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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Preface

Part I”An Overview of Projects and Their Effective and Successful
Title
Management

Chapter 1”Project Management in Today™s World of Business
----------- Project Management Defined
Classical vs. Behavioral Approaches to Managing Projects
The Project Cycle and Tts Phases
Project Success or Failure

Chapter 2”A Wedding in Naples: Background Information on Our
Case Study
Organizational Structure
General Nature of the Business
An Opportunity Arises
The Initial Process
Selection of the Project Manager
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 3”The Qualities of Good Leadership
What Leaders Do
When Leadership Falters or Is Missing
Are Leaders Born or Made?


Part II”The Basic Functions of Project Management
Chapter 4”The Vision Statement and Motivating for Project Success
Providing the Project Vision
Communicating the Vision
Keeping People Pocused on the Vision
Facilitating and Expediting Performance
Motivation to Participate
Team Building
Team Diversity
The Project Manager as a Motivator
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 5”The Statement of Work and the Project Announcement
The Statement of Work
Introduction
Scope
Assumptions
Constraints
Performance Criteria
Product/Service Description
Major Responsibilities
References
Amendments
Signatures
The Project Announcement
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 6”The Work Breakdown Structure
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 7”Techniques for Estimating Work Times
The Benefits and Challenges of Estimating Work Times
Types of Estimating Techniques
Factors to Consider in Drawing Up Estimates

Chapter 8”Schedule Development and the Network Diagram
What Scheduling Is
Task Dependencies and Date Scheduling
Perry™s Scheduling Method
The Float
Other Types of Network Diagrams
The Schedule as a Road Map

Chapter 9”Resource Allocation”Aligning People and Other
Resources With Tasks
1. Identify the Tasks Involved
2. Assign Resources to Those Tasks
3. Build a Resource Profile
4. Adjust the Schedule or Pursue Alternatives
How Perry Levels the Load
Consultants and Outsources
Summing Up Resource Allocation

Chapter 10”Team Organization
Ten Prerequisites for Effective Organization
Types of Organizational Structure
Virtual Teams
SWAT Teams
Self-Directed Work Teams

Chapter 11”Budget Development and Cost Calculation
Different Kinds of Costs
Direct vs. Indirect Costs
Recurring vs. Nonrecurring Costs
Fixed vs. Variable Costs
Burdened vs. Nonburdened Labor Rates
Regular vs. Overtime Labor Rates
How to Calculate Costs
What Happens If Cost Estimates Are Too High?
The key: Identifying and Managing Costs
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 12”Risk Management
Managing Risk: A Four-Step Process
Exposure
Categories of risk
Key Concepts in Risk Management
Ways to Handle Risk
Risk Reporting
The Key: Risk Management, Not Elimination

Chapter 13”Project Documentation: Procedures, Forms, Memos, and
Such
Procedures
Flowcharts
Forms
Reports
Memos
Newsletters
History files
Project Manual
The Project Library
Determining the Paper Trail™s Length

Chapter 14”Team Dynamics and Successful Interactions
Set Up the Project Office
Conduct Meetings
Give Effective Presentations
Apply Interpersonal Skills
Being an Active Listener
Reading People
Deal With Conflict Effectively
Getting Teamwork to Work
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 15”Performance Assessment: Tracking and Monitoring
Collect Status Data
Methods of Collection
Data Validity and Reliability
Assess Status
Determining Variance
Earned Value
Making Performance Assessment Count
Questions for Getting Started

Chapter 16”Quality Assessment: Metrics
Introduction to Metrics
The Collection and Analysis of Data
The Results of Data Analysis
Summing Up Quality Assessment

Chapter 17”Managing Changes to the Project
Managing Change
Replanning
Contingency Planning
Summing Up Change Management

Chapter 18”Project Closure
Learning From Past Experience
Releasing People and Equipment
Recognizing and Rewarding People
Some Guidelines for Future Projects
Questions for Getting Started


Part III”Project Management Enhancement

Chapter 19”Automated Project Management
Personal Computing Systems
Distributed Integrated System
Telecommuting
Mobile Computing
Groupware Computing
Web Technology
Videoconferencing
Project Automation: Recognizing the Limitations
Questions for Getting Started

Appendix A

Glossary

References

Index



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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Preface
Well into the swiftly approaching millennium, project management will continue to be a highly desired skill
in the midst of great change. Because rigid organizational boundaries and responsibilities have blurred and
----------- new technologies are changing the ways of doing business, results must be delivered more quickly and
accurately than ever before. These circumstances call for people who can deal with ambiguity and time
pressures while simultaneously accomplishing project goals”in other words, people who display excellence
in project management.
In this book, we present the route to achieving the knowledge and expertise that will help you display
excellence in project management, on any type of project in any industry. Using a wedding-business case
study, we present the basic principles, tools, and techniques so that readers can easily understand and apply
the material.
Starting with Chapter 2, you™ll learn the six basic functions of project management. You™ll learn how to:
1. Lead a project throughout its cycle; it™s so important that it is the first topic.
2. Define a project™s goals and objectives so everyone agrees on the results and knows success when
they see it.
3. Plan a project in a way that results in a road map that people will confidently follow, not just the
project manager.
4. Organize a project in a manner that increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the team, resulting
in greater productivity.
5. Control a project so that its momentum and direction are not overtaken by “scope creep.”
6. Close a project in a manner so that it lands smoothly rather than crashes.
The book comprises three major parts. Part I establishes the fundamentals of project management, with an
overview of the field today, provides information on the wedding case study, and provides a general look at
what constitutes leadership. Part II is the heart of the volume, with chapters covering the key issues that face
project managers today. Based on the six functions just listed, these chapters discuss setting up your project
structure, assessing its progress, and achieving its goals. We cover such topics as working with new teaming
structures and styles, motivating people, estimating costs, and dealing with change. At the end of each chapter
is a series of questions that will help you apply your new knowledge to an existing or upcoming project.
Part III contains additional tips, such as how to work with new technologies and how to manage or decrease
risk. The Appendix material refers to the case study, the Glossary is a quick reference to special terms, and the
References are suggestions for further reading.
The authors have applied the principles, tools, and techniques in this book successfully in a wide variety of
projects: audit, construction, documentation, engineering, information systems, insurance, manufacturing,
support services/help desk, and telecommunications projects, as well as in other environments. The book is
based on our combined experience of more than fifty years in business management, operations, and
information systems. As the founders and executives of the consulting firm Practical Creative Solutions, Inc.,
of Redmond, Washington, we offer products, services, and training programs designed to meet the special
needs of our varied clients.
Project management works”if you know what it is and how to do it. After reading this book, you will be able
to join the ranks of effective and successful project managers.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Part I
An Overview of Projects and Their Effective and
Successful Management
-----------

Chapter 1
Project Management in Today™s World of Business
The project manager has never had a tougher job. Companies are always in transition now, remodeling and
reorganizing to meet the latest global challenges. Competition is keen and only the flexible will survive.
These business conditions translate directly to the greater demands for efficient, effective management of an
entire spectrum of projects.
For example, a rise in use of distributed systems technology (e.g., client/server, Intranet, and Internet
computing) and telecommuting has accelerated the disappearance of organizational boundaries and
hierarchical management levels. Along with this blurring of organizational levels has come employee
empowerment. Many companies now grant employees greater responsibilities and decision-making authority
(e.g., self-directed work teams).
And the changes just don™t stop. Many companies view projects as investments, integral parts of their
strategic plans. This means the project managers must continually demonstrate their contribution to the
bottom line. With this alliance between strategic plan and project management comes an increasingly close
but often tense relationship between project and process management. Contrary to popular belief, project
management and process management are compatible; projects become integral players in using and
implementing processes. But failure to effectively manage a key project could cause a malfunction in the core
process! This relationship between process and project management also manifests itself in a need to integrate
multiple projects when they involve common core processes, thus requiring even greater integration to ensure
such processes are not adversely affected.
The nature of today™s workforce has changed in many companies. Employees are no longer offered or seek
long-term employment”many people and companies want flexibility or mobility. Such changes add a new
dimension to the work being done on a project”a dimension that directly affects relationships and ways of
doing business. And many projects now involve people from different occupations and backgrounds. The
globalization of the nation™s business, for instance, requires that a project manager™s skills go beyond being
able to put together a flowchart.
As the economy continues to expand, key resources will become limited and project managers will need
alternative ways to obtain expertise, such as by using consultants and outsourcing. Certainly, project
managers in the past have faced similar problems of providing alternative sources of expertise”but never on
as great a scale as they do today.
Market pressures complicate the management of projects, too. Customers not only want a quality product but
also want it sooner. Time-to-market pressures force project managers to be efficient and effective to an
unprecedented degree. The complexity involved in managing projects has never been greater and will likely
only grow in the future. So, too, will the risks for failure. It is more critical than ever that the pieces of the
project be in place to ensure delivery of the final service on time and within budget and to guarantee that it be
of the highest quality.
Tom Peters, the great management consultant, was correct when he said that project management is the skill
of the 1990s. But it is the skill of the future as well. The need for managing projects efficiently and effectively
has never been greater and so are the rewards for its success. But having good project management practices
in place will no longer suffice; what is required now is excellence in project management if project success is
to be the norm.

Project Management Defined
Despite a changing project environment, the fundamental tools of project management remain the same
regardless of project or industry. For example, managing a marketing project requires the same skills as
managing a software engineering project.
But what is a project? What is project management? A project is a discrete set of activities performed in a
logical sequence to attain a specific result. Each activity, and the entire project, has a start and stop date.
Project management is the tools, techniques, and processes for defining, planning, organizing, controlling,
and leading a project as it completes its tasks and delivers the results. But let™s take a closer look at the
functions of project management just mentioned.
• Lead To inspire the participants to accomplish the goals and objectives at a level that meets or
exceeds expectations. It is the only function of project management that occurs simultaneously with the
other functions. Whether defining, planning, organizing, or controling, the project manager uses
leadership to execute the project efficiently and effectively.
Introducing Project Management
The top management in some companies does not understand that project management is what is
needed. How do you convince people that project management will help them?
Introducing project management is a change management issue, even a paradigm shift. That™s
because project management disciplines will affect many policies, procedures, and processes. They
will also affect technical, operational, economic, and human resources issues. Such changes can be
dramatic, and many people”as in many change efforts”will resist or embrace change, depending on
how it is perceived.
Here are some steps for introducing project management within an organization.
1. Build an awareness of project management. You can distribute articles and books on the
subject and attend meetings sponsored by the Project Management Institute and the American
Management Association.
2. Establish a need for project management. Identify opportunities for applying project
management, particularly as a way to solve problems. Collect data on previous project
performance and show statistically and anecdotally how project management would have
improved results.
3. Benchmark. You can compare your organization™s experience with projects to that of
companies that have used project management.
4. Find a sponsor. No matter what case you can make for project management, you still need
someone with enough clout to support its introduction.
5. Select a good pilot. Avoid taking on too much when introducing the idea of project
management. Select a project that™s not too visible but also one that people care about. The
project serves as a proving ground for your new ideas.
6. Communicate the results. As the project progresses, let management know about its
successes and failures. Profile the project as a “lessons learned” experience.
7. Provide consultation on other projects. With the expertise acquired on your pilot project,
apply your knowledge to other projects. Your advice will enable others to see the value of
project management.
• Define To determine the overall vision, goals, objectives, scope, responsibilities, and deliverables of a
project. A common way to capture this information is with a statement of work. This is a document that
delineates the above information and is signed by all interested parties.
• Plan To determine the steps needed to execute a project, assign who will perform them, and identify
their start and completion dates. Planning entails activities such as constructing a work breakdown
structure and a schedule for start and completion of the project.
• Organize To orchestrate the resources cost-effectively so as to execute the plan. Organizing involves
activities such as forming a team, allocating resources, calculating costs, assessing risk, preparing
project documentation, and ensuring good communications.
• Control To assess how well a project meets its goals and objectives. Controlling involves collecting
and assessing status reports, managing changes to baselines, and responding to circumstances that can
negatively impact the project participants.
• Close To conclude a project efficiently and effectively. Closing a project involves compiling
statistics, releasing people, and preparing the lessons learned document.


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Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home

Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of
EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement.
Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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