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You can press Ctrl+Q to remove any direct paragraph formatting and leave only the
paragraph™s style formatting. Thus, in our example, if you place the cursor in the text and
press Ctrl+Q, the double-spacing is removed and the paragraph returns to the Normal style.

This doesn™t change any direct character formatting applied to the paragraph™s text, how-
Tip
ever. So remember Ctrl+Q; it™s a very useful way to return a paragraph to its styles
formatting, without removing character formats such as bold and italics.

You can also press Ctrl+Shift+N to apply the default Normal style formatting to the
paragraph. (Again, the character formatting is not removed.) Almost the same as Ctrl+Q,
but of course, Ctrl+Q doesn™t change the style.
Some paragraph formatting commands and buttons act as toggle switches; using them, you
can turn the formatting on or off. For example, with the insertion point in a paragraph, you
can convert that paragraph to a bulleted item by clicking the Bullets button on the
Formatting toolbar. With the insertion point in that same paragraph, clicking the Bullets
button again removes the bullet formatting of the paragraph.

If you cut and paste text from another Word document or another application and have
Tip
difficulty reformatting that paragraph, cut the text (Ctrl+X), select Edit_Paste Special,
and choose Unformatted Text. All of the formatting is removed.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 11


Using line breaks
We explained that when you press Enter, you start a new paragraph. But it™s possible to
create individual blocks of text, separated by a blank line if you wish, within a paragraph.
Instead of pressing Enter to go to the next line, press Shift+Enter, and Word inserts a line
break instead of a paragraph break. Instead of the backward P, you™ll see a little arrow with
a right-angle bend in it (see Figure 2-5).




Figure 2-5: You can see both paragraph breaks and line breaks in this image.

A line break is also known as a soft return. Using soft returns, you can break lines but keep
them in the same paragraph. Line breaks can save you a lot of time when formatting. Line
breaks are especially helpful for creating headings that you want to appear on more than
one line and also for creating lists aligned with tabs. After you finish entering the line
breaks, press Enter in the usual way to end that paragraph and begin the next.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Aligning Paragraphs
Word provides four ways to align paragraphs within your document™s margin: left-aligned,
right-aligned, center-aligned, and justified. By default, Word aligns text flush with the left
margin (left-aligned), leaving a ragged right edge. Figure 2-6 shows the four different
paragraph alignments. With Word, you can align paragraphs using the Paragraph dialog
box, the align buttons on the Formatting toolbar, or shortcut keys.




Figure 2-6: Four paragraph alignment options in Word.

To align paragraphs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
align.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the alignment button on the Formatting toolbar for the justification that you
want (see Table 2-1).
• Press one of the shortcut keys in Table 2-1.
• Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu
(Shift+F10), to display the Paragraph dialog box. Choose the alignment option
from the Alignment list in the Indents and Spacing tab, and then click OK.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 13

Before centering or aligning a paragraph relative to the left and right margins, make sure
that the paragraph is not indented. Paragraphs are aligned to the margins if no indenta-
Note
tions are set for them; if paragraphs are indented, they align to the indentation. Working
with indents is explained later in this chapter.

Table 2-1
Paragraph Alignment Buttons and Shortcut Keys
Alignment Shortcut
Type Button Keys Description

Align Left Ctrl+L Text aligns with the left margin, and the
right margin is ragged. This is the default
setting.

Center Ctrl+E Text is centered between margins.

Align Right Ctrl+R Text aligns with the right margin, and the
left margin is ragged.

Justify Ctrl+J Text aligns with both the left and right
margins by adding extra spaces between
words.


Click and Type: Inserting Paragraphs
Word has a little-known feature called click and type that you turn on under the Edit tab of
the Options dialog box. When enabled, this feature lets you click, in Print Layout view, an
area of a page without an existing paragraph to begin a new one.
Suppose you just opened a new document. The page has a single paragraph on the first line.
Choose View_Print Layout, and move the mouse pointer around the page. Notice that it
changes as you move around the page. Depending on where you point, the insertion I-beam
has an additional icon next to it ” an icon that corresponds with one of the alignment
buttons on the Formatting toolbar: Align Left, Center, or Align Right.
Click the Show/Hide button on the Standard toolbar so that you can see the first paragraph
mark at the top of the page. Now move the mouse pointer down the page and point at the
bottom-right corner of the page, but stay inside the margins set for the document. You
should see an I-beam with an Align Right icon next to it. Double-click, and you™ve just
inserted a right-aligned paragraph near the bottom of the page, along with a number of
Normal paragraphs between the first line on the page and your newly inserted paragraph.

You can even tell Word what paragraph style you want to use when you use the Click
Note
and Type feature. Just choose a style from the Default Paragraph Style drop-down in the
Click and Type area of the Option dialog box™s Edit tab.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Adjusting Line and Paragraph Spacing
You can adjust the spacing between lines in a paragraph as well as the spacing between
paragraphs themselves. By adjusting the spacing between paragraphs, you can control the
white space around paragraphs that contain oversized graphics or fonts. Using paragraph
spacing, you can manage the layout of your documents more precisely than you can just by
pressing Enter to create paragraph breaks for spacing.
Spacing between lines in a document is called leading (pronounced ledding). With Word,
you can control the leading to improve the readability of the text in paragraphs. For
example, if your text appears in long lines, you may need more spacing so that the reader™s
eye doesn™t lose its place when moving from the right margin back to the left.
Alternatively, if you™re using a font style with small letters, your text may require less
spacing between the lines than that between lines containing larger fonts. Line and
paragraph spacing makes it easy to use white space to make your documents easier to read
quickly. Very dense blocks of text are harder to read than text separated by white space
between paragraphs.

Adjusting spacing in the way we™ve just discussed is an example of a case in which doing it
Tip right can save you a lot of time when making changes to a document. If you use paragraph
spacing to adjust the space that appears between paragraphs, you can modify that spacing
very easily later if you decide you want to adjust the document. If you used paragraph and
line breaks to adjust the space between text and paragraphs, you have a lot of work to do if
you want to change things. Also, paragraph formatting lets you adjust spacing in increments
of 1 point, something you can™t do easily by inserting paragraph and line breaks.


Adjusting paragraph spacing
Instead of pressing Enter to add blank lines before or after a paragraph, use the
Format_Paragraph command. Using the Paragraph dialog box, you can adjust the
paragraph spacing precisely as well as keep any spacing changes for a paragraph if you
copy, move, or delete that paragraph.
To adjust paragraph spacing, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want
to adjust.
2. Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu. Click the
Indents and Spacing tab in the Paragraph dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
• To change the space before the selected paragraph, click the up or down arrow in
the Spacing Before box to increase or decrease the spacing amount in half-line
increments. Alternatively, you can type a value in the box. The Preview section of
the Paragraph dialog box shows the effect of your selected spacing.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 15

• To change the space after the selected paragraph, click the up or down arrow in
the Spacing After box or type a value in the box.
You can use measurements other than points to specify spacing. To add a quarter-inch
of spacing, type .25 in the Before or After box. To add spacing of two centimeters, type
Tip
2 cm. To add spacing of one pica, type 1 pi. The Preview section of the Paragraph
dialog box shows the effect of your selected spacing.

4. Click OK.
If a paragraph has spacing before it and falls at the top of a page, Word ignores that
spacing so that the top margins of your document pages always remain even. If the
Note
paragraph is the first paragraph in a document or a formatted section, however, Word
always observes this spacing. Word also observes the spacing before a paragraph that
follows a hard page break.


Adjusting line spacing
The line-spacing feature in Word begins with automatic spacing, and with this feature, you
can increase spacing, reduce spacing, permit extra spacing for a large character or
superscript on the line, or even control the spacing exactly. Spacing is measured in terms of
lines. Normal text has single spacing of one line, but you can choose from several line
options or even specify line spacing based on points. Table 2-2 describes the line-spacing
options in Word. You can apply line spacing using the Paragraph dialog box or shortcut
keys, but the Paragraph dialog box offers the most options.

Table 2-2
Line Spacing Options
Option Spacing
Single Single-line spacing. (Line height automatically adjusts to accommodate the
size of the font and any graphics or formulas in a line.)

1.5 Lines Line-and-one-half spacing (an extra half-line of space between lines).

Double Double-spacing (an extra full line of space between lines).

At Least At least the spacing that you specify in the At box ” the line won™t be shorter
than what you specify, but it may be taller because Word will add extra
spacing for tall characters, big graphics, and superscript or subscript text.

Exactly The exact spacing that you specify in the At box. All lines are exactly the same
height, regardless of the size of the characters in the line; Word doesn™t add
extra spacing. Note that some text may be cut off if enough space is not
available.

Multiple Multiples of single-line spacing, such as triple (3) or quadruple (4), as specified
in the At box.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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To adjust spacing between lines, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu. The
Paragraph dialog box appears. Click the Indents and Spacing tab, and in the Line
Spacing list box, choose one of the options listed in Table 2-2. To specify your
own line spacing, type the spacing amount that you want in the At box. For
example, enter 1.25 for an extra quarter line of space between lines, or click the
up or down arrow to increase or decrease the amount in half-line increments.
When you finish, click OK.
• Press one of the shortcut key combinations in Table 2-3.

Table 2-3
Shortcut Keys for Line Spacing Options
Shortcut Action
Ctrl+l Single-spacing

Ctrl+5 1.2-line spacing

Ctrl+2 Double-spacing

Ctrl+0 (zero) Add or remove 12 points of space before a paragraph



Notice the Don™t Add Space Between Paragraphs of the Same Style check box below the
Spacing controls in the Paragraph dialog box. This is not usually enabled; it™s enabled
Note
when you open the dialog box from the Modify Style dialog box. Check this box and Word
adds extra space below the last paragraph of a series of paragraphs of the same style. So,
for instance, if you have a style you use for bulleted lists, you can press Enter at the end of
each bulleted item, creating a new paragraph for each. But it™s not until you press Enter
and start a new style that Word inserts extra space.


Do you ever have to create documents that are double-spaced (a blank line between
every line of text)? Students often do, for instance. Do not create this double spacing by
Tip
pressing Enter or Shift+Enter at the end of each line. (We™ve seen this many times, so
we know a lot of you are doing this!) If you do, you™ll find it a nightmare to readjust
everything when you insert or remove text during editing. Use Paragraph formatting and
save yourself hours of work.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 17


Setting Tabs
A tab stop is the position at which the text-insertion point stops when you press the Tab
key. Pressing the Tab key moves the insertion point to the right, shifting the position at
which you will insert text. If there™s any text to the right of the insertion point when you
press Tab, that text is shifted, too.
Word documents are set up with default tab stops every 1/2-inch across the document, but
you can set your own tab stops, too, wherever you want them. In fact, there are several
different types of tab stop that you can use (left, centered, right, decimal, or bar) and a
variety of other options, too. When you set a custom tab, all the default tabs to the left of
the custom tab are cleared ” that is, when you press Tab, Word will ignore the default tabs
and go to the first custom tab.
There™s an advantage to using tabs rather than spacing. After the tabs are in your document,
you can move or change the tab stops and then the selected text moves or realigns with
those stops. Remember, however, that tabs belong to paragraphs. If you set tab stops as you
type text and press Enter, the tab settings carry forward to the next paragraph.

One of the most common word-processing mistakes is using spaces to align text. In
most cases, the text is in proportional font. Because proportional-font characters take
Note
up different amounts of space, however, the text in that font cannot align correctly with
this method. Using tabs ensures that your text is aligned perfectly and makes it much
easier to modify settings.

You can set tabs using the horizontal ruler or the Tabs dialog box. To display the Tabs dialog box,
choose Format_Tab or click the Tabs button in the Paragraph dialog box (Format_Paragraph).
Table 2-4 describes the tab options available in Word, and Figure 2-7 shows how left-aligned,
center-aligned, right-aligned, and decimal tab settings affect a paragraph.

Table 2-4
Tab Options
Type of Tab Ruler Tab Indicator Action
Left-aligned Begins text at the tab stop. (This is the
default tab setting.)

Center-aligned Centers text on the tab stop.


Right-aligned Ends the text at tab stop.

Decimal Centers text over decimal point for a list of
numbers.
Bar Runs a vertical line through a selected
paragraph at the tab stop.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Figure 2-7: Tabs aligned using the Left, Center, Right, and Decimal tab settings.

Figure 2-8 shows columns divided using the bar tab.




Figure 2-8: Bar tabs dividing text.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 19

Use line breaks rather than paragraph breaks between lines of short text within columns.
This way, you can realign the information, by adjusting the tab settings, very quickly
without needing to select the paragraphs (just click anywhere within the paragraph and
make your changes). Press Shift+Enter to insert the new line. If you add tabs later using
new lines, the tab applies to all of the lines before the next paragraph mark. If you want to
align large columns of text, use Word™s powerful table feature.

Bar tabs are not real tabs! Placing a bar tab inserts a vertical line in your document,
down through the paragraph, at the bar-tab position. But a bar tab has no effect on text
Note
position. Pressing the Tab key does not move text to the bar-tab position. Bar tabs are
usually combined with other types of tabs that set the text alignment.


Setting tabs using the ruler
A convenient way to set tabs is to use the ruler. If your ruler is not displayed, choose
View_Ruler to display it. At the left of the ruler is the Tab Alignment button, with which
you can quickly change tab styles. Using the mouse and the ruler, you can set, move, and
remove the left-aligned, center-aligned, right-aligned, decimal, or bar tabs with a precision
of as much as 1/16-inch. The ruler displays Word™s default tab stops (set every 1/2-inch,
unless you change the interval, which we look at later in this chapter) as tiny vertical lines
along the bottom of the ruler. (You may have to look closely to see these thin black lines on
the gray bar under the ruler.) When you set your own tab stops, all of the default tab stops
to the left are removed.
To set tabs using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Click the Tab Alignment button at the far left of the ruler until the symbol for the tab
style you want is selected (see Table 2-4).
3. Position the pointer just below the mark on the ruler where you want the tab stop to
appear. Click the left mouse button to place the tab stop on the ruler. The tab stop
marker then appears for the tab style that you selected (see Figure 2-9).
4. Do one of the following:
• Repeat step 3 to add more tab stops of the same style.
• Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add other types of tab stops to the ruler.



Figure 2-9: The ruler with tab stops displayed.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Changing or clearing a tab stop using the ruler
To change a tab marker on the ruler, place the insertion point in the paragraph you want to
work on. Then point to the tab marker with the mouse pointer, hold down the left mouse
button to select that marker, and drag the marker to its new position. When you release, the
marker is dropped into its new position.
To clear a tab stop quickly using the mouse and ruler, drag that marker all the way off the
ruler and onto the document ” when you release, the marker is removed.

Setting tabs using the Tabs dialog box
Using the Tabs dialog box (see Figure 2-10) to set tabs offers some advantages over using
the ruler and mouse. With the Tabs dialog box, you can precisely set each tab™s position by
typing decimal numbers (in inches).




Figure 2-10: The Tabs dialog box.

You can also add dotted, dashed, or underlined tab leaders. A tab leader links related but
separate items across a page, such as entr©es and prices in a menu or chapters and page
numbers in a table of contents (see Figure 2-11).
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 21




Figure 2-11: Leader tabs link related but separate items.


To set tabs using the Tabs dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs. The Tabs dialog box appears.
3. Using decimal numbers, type the position of the tab stop that you want to set in the
Tab Stop Position box.
4. In the Alignment group, select the tab style that you want: Left, Center, Right,
Decimal, or Bar.
5. If you want a leader, select the tab leader style that you want in the Leader group: 1
None for no leader (the default setting), 2 for a dotted leader, 3 for a dashed leader,
and 4 for a solid underlined leader.
6. Choose Set to set the tab stop. The Tab Stops list box displays your tab stops after
you set them.
7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to set additional tab stops.
8. Click OK to close the Tabs dialog box.

Changing and clearing tabs using the Tabs dialog box
To change existing tab stops using the Tabs dialog box (Format_Tabs), select the tab stop
that you want to change in the Tab Stops list box. Select the new formatting options for the
selected tab stop in the Alignment and Leader groups, and then click Set.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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