdocument into the master document and breaks
the link to the subdocument ” but it
doesn™t actually delete the subdocument
file.

Insert Enables you to create a link to use an
Subdocument existing file as a subdocument.

Merge Combines multiple subdocuments into
Subdocument one subdocument.

Split Divides one subdocument into two
Subdocument subdocuments.

Lock Document Toggles the entire document or selected
subdocuments to a locked or an unlocked
state. Note that this provides only cursory
protection, however. Any user can unlock
the subdocument simply by choosing the
Lock Document button again.
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Building a master document
There are three main methods of building a master document:
¦ Begin a new document in Master Document view. Create an outline for your master
document, and then use those headings to break the outline into separate
subdocuments.
¦ Break an existing document into subdocuments.
¦ Combine existing documents into a master document by inserting them as
subdocuments. Any existing Word document can be treated as a subdocument.
Master documents, like outlines, use Word™s built-in heading styles (Heading 1 through
Heading 9).

Starting from scratch
To build a master document from scratch in Master Document view, follow these steps:
1. Open a new document.
2. Switch to Master Document view by choosing View_Outline; then click the
Master Document View button on the Outlining toolbar.
3. Create an outline for your master document using any of the techniques covered
previously in this chapter, typing headings to begin each subdocument. Before you
create the outline, however, decide which heading level you want to use to begin
each subdocument.
4. When you™re ready to break portions of the document into subdocuments, select all
of the headings and text that you want to convert. You can expedite this process by
collapsing the outline to the heading level at which you want to begin your
subdocuments before you make your selection.

Note You cannot convert body text without a heading into a subdocument. The selected text
must have at least one heading.

Word uses the level of the first heading in your selection to determine where each
subdocument begins. For example, if your selection begins with a level two
heading, Word begins a new subdocument at each level two heading in your
selected text area.
5. Click the Create Subdocument button.
Each subdocument is enclosed in a box, and a subdocument icon is displayed in the
upper-left corner of each box, as shown in Figure 18-6.
6. Save the master document.
Chapter 18 ¦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents 445




Figure 18-6: A master document divided into subdocuments.

When you save a master document, Word creates a new file, in the same directory as the
master document, using a file name based on the first line of text in the file. Note also that
Word adds a body text paragraph between each subdocument. This makes it easy to add
additional text or subdocuments outside the existing subdocument boundaries.

Because Word automatically assigns subdocument file names, you can end up with
strange results if your headings have similar names or if the file names assigned by
Caution
Word would conflict with files already in the destination directory. As a simple demon-
stration, suppose that your directory contains a document called Chapter 1.doc. Now
suppose that you create a subdocument in which the first heading is titled Chapter 1.
When you save the master document, Word assigns the name Chapter 2.doc to your
subdocument because Chapter 1.doc is already taken. When a naming conflict occurs,
Word uses numbers to differentiate the file names. Therefore, your neatly numbered
headings may not correspond with their subdocument file names. For this reason, you
should check and, if necessary, rename subdocument file names before you close the
master document. For instructions, see the “Renaming or moving a subdocument” sec-
tion later in this chapter.
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Converting an existing document
To convert an existing document to a master document, open the file and switch to Outline
view. Set up all the headings and levels the way you want them.
Next, select the section that you want to split into subdocuments. Make sure, however,
that the first selected heading is the level at which you want each subdocument to start.
Click the Create Subdocument button, and save the master document. At that point Word
creates the subdocuments, saving them in the same directory.

Inserting existing documents into a master document
You can create master document from a number of existing files. Open the document you
want to become the master document ” it could be a new blank document, or an existing
document to which you want to add subdocuments.
Place the insertion point where you want to add a subdocument, and click the Insert
Subdocument button. Find the file you want to insert in the Insert Subdocument dialog
box, and click Open. That™s it; the document link is dropped into the master document.

When you open a subdocument from within its master document, the template and for-
Note matting assigned to the master document take precedence over any formatting origi-
nally assigned to the subdocument. If you open the subdocument separately, however,
the subdocument reverts to its original formatting.


Working with master documents
After you build a master document, you have several options for working with it. In Outline
view, you can treat the entire document as one large outline, and you can expand, collapse,
promote, and demote sections at will. In Normal view, you can work with the document just
as you would with any other document. You can cut and paste text or graphics between

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