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4. Click Options. The Borders and Shading Options dialog box then appears. Note the
spacing in the From Text boxes labeled Left and Right.
5. Click OK or Cancel twice to close both dialog boxes.
6. Choose Format_Paragraph. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
7. In the Left and Right boxes of the Indentation group, type the number of points
equal to the combined width of the border and the spacing specified in the Left and
Right values in the Border and Shading Options dialog box. For example, if the
border is three points thick and the entry in the From Text box is one point, enter
four points in the Left and Right boxes.
8. Click OK.

Removing or changing borders
You can remove borders either all at once or line by line. You can remove or change a
border using the Borders toolbar or the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To remove or change borders using the Borders toolbar, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Display the Tables and Borders toolbar by clicking the Borders button on the
Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 33

3. Do one of the following:
• Click the Outside Borders button, and choose no borders.
• Choose a new line style.
• Click the buttons for the boxes or borders that you want to add.
To remove or change borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading, and click the Borders tab. If you™re removing
borders applied to an entire page or to a group of pages, click the Page Border tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To remove a box border, select the None button in the Setting group.
• To remove individual border lines, click the button representing the line you want
to remove in the Preview image.
• To change a line, select the line that you want from the Style scroll box.
4. Click OK.

Adding shading
Shading in Word comes in various percentages of black (grays) and different colors, as
well as in various patterns. For each shade or pattern, you can select a foreground or a
background color. Colors are converted to shades of gray or patterns on a black-and-white
printer. You can use shading with borders so that a paragraph is surrounded by a line
and filled with shading, or you can use shading alone so that a paragraph is shaded but has
no border.
Working with shading requires playing with different configurations to find the one that is
most readable. As a general rule, however, the smaller the font size, the lighter you need to
make the paragraph shading. Applying bold to text may also help. To change the color of
text with a background shading, use the Font dialog box (Format_Font).

Fill versus pattern
Word lets you apply two forms of shading: fill and pattern. You can think of these as the
fill being the foundation, and the pattern being laid on top. Or the fill is the background
color, while the pattern is the foreground pattern or color. The fill is always a solid shade or
color. The pattern can be solid, but also may be an actual pattern of dots or lines.
Thus, you can have one color as a fill, and another color for the pattern ” a fill of light
yellow with a pattern of black lines on top, for instance. Of course, if you use a solid
pattern you won™t see the fill underneath.
Note also the difference between a fill for which you have selected No Fill and one for
which you have selected the color white. These are not the same thing. No Fill means the
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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paragraph has no background color; you can see through the text to the watermark below,
for example. If you use a white fill, the watermark would not be visible under that
paragraph.
The same goes for the pattern. If you have any kind of pattern, even a white pattern, the
document background cannot be seen below the paragraph. Thus a Clear pattern is not the
same as a white pattern. Select Clear if you want to use a fill, but with no pattern or color
sitting on top.

Applying shading
You can apply shading using the Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box (see
Figure 2-19) or using the Tables and Borders toolbar.
To shade paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, position the insertion point in a
paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to shade. Click the Tables and Borders
button on the Formatting toolbar to display the Tables and Borders toolbar, and then click the
down arrow next to the Shading button to display a palette of fill colors. Choose the color of
shading and the pattern that you want.




Figure 2-19: The Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.

To shade paragraphs using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
shade.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. Click the Shading tab.
4. Select a Fill color (click the More Colors button if you don™t see the one you want
to use).
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 35

5. Select a Pattern Style. Style options include Clear (no pattern), Solid (completely
blocks both the Fill color and the document background), percentages (the density of
the Color shading), and striped as well as checkered patterns such as Dk Horizontal
(for dark horizontal stripes) and Lt Grid (for a grid made of light cross-hatching).
You can also apply light and dark trellises.
6. Select from the Color list to specify a color for the pattern you selected. The result of
your selection appears in the Preview box. Automatic is selected by default ” this
means that the pattern will be created using black or gray.
7. Click OK.

Adding horizontal lines
You can also place horizontal lines, also known as horizontal rules, on your pages. You
may want to use these lines in documents intended for printing, although the horizontal-line
feature really grew out of the Web. Because Web pages are not divided like typical printed
pages, horizontal lines are frequently used to divide Web pages. Word includes several clip-
art images that can be used as lines.
To insert a horizontal line, choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading
dialog box appears. Click the Horizontal Line button, and the Horizontal Line dialog box
appears (see Figure 2-20). The box will fill with images of horizontal lines, but it may take
a little while. These are being drawn from an online library (so if you are not connected
you may not see any, or many). If the box remains blank, try clicking on the scroll bar to
move down the list and the box may suddenly fill.




Figure 2-20: The Horizontal Line dialog box.
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There™s a search box, too. In theory, you can type a word ” star or arrow, for example ”
and then click Search to find a matching horizontal line. In practice, it may not be worth
the trouble. You can also click the Import button to load a file on your hard disk into the
list of lines.
When you see a horizontal line you like ” scroll down through the box to see more ”
click on it and click OK, or simply double-click it. The line will be placed into your
document at the insertion-point position.
Double-clicking the line image in your document displays the Format Horizontal Line
dialog box, which you can use to change the width, height, and alignment of the line.


Creating Bulleted or Numbered Lists
Bulleted lists help to distinguish a series of important items or points from the rest of
the text in a document, and numbered lists are often used for step-by-step instructions.
Word provides flexible, easy-to-use methods for creating bulleted and numbered lists
with a variety of formats. You can type the text for the bulleted or numbered list and
then apply the list formatting to the text, or you can place the insertion point in a blank
line, apply the bulleted or numbered list format to that line, and then type the list. Either
way, Word sets a 1/2-inch hanging indent after you select a list format, and Word adds
the bullet or number in front of each paragraph, in the selected text, or in each new
paragraph that you type.

You can create a numbered or bulleted list automatically as you type. At the beginning of
Tip a new paragraph, type a number or an asterisk followed by a space or a tab. Then, when
you press Enter to add the next item in the list, Word automatically inserts the next
number or bullet. To finish the list, press Enter followed by Backspace. This feature only
works, however, if Automatic Bulleted Lists and Automatic Numbered Lists are selected
in the AutoFormat As You Type tab of the AutoCorrect dialog box ” select
Tools_AutoCorrect.


Creating bulleted lists
Word offers seven standard bullet shapes: solid circle, empty circle, solid square, 3-D box,
diamond, arrow, and checkmark. If you want to use a heart, pointing hand, or other symbol,
you can select these bullets from any of your installed symbol fonts, such as Symbol,
Wingdings, Webdings, and Monotype Sorts. You can even select a bullet image from a
library of hundreds.
You can create a bulleted list using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-21)
or the Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 37




Figure 2-21: The Bulleted tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

To start a new bulleted list, simply place the insertion point where you plan to begin and
then click the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar ” Word automatically inserts a
bulleted-list entry using the solid black circle as a bullet. (To be more precise, it uses the
type of bullet you used the last time you created a bulleted list during the current session,
or, if it™s the first bulleted list in this session, it uses the solid circle.) Now simply start
typing, and each time you press Enter, Word moves the text to the next line and puts a
bullet at the beginning of that line, too.
If you want to specify a different bullet symbol, place the insertion point where you plan
to begin. Then choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, click the one you want to use,
and click OK. (We look at how to use a different bullet image, one that doesn™t appear in
this dialog box, in the next section).
You can also convert text that you have already typed to bulleted text. Simply place the
cursor in the paragraph you want to convert, or select several paragraphs, and click the
Bullets button or use the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
When you want to end a bulleted list, type the last entry, press Enter, and then press the
Delete key.

Note that when Word creates a bulleted list, it automatically sets up a hanging indent ”
now you can see the purpose of the hanging indent. You want the bullet to appear to the
Note
left of the text, so the first line has to hang out to the left. Take notice that if you right-
click on a bulleted list entry, the shortcut menu that appears has two extra commands,
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent; use these to adjust the position of the bulleted list
on the page.
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Customizing a bulleted list
You can customize a bulleted list in several ways:
. Picking another bullet image
. Modifying the position of the bullets
. Modifying the position of the text in the list

Picking another bullet image
To use another bullet image, open the Bullets and Numbering dialog box and click one of the
bullet-styles boxes. This is the style that you will be replacing with your new bullet. Click the
Customize button and the Customize Bulleted List dialog box opens (see Figure 2-22).




Figure 2-22: The Customize Bulleted List dialog box.



Notice the Reset button in the Bullets and Numbering box. This button is enabled if the
Tip
bullet-style box you click on has been modified. Clicking Reset changes the box to the
default.

You now have three ways to select another bullet image. You can select a Bullet Character
and modify the character™s font, you can select a special character, or you can select a
bullet image.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 39


Modifying a bullet™s font
Click on one of the Bullet Characters at the top of the Customize Bulleted List dialog box
(this may be a character that was already there when you opened the dialog box, or a
character you placed there using the Character button, which we™ll look at shortly). The
Font dialog box opens.
You can now modify the character ” change the size, make it bold or italic, use a different
font, even use one of the animation styles under the Text Effects tab. When you are
finished, click OK to close the Font box; then click OK again to close the Customize
Bulleted List box and place your selected character into your bulleted list.

Selecting a special character
If you click the Character button in the Customize Bulleted List dialog box the Symbol
dialog box opens. You can select a symbol from any of the typefaces on your system; in
particular, look at the Symbol, Webdings, and Wingdings typefaces.

Selecting a bullet picture
Click the Picture button, and the Picture Bullet dialog box opens (see Figure 2-23). This
functions in the same way as the Horizontal Line dialog box we looked at earlier in this
chapter. It slowly loads (it™s loading off the Internet) literally hundreds of bullet images. As
with the horizontal lines, these are really a Web feature, but there™s no reason you can™t use
the images in your print documents.




Figure 2-23: The Picture Bullet dialog box.
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Changing list positions
You can modify the position of the bullet and the text in the list. In the Customize Bulleted
List dialog box, modify the settings in the Bullet Position and Text Position boxes.
The Bullet Position setting defines how far to the right of the left margin the bullet should
be placed. The Tab Space After value defines at which point the text begins on the first line
” that is, how far Word tabs to the right after the bullet before starting the text. And the
Indent At value defines where subsequent lines of text appear. For example, if you set the
Bullet Position Indent At to 1" and the Text Position Indent At to 1", the bullet and the
subsequent lines of text are on the same vertical line.

Creating numbered lists
Numbered lists are created in a manner similar to bulleted lists, except that instead of
bullets Word places sequential numbers. This is a very useful feature, because if you add a
paragraph in the middle of a numbered list or rearrange the order of the paragraphs in a list,
Word automatically renumbers the paragraphs so that they retain their sequence. The
Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-24) offers seven
standard numbering formats and the ability to customize them. You can create a numbered
list in two ways: using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box or using the Numbering
button on the Formatting toolbar.




Figure 2-24: The Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

To create numbered lists, follow these steps:
1. Type your list, and then select it.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, or choose Bullets and Numbering from
the shortcut menu. Click the Numbered tab. Then select the numbering style that
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 41

you want from the predefined choices. Your choices include Arabic numbers,
Roman numerals, and letters, with periods, parentheses, or double parentheses to
separate the numbers from the list text. Click OK.
• Click the Numbered List button on the toolbar.
3. To add additional numbered items to your list, move the insertion point to the end of
a line formatted with a number and press Enter.
4. Move the insertion point to the end of the last numbered item in your list. Press
Enter and then Del, or press Enter and click the Numbering button on the Formatting
toolbar, to turn off the number formatting.

You can quickly convert a numbered list to a bulleted list by selecting the numbered list
Tip
and then clicking the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar, and vice versa.


Customizing numbered lists
You can customize an existing numbered list or apply your own specifications to the
number format using the Customize button in the Numbered tab of the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box. Click on one of the number-style boxes and then click the
Customize button to display the Customize Numbered List dialog box (see Figure 2-25).
Table 2-9 explains the Numbered List options in this dialog box.




Figure 2-25: The Customize Numbered List dialog box.
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Table 2-9
Numbered List Options
Option Action
Number format Types the characters, if any, that you want to come before each
number. If you want each number enclosed in parentheses, for
example, type an opening parenthesis before the number in this box.
Do not type over this number in this box! If you do so, even replacing
it with another number, you will break the automatic numbering; each
number in the list will be the same.
Number style Specifies the numbering style that you want. Choices include Arabic
numerals, uppercase and lowercase Roman numerals, uppercase and
lowercase alphabet letters, and word series (1st, One, and First). You
can also choose no numbers at all, killing the sequential numbering.
(Why? So that you can retain the indentation without the numbers.)
Font Specifies the special font or font attributes (such as bold, italic, and
underline) and the point size for the numbers. A standard Font dialog
box appears when this button is chosen.
Start at Indicates the starting number for your list. If you™re using a series of
lists, the starting number may be something other than 1.
Number position Chooses the alignment of the number at the Aligned At position. For
instance, if you select Left, the number begins at the Aligned At
position; if right, the number ends there.
Aligned at Sets the distance from the left margin that Word places the number.
Tab Space After The distance between the Aligned At number position and the text on
the first line.
Indent at The left-most position of the text on subsequent lines.

Restarting and continuing numbering
You can tell Word whether to restart or continue numbering. Notice, in the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box on the Numbered tab, the Restart Numbering and Continue Previous
List option buttons. When you use the dialog box to create a list, or when you open the box
while the list is selected, these option buttons are enabled and one is selected:
. Restart Numbering: Starts the numbering sequence over from 1. You might use
this to place two numbered lists one after the other. Word will want to continue the
second list with the next number in sequence from the previous list; this option tells
it not to. Also, there are times when Word gets a little confused and starts a brand
new list, many paragraphs away from the last list, with the next number in sequence.
This option slaps its hand and tells it not to.
. Continue Previous List: Tells Word you want to begin your list where the last one
left off. For instance, you may want to create a very long procedural description,
with paragraphs of unnumbered text within the list. This allows you to create lots of
individual numbered lists, but link them all together.
Chapter 2 ¦ Paragraph Formatting in Word 43


Tip Another way to use these commands is to right-click on the first entry in the list and
select from the pop-up menu Restart Numbering or Continue Numbering.


Adding unbulleted or unnumbered paragraphs to a list
Sometimes the topic of a bulleted list or a numbered item cannot be discussed conveniently
in a single paragraph. If you require more than one paragraph to describe a single topic in a
bulleted list, only the first paragraph for that topic should have a bullet. The remaining
subordinate paragraphs for that topic don™t need bullets, but they do need the same hanging
indent as the bulleted paragraphs in the list. There are a couple of ways in which you can
create these indented subordinate paragraphs:
. Press Shift+Enter to make a line break (press twice if you want a blank line between
the blocks of text) and continue typing. The new block of text will not be preceded
by a bullet or number because Word regards it as part of the same paragraph (and
only places a bullet or number at the beginning of each paragraph).
. Click on a line from which you want to remove a bullet or number; then click the
Bullets or Numbering button on the toolbar to do so. Then use the Left Indent
marker on the ruler to line up the text of the subordinate paragraph with the text of
the previous paragraph.

Ending bulleted or numbered lists
As mentioned previously, the formatting for a paragraph is stored in the paragraph mark.
Therefore, as with other paragraph formatting, the bulleted or numbered list format carries
forward each time you press Enter to begin a new paragraph. If you create a bulleted list
by pressing Enter, you need to end the bullet or numbered list formatting when you finish
with the list. To end a bulleted or numbered list, press Enter at the end of a list and take
one of the following actions:
. Press Delete to remove the number and bullet, leaving the insertion point on the
line immediately below the last list entry and moved back to the style™s left
margin.
. Press Enter again. The same as pressing Delete, except that you™ll get a blank
line between the list and the line on which the insertion point is placed.
. Press Backspace to remove the bullet and place the insertion point on the line
below the last entry, at the bullet position.
. Press Ctrl+Shift+N return to the Normal style.
. Press Ctrl+Q to return to whatever style was applied to the text immediately
before you began the bulleted or numbered list.
. Click the Bullets button to remove the bullet or the Numbering button to
remove the number from the paragraph, returning the insertion point to the
style™s left margin.
Part I ¦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
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Creating outline numbered lists
Outline numbered lists are similar to numbered or bulleted lists, but in these multilevel lists,
the number or bullet of each paragraph changes according to its level of indention. With

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