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genealogy, 26, 46, 60, 70, 143
ethics, and ethicists, 3, 10, 18, 21 , 25, 37,
generations, 144, 146. See also parent and
170
child; grandparent and grandchild
Eurasian kinship systems, 46
generative connotations, 148, 149, 156
Euro-American, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 20, 21 , 26, 27,
genes, and genetics, 20, 26, 49, 138, 169. See
33, 42, 43, 129, 150, 152, 153, 154, 158, 160,
also human genome
161 , 163, 165, 171 , 185, 186
224 SUBJECT INDEX


Individual and Community Rights Advocacy
genetic connection as, 27, 166
Forum (ICRAF), 112, 113, 114, 190. See
determinism, 183
also case: ˜head pay™
diversity, 183
individual, person as, 10, 20, 24“30, 36, 37, 38,
heritage, 81 , 165. See also heredity
40, 41 , 43, 46, 47, 66, 73, 88, 95, 104, 116,
identity, 20, 28, 52, 165
157, 158, 167
information, and knowledge, 3, 35, 36, 48,
and society, 126, 180
74, 75, 81 , 170, 183
as subject and agent, 117
manipulation, 18
individual™s will, 153
origins, 72, 182
individualism, 9, 15, 17, 19, 20, 29, 46, 165
solidarity, 21 , 36
individuality, 20, 43
testing, 3, 20, 36, 37, 48, 183
indivisibility, 155, 157
˜genetic family™, 12, 20, 21 , 27, 71 , 72, 73, 75,
industrial revolution, 100
89, 165, 183
information technology, 95
gift, and commodity, 192
information, 20, 35, 36, 49, 62, 69, 72, 75, 99,
globalisation, 95
100, 101 , 124, 178, 183
grandparent and grandchild, 15, 16, 193, 195
about genetic make-up, 35
grandparents, 15, 16, 22, 28, 166, 167. See also
about kin, 69, 71
case: grandparents™ visiting rights
and knowledge, 62, 63, 71
group af¬liation, 142, 143
as kinship substance, 75
as property, 74
˜head pay™, as compensation payment, 114,
informed consent, 3, 5, 36, 75, 184
115, 123, 128. See also case: ˜head pay™
inheritance, 37, 59. See also heritage
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 152
initiation, ritual of, 41 , 122, 142, 144, 154
Heidegger, Martin, 185
injury, 114
hereditary disease, 36, 74, 95
inner capacities, 141 , 150
heredity, 20, 21 , 22, 72
innovation, 94, 100, 101 , 109, 189
heritage, 21 , 22, 103, 165
instrumental genre, 85
holistic, 41 , 45
instrumentalism, 90
homicide compensation, 123, 136, 146
intangible, notion of the, 101 , 151 , 152, 153,
household arrangements, 22, 26, 45, 168,
154
181
and the tangible, 147, 197
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act
intellect, ideology of, 89, 147, 154
(U.K., 1990), 118, 173
intellect, and will, 152
Human Genetics Commission (HGC), 3, 35,
intellectual procreation, 69
43, 81
intellectual property, viii, 25, 56, 105, 122, 136,
human genome, 20, 21 , 35, 165
149, 150, 151 , 161 , 165, 185
Human Organ Transplants Act (U.K., 1989),
intellectual property rights (IPR), regimes of,
119
34, 54, 56, 57, 70, 85, 87, 92, 100, 137, 145,
human rights,86, 111 , 112, 113, 129, 130, 131 ,133,
150, 160, 175, 197. See also copyright;
191 , 193
patent; moral rights
Human Tissue Act (U.K., 1961), 119
intending parent, 52, 53, 56, 166, 174, 176
intent, 82, 83, 175
Iatmul, Papua New Guinea,
to conceive, 83
Iceland, biogenetic project, 164
to marry, 68, 83
ICRAF. See Individual and Community
interior body. See inner capacities
Rights Advocacy Forum
internal powers, 144
image, 88, 89, 104, 105, 106, 121 , 122, 125, 129,
international community, 136, 146
132, 145, 150, 151 , 159, 188, 192, 196, 197
International Council for Science (ICSU), 33
imagination, 99
interpersonal relations. See personal
incest, 31
relations
indigenous knowledge, 138
225
SUBJECT INDEX


and kinship, 10
interests, as singular or plural, 137
French, 74, 192
as social or individual, 36
in United States, 164, 170
invention, 11 , 12, 13, 34, 39, 40, 44, 48, 56, 58,
of property, 160. See also intellectual
62, 87, 94, 95“108, 115, 173
property rights
and discovery, 34, 87, 109. See also
lawyers, 12
discovery; ˜science™s relation™
legal discourse, 29, 131
inventiveness, 7, 13, 89, 92, 109
legal knowledge, expressive and instrumental,
inventor, 92, 95, 101 , 137, 154, 158, 188, 198
86
IPR. See intellectual property rights
legal person, 155
IVF (in-vitro fertlisation) practices, 17, 19, 24,
legal right, 131 , 155
31 , 32, 168, 169
legal technique, 111
legal ˜thing™, 31 , 119
Johnson™s dictionary, 45
legal thinking, 29
legislation. See Acts of Parliament (U.K.);
Kamea, Papua New Guinea, 82“83, 87, 90, 91 ,
Model Law
198
Leibniz, Gottfried, 180
kin terminologies, 41 , 182
L´ vi-Strauss, Claude, 30, 47, 171 , 172
e
kinship, vii, 6, 7, 8, 9, 26, 27, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51 ,
liability, 112
59, 60, 64, 65, 69, 71 , 83, 84, 87, 127, 137,
life force, 93, 97, 98, 101 , 144, 154, 187
161 , 167, 180, 181 , 182. See also origins;
life, 96, 98, 102, 142, 147, 154, 157
English kinship
life-cycle payments, 123
and knowledge, 4, 48, 49, 57, 60, 67, 69, 70,
litigation, 31 , 51 . See also case in the courts
74, 75, 160
and law, 10
magic, 161
as scienti¬c. See ˜scienti¬c kinship system™
Malanggan ¬gures, New Ireland, Papua New
as traditional, 115
Guinea; Vanuatu, 88, 89, 92“108, 150, 160,
atom of, 172
184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 197
Euro-American, 8, 11 , 12, 27, 28, 167
Malanggan, as body, 93
relations, 36, 37, 147
Malanggan name, 154
studies, 6
male initiation. See initiation, ritual of
systems, 41 , 43, 82, 91 , 142, 181
marriage, 23, 40, 65, 75, 112, 123, 167
the ˜new™, vii
marriage rules, 144, 193
knowledge, 3, 10, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 83, 146, 151 ,
Marx, Karl, 180
153
masks, 93, 96, 160
and information, 8, 71
material things, 150, 152, 153
and kinship. See kinship and knowledge
materiality, 152
instrumental application of, 87
maternal kin, 112“114, 116, 121 , 122, 123, 124,
non-epistemic, 88
125, 127, 128, 140, 142, 159. See also
of the world, 5 passim, 5, 153
mother™s brother; sister™s child
parental, 5
mathematics, 143. See also arithmetic
right to use, 104
maturation rites. See initiation, ritual of
sacred, 196
means, and ends, 85, 90. See also ends, and
as technology, 151
means
knowledge practices, 33, 84, 85
media, debates in the, 7
Melanesian practices, 13, 89, 140, 161 . See also
labour, and labour power, 152
Papua New Guinea; Vanuatu
land claims, 83, 122, 144, 146, 160, 198
memory, 104, 105, 106, 150, 151 , 155
land, as productive, 59, 152
Mendelian inheritance, 3
law, viii, 10, 12, 13, 25, 29, 31 , 34, 85, 86, 88, 99,
mental conception, 55“57, 65, 176. See also
135, 146, 155, 157, 167, 168, 173, 189, 197
intending parent
and bodily processes, 168, 169
226 SUBJECT INDEX


Nekgini speakers (Reite), Papua New Guinea,
mental processes, 154
122, 148, 198
merographic connection, 168, 171
new genetics, 3, 15, 35
middle class, 44, 45, 190
New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, 87, 88,
families, 4, 28, 45
92“109, 150, 187, 189
in Papua New Guinea, 113
new reproductive technologies, 12, 71 , 186. See
mind, 126, 151 , 153, 154, 156, 170, 197
also assisted conception
Minj, Papua New Guinea, 112, 120, 127
NGO (non-governmental organisation), 112,
Model Law, for the protection of traditional
138. See also ICRAF
knowledge and expressions of culture
North Asia, 144
in the Paci¬c islands, 85, 86, 196, 198
nuclear family, 16, 18, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 26, 28,
modernity, 89, 92, 113, 116
31 , 166
modernity, and tradition. See tradition, and
Nuf¬eld Council on Bioethics, 117, 118“120,
modernity
165
molecular biology, 170
nurture, 90, 126, 127, 138, 141
money, 124, 136
nurture, and nature, 16
moral rights, in IPR, 54, 57, 75, 149, 174,
nurture, bestowal of, 63, 141
198
moralities, 36, 131
object, and subject, 87, 153, 156
mortuary ceremony, 96, 97, 196
obligations, 48, 128, 129, 132
mortuary payments, 114, 123
of kinship, 112, 115, 117, 130
mortuary sculpture, 88
Omie, Papua New Guinea, 90, 142“147, 150,
mother, 69, 76, 83, 173
159, 160, 196
mother, and child, 4, 5, 6, 32, 84, 90, 175
one world, 5, 139, 177
mother, and fetus, 10, 169, 198
one blood, 83
mother™s brother, 124, 159, 172. See also
ontology, 140, 141 , 145, 154, 159, 195
maternal kin; sister™s child
and epistemology, 42, 46
Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guinea Highlands,
opposite sex relations. See cross-sex
111 , 120, 196
relations
multiple claims, among persons, 137, 157, 160.
organs, human, 117, 120, 191
See also authorship, multiple
originality, 17, 99, 108
multiple identities, 96, 121 , 126, 129, 157. See
originator, 56, 57, 60, 136, 145, 148, 198
also several persons
origins, 11 , 56, 69, 72, 81 , 90, 137, 142, 146, 148,
multiple origins, 81 , 149, 161
156, 157, 159, 175
multiplication, 143
ornaments, 89, 142, 145, 146, 151
multiplicity, types of, 137
ornaments, bestowal of
Murik, Sepik River, Papua New Guinea, 90,
ova donation. See egg donation
138“142, 150, 159, 160
ownership,21 , 29, 86, 88, 102, 103, 104, 117,136,
139, 144, 147, 150, 161 , 194
names, 150, 154, 196
ownership, communal, 160, 194, 198. See also
Napoleonic Code, 24
community
natural, 9, 18, 55, 116
Melanesian notions of, 90
facts, 87
of body, 77, 116“120, 194
parent, 55, 166
of images, 97, 125, 151
science, 38, 39
of person, 116“120, 159, 194
systems, 45
of things, 153
nature, 11 , 13, 94, 95, 101 , 102, 108
problems with, 74
and culture, 12, 48, 84, 87, 91 , 115, 168. See
owning children. See property, children as
also ˜science™s relation™
and society, 95, 139
Paci¬c cultural property, protection of. See
and technology, 103
Model Law
world of, 4
227
SUBJECT INDEX


pharmacogenetics, 35, 170
painting, of carvings, 98
political economy, 40
Papua New Guinea, 96, 100, 111 , 112, 118, 129,
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 87
132, 137, 142, 145, 147, 160, 190
possession, 104, 119, 148
Papua New Guinea Highlands, 120, 126
possessive individual, 156
Papua New Guinea National Cultural
pregnancy, 141 , 180
Commission, 160
pregnant woman, the person of, 155, 169
parent, and child,66, 71 , 105, 142, 163, 168,178,
privacy, 36, 73, 76, 89
182
private property, 21 , 100, 102, 103
parent™s right to raise children, 16
property, 41 , 46, 59, 85, 90, 104, 117, 125, 135,
parentage, 69, 81 , 167
150, 152, 154, 177
parental intention, at conception. See
in anatomical specimens, 119
intending parents
children as, 56, 57, 58, 138, 144, 177
parents and children, numbers of, 82
common, 165, 198
parents™ decisions, judgement on, 19
enhancing personhood, 152, 155
partibility, 129, 168
in body parts, 117, 191
partible persons, 121 , 125“129
in the body, 191
parts, and wholes, 89, 118“125, 155
in gametes, 118
parts, of body. See body parts
in oneself, 149, 156
past, and future, 97, 98
persons as, 29, 136, 154
Patent Of¬ce (United Kingdom) 107, 189
public v. private, 21
patent, 87, 88, 89, 99“109, 116, 136, 180, 188
property rights, 54, 55, 56, 58, 99, 101 , 102, 118,
patent, as paradigmatic of IPR, 99
136, 155, 156, 157
patent law, 21 , 100, 115, 117, 187, 196
property thinking, 89, 177
patenting, of human genes, 21 , 52
Property, Transactions and Creations: New
paternal kin, 140, 142
Economic Relations in the Paci¬c (PTC)
paternity, and metaphors of, 52, 57, 58, 59, 60
research project, ix
paternity testing, 48
Public Understanding of Science, 33
patronage, 58
payment, as refugees, 128
re-birth, 144
for song, 148. See also compensaion
recombinant DNA, 6, 25, 26, 30, 101
performance, rights in, 149
˜recombinant families™, 23, 24, 26, 27, 48
person, 41 , 47, 168, 190, 193
recombinant process, 25
˜dispersed™, 126
recombination, 22, 28, 31
and thing, 87, 111 “133, 136, 192
recomposition, 23, 24, 27
as individual, 152, 154
regenerative capacity, 147
as property, 29, 86, 88, 111 “133, 136
rei¬cation, 94, 121 , 129, 191 , 192
fetus as, 169
Reite. See Nekgini speskers
owning him or herself, 156
relatedness, 72, 76
personal information, 12, 36
relating, two modes of, 6, 7, 12, 62. See also
personal, and categorical relations, 7, 8
duplex
personal, and conceptual relations, 11 , 12, 14,
˜relation™ (for kinsfolk), 64“67
86
relation, 8, 40, 51 , 52, 62, 75, 88, 126, 132, 170,
personhood, Euro-American, 152
180

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