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Figure 21-11: PowerPoint prompts you to enter the new document name and location.

5. Enter the name of the new document that you want to create. The type of document
created depends on the extension you include. For example, to create a Word
document, use the .DOC extension. See Table 21-3 for other extensions.

If you provide this presentation to multiple users, each one will use the same file name for the
Caution new document. This can be a problem because one file may overwrite another. It might be
easier and less trouble-free to collect information from multiple users using an E-Mail Address
hyperlink (discussed later in this chapter).
Chapter 21 ¦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations 509

6. If the path where it should be stored is not correct in the Full Path area, click the
Change button. Navigate to the desired location, and click OK to return.
7. Click the Edit the New Document Later option.
8. Click OK.
The most important part about adding a link to create a new file is to make sure that you use
an extension that corresponds to a program that users have on the PCs where they will be
viewing the presentation. When a program is installed, it registers its extension (the three-
character code after the period in a file™s name) in the Windows Registry, so that any data
files with that extension are associated with that program. For example, when you install
Microsoft Word, it registers the extension .DOC for itself, and PowerPoint registers .PPT for
its own use. Table 21-3 lists some of the more common file types and their registered
extensions on most PCs. Also make sure that the location you specify for the Full Path will
always be accessible whenever the presentation is run.

Table 21-3
Commonly Used Extensions for Popular Programs
Extension Associated Program
DOC Microsoft Word, or WordPad if Word is not installed. Use for docu-
ments if you are not sure whether your audience has Word, but you
are sure they at least have Windows 95.

WRI Write, the predecessor to WordPad. WordPad and Word also open
these if Write is not installed. Safest to use for documents if you do
not know which version of Windows your audience will be using.

TXT Notepad, a plain text editor. Creates text files without any formatting.
Not my first choice for documents unless you specifically need them
to be without formatting.

WPD WordPerfect, a competitor to Word.

BMP Microsoft Paint (which comes free with Windows), or some other
more sophisticated graphics program if one is installed.

MDB Microsoft Access, a database program.

MPP Microsoft Project, a project management program.

PPT Microsoft PowerPoint (you know what that is!).

XLS Microsoft Excel, a spreadsheet program.

Creating a link to an e-mail address
You can also create a link that opens the user™s e-mail program and addresses an e-mail to
a certain recipient. For example, perhaps you would like the user to e-mail feedback to
you about how he liked your presentation or send you requests for more information about
your product.
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For an e-mail hyperlink to work, the person viewing the presentation must have an e-mail appli-
Caution cation installed on his or her PC and at least one e-mail account configured for sending e-mail.
This isn™t always a given, but it™s probably more likely than betting that they have a certain
application installed (as in the preceding section).

To create an e-mail hyperlink, follow these steps:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide.
4. From the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the E-mail Address button. The dialog
box changes to show the controls in Figure 21-12.




Figure 21-12: Fill in the recipient and subject of the mail-to link.

5. In the E-mail Address box, enter the e-mail address. PowerPoint automatically adds
mailto: in front of it. (You can also select from one of the addresses on the
Recently Used E-Mail Addresses list if there are any.)
6. In the Subject field, enter the text that you want to be automatically added to the
Subject line of each e-mail.
7. Click OK. The hyperlink appears on the slide.
Chapter 21 ¦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations 511


Editing a Hyperlink
If you need to change the displayed text for the hyperlink, simply edit it just as you do any
text on a slide. Move the insertion point into it and press Backspace or Delete to remove
characters; then retype new ones.
If you need to change the link to which the hyperlink points, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the hyperlink.
2. On the shortcut menu that appears, choose Edit Hyperlink. The Edit Hyperlink
dialog box appears. It is exactly the same as the Insert Hyperlink dialog box except
for the name.
3. Make changes to the hyperlink. You can change the displayed text, the address it
points to, or the ScreenTip.
4. Click OK.


Removing a Hyperlink
If you decide not to hyperlink in a particular spot, you can delete the displayed text,
effectively deleting the hyperlink attached to it. But if you want to leave the displayed text
intact and remove the hyperlink only, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the hyperlink.
2. On the shortcut menu that appears, choose Remove Hyperlink.


Creating Graphics-Based Hyperlinks
There are two ways to create a graphics-based hyperlink. Both involve skills that you have
already learned in this chapter. Both work equally well, but you may find that you prefer one
to the other. The Action Settings method is a little bit simpler, but the Insert Hyperlink
method allows you to browse for Web addresses more easily.

Creating a hyperlink with Action Settings
A graphics-based hyperlink is really no more than a graphic with an action setting attached
to it. You set it up just as you did with the action buttons earlier in this chapter:
1. Place the graphic that you want to use for a hyperlink.
2. Right-click it and choose Action Settings.
3. Choose Hyperlink To.
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4. Open the Hyperlink To drop-down list and choose a URL to enter an Internet
address, or choose one of the other options from Table 21-2 to link to some other
location or object.
5. Click OK.
Now the graphic functions just like an action button in the presentation; the audience can
click on it to jump to the specified location.

Creating a hyperlink with the Insert Hyperlink feature
If you would like to take advantage of the superior address-browsing capabilities of the
Insert Hyperlink dialog box when setting up a graphical hyperlink, follow these steps instead
of the preceding ones:
1. Place the graphic that you want to use for a hyperlink.
2. Right-click it and choose Hyperlink. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box appears.
3. Choose the location, as you learned earlier in this chapter for text-based hyperlinks.
The only difference is that the Text to Display box is unavailable because there is
no text.
4. Click OK.


Distributing a User-Interactive Presentation
One of the easiest and best ways to distribute a user-interactive presentation is via CD. You
can also distribute the presentation to people within the same company by placing it on a
shared network drive and then inviting people to access it. Or you can attach the
presentation to an e-mail message and distribute it that way.
Another way is to make the presentation available as a Web page (or series of pages). This is
good for information delivery, and it doesn™t require the audience to have any special
software, but you do lose some of the animation and special effects.
You can also place the PowerPoint file on a Web server and then create a link to it from a
Web page. This lets people run the presentation in PowerPoint itself (or the PowerPoint
Viewer) with all the bells and whistles.

If you are interested in learning how to use the Internet to distribute or present a PowerPoint
Note
Presentation, Wiley™s PowerPoint 2003 Bible covers it in depth in chapter 30.


Interactive Presentation Ideas
You have probably thought of some good ideas for interactive presentations as you worked
through this chapter. Here are some more:
Chapter 21 ¦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations 513

¦ Web resource listings: Include a slide that lists Web page addresses that the users
can visit for more information about various topics covered in your presentation.
Or, include Web cross-references throughout the presentation at the bottom of
pertinent slides.
¦ Product information: Create a basic presentation describing your products, with
For More Information buttons for each product. Then, create hidden slides with the
detailed information, and hyperlink those hidden slides to the For More Information
buttons. Don™t forget to put a Return button on each hidden slide so users can easily
return to the main presentation.
¦ Access to custom shows: If you have created custom shows, as described in
Chapter 24, set up action buttons or hyperlinks that jump the users to them on
request. Use the Action Settings dialog box™s Hyperlink To command and choose
Custom Show; then choose the custom show you want to link to.
¦ Quizzes: Create a presentation with a series of multiple-choice questions. Create
custom action buttons for each answer. Depending on which answer the user clicks,
set it up to jump either to a Congratulations, You™re Right! slide or a Sorry, Try
Again slide. From each of those, include a Return button to go on with the quiz.
¦ Troubleshooting information: Ask the users a series of questions and include
action buttons or hyperlinks for the answers. Set it up to jump to a slide that further
narrows down the problem based on their answers, until they finally arrive at a
slide that explains the exact problem and proposes a solution.
¦ Directories: Include a company directory with e-mail hyperlinks for various people
or departments so that anyone reading the presentation can easily make contact.


Summary
In this chapter, you learned how to create action buttons and hyperlinks in your presentation
that can help your audience jump to the information they want in a self-service fashion. Now
you can design great-looking presentations that anyone can work their way through on their
own, without assistance.

¦ ¦ ¦
22 CHAPTER



Adding Security
to Access
Applications . . . .

In This Chapter

Using a database™s
Startup options

A lthough Access provides the interface to maintain security
Manipulating users
options, it is Jet that actually performs security functions.
and groups
The Jet security model has changed little since Access 95. Jet™s
security is still a workgroup-based security model; all users in a
Securing objects
workgroup are bound to the same security rules. The rules
by using permissions
enforced for individual users may vary from user to user, based
on the permissions assigned to each user.
Using the Access
Security Wizard
This chapter is from the Access 2003 Bible, which includes a CD
Note with sample applications on it to give you real hands-on experi-
Protecting Visual
ence. If you have that book, you would use the database file
Basic code
Chap34Start.mdb.
Encrypting
a database
Understanding Jet Security
Preventing virus
Jet security is defined at the object level for individuals or groups infections
of users. The Jet security model is rather complex, but it isn™t too
difficult to understand when broken down into its core
. . . .
components, which are as follows:
. Workgroups
. Groups
. Users
. Object owners
. Object permissions
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The two main reasons for employing user-level security are
. To protect sensitive data in the database.
. To prevent users from accidentally breaking an application by changing the objects
(tables, queries, and so on) of the application.
By using passwords and permissions, you can allow or restrict access of an individual or
groups of individuals to the objects (forms, tables, and so on) in your database. This
information, known as a workgroup, is stored in a workgroup information file.

Understanding workgroup files
Jet stores security information for databases in workgroup information files, usually the
default file is named “SYSTEM.MDW.” This workgroup information file is a special Access
database that contains a collection of user names and passwords, user group definitions,
object owner assignments, and object permissions. The SYSTEM.MDW file is often
located, by default, in the C:\Documents and Settings\<user name>\Application
Data\Microsoft\Access\System.MDW folder. When Access opens a database, it reads the
workgroup information file associated with the database. Access reads the file to determine
who is allowed ” and at what level ” access to the objects in the database and what
permissions they have to those objects.
You can use the same workgroup file for multiple databases. After you enable security for a
database, however, users must use the workgroup information file containing the security
information. If users use a workgroup other than the one used to define security, however,
they are limited to logging into the database as the Admin user ” with whatever
permissions the database administrator left for the Admin user.

When securing a database, one of the first things that you need to do is to remove all permis-
Tip sions for the Admin user. Removing these permissions prevents other users from opening the
database as the Admin user by using another Access workgroup file and obtaining the rights of
the Admin user. Users can still open the database as the Admin user by using a different
workgroup, but they won™t have any object permissions. This measure is discussed later in this
chapter in the section “Working with workgroups.”


Understanding permissions
The permissions in Jet security are defined at the object level; each object, such as a form or
report, has a specific set of permissions. The system administrator defines what permissions
each user or group of users has for each object. Users may belong to multiple groups, and
they always inherit the highest permission setting of any of the groups to which they belong.
For example, every table object has a set of permissions associated with it: Read Design,
Modify Design, Read Data, Update Data, Insert Data, Delete Data, and Administrator. (See
Table 22-1, later in this chapter, for a complete list of permissions and their meanings.) The
database administrator has the ability to assign or remove any or all of these permissions for
Chapter 22 ¦ Adding Security to Access Applications 517

each user or group of users in the workgroup. Because the permissions are set at the object
level, the administrator may give a user the ability to read data from Table A, as well as
read data from and write data to Table B, but prevent the user from even looking at Table C.
In addition, this complexity allows for unique security situations, such as having numerous
users sharing data on a network, each with a different set of rights for the database objects.
All security maintenance functions are performed from the Tools_Security menu item
(see Figure 22-1).




Figure 22-1: All Jet security functions are performed from the Tools_Security menu.


Understanding security limitations
You need to be aware of the fact that you can™t depend on the Jet security model to be
foolproof. For example, security holes have been discovered and exposed in previous
versions of Access ” in effect, unprotecting every database distributed under the
assumption that the code and objects were protected. The amount of resources involved in
developing an application is often huge, and protecting that investment is essential. The
most that you can do for protection is to fully and properly implement the Jet 4.0 security
model and use legally binding licensing agreements for all of your distributed applications.
Unfortunately, the security of your databases is at the mercy of software hackers.
As of the printing of this book, Microsoft has released the Microsoft Jet 4.0 Service Pack 7
update, which provides an updated sandbox mode. Sandbox mode allows Microsoft Office
Access 2003 to block potentially unsafe expressions. In fact, if you do not install this service
pack, some features in Office Access 2003 will not function properly.
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Tip You should monitor the Microsoft Update service on the Web at h t t p : / /
office.microsoft.com/ProductUpdates/default.aspx to keep your
Windows operating system and Office programs up to date.

We recommend that you use Microsoft Access security to lock up your tables and prevent
access to the design of your forms, reports, queries, and modules. However, if you want to
control data at the form level ” for example, suppose that you want to hide controls or
control access to specific form-level controls or data ” you have to write your own security
commands. You can also use the operating system (Windows) to prevent access to the
directories.


Choosing a Security Level to Implement
As an Access developer, you must determine the level of security appropriate for your
application ” not every database needs user-level security. If your application contains non-
sensitive data or is implemented in a fairly low-risk workgroup, you may not need the
powerful permission protection of Jet™s security. For applications that need to be secure, you
need to make the following decisions:
. Which users are allowed to use the database?
. Can individual users be categorized into similar groups?
. Which objects need to be restricted for individual users or groups?
After you have made these determinations, you are ready to begin implementing security
in your application. Access includes a tool to help you implement security ” the User-
Level Security Wizard (available from the Tools_Security menu choice). This chapter
teaches you how you can implement security by using Access™s interface; each security
element is discussed in detail. A thorough understanding of the workings of the security
model is essential in developing well-secured applications. (The wizard is discussed later
in this chapter.)



Creating a Database Password
You can use Jet security at its most basic level simply by controlling who can open the
database. You control database access by creating a password for the databases that you
want to protect. When you set a database password for a database, users are prompted to
enter the password each time they attempt to access the database. If they don™t know the
database password, they are not allowed to open the database. When using this form of
security, you are not controlling specific permissions for specific users; you are merely
controlling who can and can™t access the secured database.
Chapter 22 ¦ Adding Security to Access Applications 519

To create a database password, follow these steps:
1. In Access, open the Chap34Start.mdb database exclusively.


You must open the database exclusively in order to set the database password. To open the
Note
database exclusively, select the Open Exclusive button from the Open pull-down menu in
the lower-right corner of the Open dialog box, as shown in Figure 22-2.




Figure 22-2: Opening a database in exclusive mode.

2. Select Tools_Security_Set Database Password (refer to Figure 22-1).
3. In the Password field, type the password that you want to use to secure the database
(see Figure 22-3). For this example, use the password bible. Access does not display
the password; rather, it shows an asterisk ( * ) for each letter.




Figure 22-3: Creating a database password is the simplest way to secure your database.
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4. In the Verify field, type the password again. This security measure ensures that you
don™t mistype the password (because you can™t see the characters that you type) and
mistakenly prevent everyone, including you, from accessing the database.


For maximum security, when entering a password, you should follow standard password
Tip
naming conventions. That is, you should make the password a combination of letters and
numbers that won™t represent any easily known or deduced combination. People often un-
wisely use a birthday, their name, their address number, or a loved one™s name, which are all
poor choices for passwords because another person could deduce them fairly easily. On the
other hand, you shouldn™t make the password so difficult to remember that you and others
accessing the database will have to write it down to use it. A written password is a useless
password.

5. Click OK to save the password.

Caution

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