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You can clear tab stops either individually or as a group. You can also clear tabs using the
Tabs dialog box whether you originally set the tabs using this dialog box or the ruler.
To clear tabs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs to display the Tabs dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click Clear All to clear all of the tab stop settings.
• Select the tab that you want to delete from the Tab Stops list, and then click Clear.
Repeat this process to clear additional tab stops. As you select tab stops to clear
and then click Clear, the tab stops that you remove are listed in the Tab Stops to
be Cleared area at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click OK.

Changing the default tab stops
By default, Word has preset tabs every 1/2-inch. When you set a custom tab, however, all
of the preset tabs to the left of that custom tab are cleared. Use the Tabs dialog box to
change the default tab stop interval if you routinely use the preset tabs but don™t like the
default setting. Note that custom tab stops that you may have set for existing paragraphs
aren™t affected.
To change the default tab stops, display the Tabs dialog box. In the Default Tab Stops box,
type a new default tab interval or click the up or down arrow to change the number in the
box. Then click OK. Note that this changes the default for the current document only, not
for all documents.


Setting Indents
With indenting, you can set off a paragraph from other text. Figure 2-12 shows paragraphs
formatted with different indents. Don™t confuse page margins with paragraph indents,
however. Margins specify the overall width of the text and the area between the text and
the edge of the page, whereas indents move the paragraph™s text in or out from the left and
the right margins. You can indent paragraphs in the following ways:
. Indent paragraphs from the left, right, or both margins to set those paragraphs off
from other text.
. Use negative indents to run text into the left or right margin.
. Indent only the first line of a paragraph, which is commonly used as a substitute for
pressing Tab at the beginning of each new paragraph.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 23

. Create a hanging indent, which hangs the first line of a paragraph to the left of the
rest of the paragraph. (In other words, every line except the first line is indented.)
Hanging indents are often used in bulleted and numbered lists, footnotes, and
bibliographic entries.
. Create nested indents, which are indentations within indentations.




Figure 2-12: Examples of indented paragraphs.

Word provides several ways to create indents. You can indent paragraphs using the
Formatting toolbar, the ruler, shortcut keys, or the Paragraph dialog box. Indenting with the
Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys, however, depends on tab-stop settings. If you haven™t
changed Word™s default 1/2-inch tab stops, you can create indents at 1/2-inch intervals
using the Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys.

You can use hanging indents to create a bulleted or a numbered list, but with Word™s
bullets and numbering features, you can create such lists automatically ” including the
Note
bullets and the numbers. Working with bulleted and numbered lists is explained later in
this chapter.


Setting indents using the Formatting toolbar
The Formatting toolbar includes two buttons for indenting paragraphs to the next tab stop:
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent (see Figure 2-13). Use these buttons to create left
indents only; you cannot create first-line or hanging indents with these buttons. To indent
or to remove indents from paragraphs using the Formatting toolbar, position the insertion
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
24

point in the paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to adjust. Click the Increase
Indent button to indent text to the next tab stop, or click the Decrease Indent button to un-
indent text to the previous tab stop. You can click either button as many times as you want
to continue moving the indentation to the next tab stop.



Figure 2-13: The Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons of the Formatting toolbar


Setting indents using the ruler
You can create any kind of indent using the ruler, which contains triangular indent markers
at the left and right margins. Table 2-5 shows and describes each of these indent markers.
You can drag them in either direction along the ruler to set indents. At the left margin, the
top triangle represents the first-line indent and the bottom triangle represents the left indent.
Both the top and bottom triangles move independently, but you can use the square below
the bottom triangle to move the first-line and left-paragraph indents at the same time. At
the right margin, the triangle represents the paragraph™s right indent.

Table 2-5
Indent Markers on the Ruler
Drag To Set

First-line indent


Left indent


First-line and left indents


Right indent


To set indentations using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Do one of the following:
• To set a first-line indent, drag the First Line Indent marker to the position where
you want the indentation.
• To set a left indent, drag the square below the Left Indent marker to the position
where you want the indentation. (Note that the top triangle moves as well.)
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 25

• To set a right indent, drag the Right Indent marker to the position where you want
the indentation.
• To set a hanging indent with the first line at the left margin, drag the Left Indent
marker to a new position on the ruler.
You can press and hold the Alt key while dragging to get more control; you™ll be able to
move the controls smoothly and drop them at any position rather than the default
gradations. You can also see exact measurements on the ruler as you drag.

When you drag the Left Indent or First Line Indent marker to the left of the left margin,
Tip the ruler automatically scrolls to the left. If you want to scroll into the left margin on the
ruler without moving the indent markers, first make sure that you™re in Normal view
(View_Normal). Then hold down the Shift key as you click the left scroll arrow on the
horizontal scroll bar.


Setting indents using keyboard shortcuts
You can create indents using keyboard shortcuts as well. Keyboard shortcuts rely on
existing tab settings to determine the position of the indents. To create indents using
keyboard shortcuts, position the insertion point in a paragraph or select the paragraphs that
you want to indent. Then press one of the keyboard shortcuts listed in Table 2-6.

Table 2-6
Keyboard Shortcuts for Indenting Paragraphs
Keyboard Shortcut Type of Indention
Ctrl+M Moves the left indent to the next tab stop.

Ctrl+Shift+M Moves the left indent to the preceding tab stop.

Ctrl+T Creates a hanging indent.

Ctrl+Shift+T Moves the left indent to the previous tab stop, but the first
line remains in its current position.


Here™s another way to set indents, although one that™s a little irritating to some users.
Tip Choose Tools_AutoCorrect Options and click the AutoFormat as You Type tab. Make
sure that the Set Left- and First-Indent With Tabs and Backspaces check box is se-
lected. Now, when you press Tab and then type a paragraph, you™ll be setting the indent
for that paragraph.


Setting indents using the Paragraph dialog box
You can use the Paragraph dialog box to set any type of indent. One advantage of using this
dialog box is that you can enter precise measurements instead of just eyeballing the text
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
26

alignments with ruler measurements. You can also create indents using measurements other
than decimal inches. To create a six-point left indent, for example, type 6 pt in the Left
Indentation box. To create a left indent of two centimeters, type 2 cm. To create a left
indent of one pica, type 1 pi. (There are six picas in 1 inch and 12 points in one pica.)
To set indentations using the Paragraph dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu (Shift+F10),
to open the Paragraph dialog box. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To create a paragraph indent, type or select a value in the Left or Right Indenta-
tion text box. The Indentation group in the Paragraph dialog box lists three
options: Left, Right, and Special. (Table 2-7 describes these indentation options.)
The Preview box shows the effect of your choice.
• To create a first-line or a hanging indent, select First Line or Hanging from the
Special list box. Then type or select a value in the By text box to specify the first-
line or hanging-indent measurement.
4. Click OK.

Table 2-7
Indentation Options
Option Action
Left Indents selected text from the left margin. If the amount to indent is a positive
number, the paragraph is indented inside the left margin; if the amount is a
negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the left margin (some
times called outdenting).

Right Indents selected text from the right margin. If the amount to indent is a
positive number, the paragraph is indented inside the right margin; if the
amount to indent is a negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the
right margin.

Special Indents the first line (or lines) of selected text from left indent used by
subsequent lines (or from the left margin if no indent is made). Click the down
arrow to select First Line or Hanging. First Line shifts the first line to the right
of subsequent lines, while Hanging moves the first line to the left of subse-
quent lines. The default indent is 1/2-inch. Change the indent by typing a new
number or by using the up- or down-arrow key.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 27


Bordering and Shading Paragraphs and Pages
A border can be a box surrounding a paragraph on all sides or lines on one or more sides of
the block of text. Shading fills a paragraph (with or without borders) with a background
pattern. If you™re planning to print on a black and white printer, you™ll probably want to
stick to black, white, and gray for your lines and backgrounds, but Word does allow you to
use different colors. Figure 2-14 shows samples of different borders applied to paragraphs.




Figure 2-14: Examples of borders.

Like all forms of paragraph formatting, borders belong to the paragraphs in which they are
applied. In other words, they carry forward when you press Enter at the end of a paragraph.
If a group of paragraphs is formatted with a box around them and you press Enter at the
end of the last paragraph, your new paragraph falls within the same box as the previous
paragraph. To create a new paragraph outside of the border, move the insertion point
outside the border before you press Enter, or just press Enter and then press Ctrl+Q to
return the new paragraph to the default paragraph setting.
The width of a paragraph box, or of the line if you just created a horizontal line rather than
a box, is determined by the paragraph indent and margins. The line or box begins at the left
text position ” the left margin or, if set, the left indent ” and ends at the right text
position ” the right margin or indent.
To place several paragraphs in a single box or to give them the same background shading,
make sure that all of the paragraphs have the same indents. If you select and then box or
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
28

shade several paragraphs with different indents, each paragraph appears in its own separate
box or shading. To make paragraphs with different indents appear within a single box or
background shade, you must create a table, put each paragraph in a row by itself, and then
format a box around the table.

Sometimes the screen inaccurately shows text as extending beyond borders or shading.
This situation results from screen fonts and screen resolutions, which differ from printer
Note
fonts and resolution. Your printed text does format within the border or shading even if it
doesn™t display correctly on the screen.

The same border and shading options for paragraphs can be applied to an entire page as well.
Tools for creating paragraph borders and page borders are located in the same dialog box.

Adding borders using the Borders toolbar
Word includes a Tables and Borders toolbar, as shown in Figure 2-15, for applying borders,
lines, and shading.




Figure 2-15: The Tables and Borders toolbar.

To add boxes or lines to paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, follow these
steps:
1. Click the Tables and Borders button on the Formatting toolbar, or choose
View_Toolbars and select the Tables and Borders toolbar. You can also right-click
on any toolbar and select Tables and Borders.
2. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
3. Click the Line style box down arrow, and choose a line style. If the Line style box is
not visible, drag the Tables and Borders toolbar so that you can see all of the options.
4. Choose the border that you want to add by clicking the Outside Border button then
selecting one of the border buttons that appears in the drop-down box (see Figure 2-16).




Figure 2-16: Border options in the Tables and Borders toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 29


Adding borders using the Borders and
Shading dialog box
You can also add borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box (see Figure 2-17). Table 2-8
explains the options in the Border tab. The Borders and Shading dialog box includes the
Options button, which displays a dialog box in which you can change the distance from a box
line to the surrounded text precisely. You can also specify a shadow or a three-dimensional (3-
D) border option. Special options for placing a border on an entire page are found here as well.




Figure 2-17: The Borders tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.


Table 2-8
The Borders and Page Borders Tab Options
Option Effect
None Removes an existing box.

Box Creates a box with identical lines on all four sides.

Shadow Creates a box with a drop shadow on the bottom and right sides.

3-D Creates a border with a 3-D effect.

Custom This button really isn™t very useful; in theory it combines any of the
previous effects with non-boxed border options, but in practice you should
probably ignore it.

Apply to Defines where the border will be applied, and the options vary between
the Borders and Page Borders tabs ” in the Borders tab you will see
Paragraph and, if you highlighted text within a paragraph first, Text.
Continued
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
30


Table 2-8 (continued)
Option Effect
Style Provides a variety of lines styles for you to choose from. Select a Style
first and then a line Width, and the Style list box changes to show that
style in the selected thickness.

This should probably be called Thickness, a less ambiguous term. Allows
Width
selection of various line thicknesses, ranging from 1/4 to 6 points.

Color Creates a line or a box in the selected color. Sixteen colors and gray
shades are available. If you select the Auto option, the default color for
text is used, generally black.

Art Allows selection of various page borders, including over 150 different
icons and ornamental designs. The Art list box appears only on the Page
Border tab.


To add a border using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading dialog box
appears. Click the Borders tab. If you plan to apply a border to a page or a group of
pages (rather than to paragraphs), click the Page Border tab in the Borders and
Shading dialog box and select from the Apply To drop-down list box.
3. Select one of the line styles from the Styles list, or click one of the Settings boxes to
select a style and apply the lines around the box at the same time.
4. If you wish you may also select a line color from the Color drop-down, and a line
thickness from the Width drop-down.
5. Do one of the following:
• Click one of the buttons to the left and underneath the Preview image to place a
line in the associated position.
• Click inside the Preview image itself to place a line on one of the edges.
• If you selected multiple paragraphs, you™ll notice that the Preview image shows
two paragraphs, separated by a blank line; you can create a line between para-
graphs by clicking this blank line in the Preview image.
6. Click OK.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 31


You can use different lines on different edges. Select your first line style, color, and
Tip
thickness. Then click on an edge of the square in the Preview box inside the Borders
and Shading dialog box; select another line and click on another edge; and so on.


Spacing between text and border
When you place a border around text, Word drops the border into place very close to the
text all around. This is sometimes very inconvenient, especially if you want to shade an
area below a heading or place a border around an entire page ” the text sits so close to the
border it looks bad in some cases.
You can adjust spacing between the text and the border, though. While working in the
Borders and Shading text box, click the Options button to see the Border and Shading
Options dialog box (see Figure 2-18). You can set the spacing here precisely.




Figure 2-18: Set spacing between borders and text here.

You can also use the mouse to change a border directly within your document. Move the
mouse pointer to the border line you want to adjust, and carefully place it directly over the
line ” the mouse pointer will change from an arrow to two lines with up and down arrows
(or left and right arrows if you are adjusting a vertical border). Drag the border to change
the space between the text and that border.

Placing borders around individual lines
Word allows you to place borders around individual lines of text. Select the text you want
to place the border around, and then create your borders using the Borders and Shading
dialog box. Notice that the Apply To drop-down list box shows the word Text, meaning that
Word will create a text border rather than a paragraph border.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
32

When you click OK, Word creates the border, placing a left border in front of the first
character you selected, and a right border after the last one. If you selected multiple lines of
text, each line has its own border around it.

Fitting a border within margins
When you create a box around a paragraph, the left and right edges of the box are placed
slightly outside the page margins (assuming the text hasn™t been indented, of course, in
which case the margins are slightly to the left and right of the indent positions).
You may want the borders to fall within, or exactly at, the page margins. To make a border
fit within the margins, indent the paragraph on both the left and the right side by the width
of the border. You can use the ruler, but you can be more precise using the Borders and
Shading dialog box.
To make borders fall on the margins using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow
these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. On the Borders tab, note the width (the thickness) of the border line in the Width
control.

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