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• Document the procedures?
• Place the procedures under configuration control?
• Seek feedback?
2. If developing flowcharts, did you:
• Identify the topics?
• Determine the types of diagrams to use?
• Issue standard templates?
• Determine whether the flowchart will supplement or replace a procedure?
• Distribute the flowchart?
• Seek feedback?
3. If developing forms, did you:
• Determine what forms you need?
• Design each form according to the characteristics described in this chapter?
• Determine how people can obtain a copy of the form?
• Determine how and where people can submit a completed form?
• Institute a way for people to provide feedback on the forms?
4. If developing reports, did you:
• Determine the necessary types of reports to use?
• Design each report according to the characteristics described in this chapter?
• Inform everyone who need to receive the reports?
• Develop a distribution list?
• Determine the frequency of generation for each report?
• Determine where to store the reports?
• Seek feedback from users?
5. If you need to prepare a memo, did you:
• include a date, subject title, address, signature block, and purpose statement?
• Answer the who, what, when, where, and why questions?
• Check for clarity, conciseness, directives, legibility, and structure?
6. If you decide to publish a newsletter, did you determine: Who will prepare the newsletter?
• The frequency of the publication?
• Who must review it prior to each publication?
• The topics?
• The layout?
• The method of distribution?
7. If you decide to have a project manual, did you:
• Determine the method for keeping the manual -- that is, hard copy, electronic copy, Web site?
• Determine the contents?
• Develop a structure, reflected in the form of a table of contents?
• Determine the number of copies?
• Select the mode of binding?
• Assign responsibilities for keeping the manual current?
• Set up a format for reviewing the contents?
• Seek feedback?
8. If you elected to set up project history files, did you:
• Determine the contents?
• Determine the organizational structure?
• Assign responsibility for maintaining them?
• Establish a procedure for accessing, removing and replacing them?
• Communicate their location and procedure for accessing, removing, and returning them?
9. If you decide to set up a project library, did you:
• Determine the contents?
• Determine the filing system?
• Assign responsibility for maintaining it?
• Establish a procedure for accessing, removing, and replacing material?
• Communicate the location and procedure for accessing, removing, and returning material?


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 14
Team Dynamics and Successful Interactions
The organization functions of the project manager™s job extend well beyond developing the team, allocating
-----------
resources, estimating costs, and providing documentation. The project manager also needs to set up the
elements for facilitating team dynamics”in other words, making it all work. This includes setting up a
project office, holding regular meetings, making presentations, and using people skills to encourage team
members to reach the project goal.

Set Up the Project Office
Since his project is comparatively large and has high visibility, Perry sets up a project office. Despite
employing a Web site and other computer technologies for communications, he™ll need a central location to
manage the efforts.
Perry™s ideal office has telephones, fax, and other communications equipment, as well as storage space for
hard-copy forms, the history files, and the project library. Since the project office will also be a meeting place
for team members, it has cubicles for working and conference rooms to hold meetings, training sessions, and
other project-related activities. There is equipment such as easel stands, overhead projector with extra bulbs,
screen, whiteboards, and tables with a sufficient number of chairs. In addition, the project office has tape,
writing instruments, paper, viewfoils, sticky notes, paper clips, easel pads, and the like.
While this all sounds like common sense, the reality is that many projects, even those with a project office,
lack such simple resources. Some advance planning in this regard can make managing the project much
smoother.
Often overlooked, too, is the realization that the project office is a communications center. It is like a
computer network control center where all information flows in and out. In this communications center is a
very important tool, called a visibility wall or visibility room. This wall or room is where all project
documentation is showcased. Perry puts on the walls of his visibility room his bar charts, maps, minutes of
key meetings, network diagrams, organization charts, photographs (e.g., recognition awards), process flows,
responsibility matrices, statements of work, technical drawings, and work breakdown structures. Essentially,
what goes on the walls depends on what Perry deems important for everyone to see.
When setting up a visibility room, Perry remembers the following points.
1. Plan in advance. On a sheet of paper, Perry draws a picture of what goes on which wall. This
prevents rework and reduces costs, especially if he is using high-quality graphics.
2. Keep the walls current. This way people have a reason to review the walls. The walls serve no
purpose if no one looks at them.
3. Use the walls. Perry will hold meetings in the room and refer to the items posted; his actions enforce
the importance of the information on the walls.

Conduct Meetings
There will be meetings frequently, and they will consume a large percentage of everyone™s time. These
meetings are usually one of three basic types: checkpoint reviews, status reviews, and staff meetings. In
addition, there are occasional ad hoc meetings.
The checkpoint review is held at specific points in time, usually after a red-letter day or significant event (e.g.,
completion of a major milestone). Its purpose is to determine what has been done and decide whether to
proceed or cancel the project. Exhibit 14-1 is an agenda from one of Perry™s checkpoint reviews.
The purpose of the status review is to collect information to determine progress in satisfying cost, schedule,
and quality criteria. The status review is held regularly (e.g., weekly or biweekly). Exhibit 14-2 is an agenda
from one of Perry™s status reviews.
Like the status review, the staff meeting is held regularly. All team members receive information from the
project manager and share additional data and insights. Exhibit 14-3 is an agenda from one of Perry™s staff
meetings.
The ad hoc meeting is held irregularly, often spontaneously by team members. The idea is to resolve an issue
or communicate information. Exhibit 14-4 is an agenda from one of the Smythe Project™s many ad hoc
meetings.
Whether conducting a staff meeting, status review, checkpoint review, or ad hoc meeting, Perry applies five
rules to ensure efficient and effective meetings.
Exhibit 14-1. Checkpoint review agenda.
Agenda
April 7, 19XX
I. Background
A. Previous red-letter events/milestones
B. Challenge in the past
II. Lessons regarding this event
A. Achievements/successes
B. Problems and challenges
C. Remaining issues
III. Decision whether to proceed as is, differently, or halt
IV. Remaining issues
V. Open forum

Exhibit 14-2. Status review agenda.
Agenda
February 28, 19XX
1. Input to status regarding:
A. Schedule
B. Budget
C. Quality
II. Issues and concerns regarding:
A. Schedule
B. Budget
C. Quality
D. Other
III. Open forum
IV. Next meeting

Exhibit 14-3. Staff meeting agenda.
Agenda
March 3, 19XX
I. Information
A. Announcements
B. Issues of concern
• Schedule
• Quality
• Budget
• Other
C. Recognition
D. Upcoming issues and events
E. Open Forum
F. Next Meeting
1. Prepare an agenda. He will follow an agenda like the ones in Exhibits 14-1 through 14-4. An agenda
is a logical listing of topics to cover. It keeps the meeting focused and ensures that it is productive.
2. Announce the meeting. He notifies attendees about the meeting in advance. Even if it is an ad hoc
meeting, he informs people about the purpose of the meeting.
3. Be prepared. He comes with the right supplies, equipment, and copies of documents to distribute.
This way there™s no last-minute searches for equipment or extra copies.
4. Encourage participation. He gives everyone the opportunity to contribute, but avoids letting anyone
dominate the meeting. He makes sure the meeting doesn™t become a platform for someone™s
pontification, including himself.
5. Take notes and distribute the minutes afterwards. By taking notes and converting them into minutes,
he communicates the importance of the meeting and increases the likelihood of people honoring their
commitments.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Give Effective Presentations
Title

Perry and his team will be giving presentations, either among themselves, to senior management, or to the
customer. These presentations require more than standing in front of people and talking. They involve
communicating.
-----------
Exhibit 14-4. Ad hoc meeting agenda.
Agenda
June 11, 19XX
I. Description of situation or problem
A. Previous red-letter events/milestones
II. Background details
A. Who
B. What
C. When
D. Where
E. Why
F. How
III. Alternative courses of action
IV. Select appropriate course of action
V. Plan to implement course of action
A. Who
B. What
C. When
D. Where
E. Why
F. How
VI. Follow-up meeting

Perry will likely have to give three fundamental types of presentations. The first is a presentation to persuade.
He will, for example, probably have to convince senior management to provide more resources. The second
type of presentation is to inform. He will probably have to communicate information, for example, to senior
managers about cost and schedule performance. And the third type is to explain. For example, he might have
to instruct people on project management tools and techniques.
Of course, team members will likely have to give the same types of presentations. Whether you are a project
manager or team member, as a presenter you must follow six fundamental steps:
1. Know yourself and the audience. Find out about the audience to ascertain your commonalities and
differences. You can get useful information, for example, by interviewing people who know audience
members. Follow up by making a list of what you share and don™t share with the audience. This
knowledge will prove useful in preparing the presentation.
2. Perceive your audience and how it perceives you. Look at ways to influence the audience to see you
in a favorable light. This will make it easier to communicate your message. You can win the audience
over, for example, by expressing values or experiences you share with its members.
3. Determine the type and structure of the presentation. Answer all the who, what, when, where, and
why questions pertaining to your topic. Determine if your presentation is meant to inform, persuade, or
explain. Then formulate your overall strategy to achieve the goal of your presentation, and your tactics
for executing that strategy.
4. Develop the material. Build your presentation. Determine the content and logically arrange it. For
example, you can arrange topics chronologically or by level of importance. Also incorporate visual
aids, statistics, and other materials.
5. Rehearse. Practice as if you were actually giving the presentation”do a dry run. Try to improve
your delivery. This is also the time to become familiar with the location for the presentation”room
size, lighting, sound equipment, and so on. Rehearse there, if you can.
6. Deliver the presentation. You have polished your delivery, eliminated any poorly designed visual
aids and distracting mannerisms (e.g., pacing about with your hands in your pockets or playing with
pocket change). You should encourage and be prepared to answer questions. You might elicit questions
from a reluctant audience by asking a question yourself.

Apply Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal skills, also called people skills, play an integral part in the success of every project. Whatever
gets accomplished is done by people and their interactions, so interpersonal skills can seriously impact results.
Interpersonal relations embrace three primary skills: being an active listener, reading people, and dealing with
conflicts effectively.

Being an Active Listener

One of the best communication tools a project manager can have is active listening. It means listening
genuinely to what the speaker is saying”in short, focusing on what is said and how it is said.
Active listeners:
• Avoid interrupting the person except to clarify a point.
• Give listening cues (e.g., nod the head or use an expression) to indicate involvement in the
conversation.
• Are not preoccupied with something else during the conversation (e.g., working on documentation
while the other person talks).
• Do not change the topic abruptly during the conversation.
• Do not daydream while the other person talks.
• Pay as much attention to body language as to the oral message.
• Remove all distractions (e.g., radio playing in the background).
The key is to be active, not passive, by becoming fully engaged in what is being said.

Reading People
It would be nice to know the true motives of people; however, that is impossible, since many people are not
open and honest. Project managers, therefore, must identify the real issues and motivations of people.
Fortunately, there are tools to help project managers understand the motivations of people. Unfortunately,
these tools do not always work, owing to the vagaries of human nature. Still, many project managers find
them useful.
One tool is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for personality preferences. This identifies personality types
based on a combination of four preferences: extrovert (outward) versus introvert (inward), sensing (actual)
versus intuitive (sixth sense), thinking (structuring information) versus feeling (personal), and judging
(organized) versus perceiving (spontaneous). These categories are useful, but require a good understanding of
the preferences.
This approach does not specify which personality is better or worse or which one is good or bad. It states only
that people have a preference that is reflected in the way they deal with reality, their environment, and their
relationships. An excellent resource for using this indicator is Please Understand Me: Character and
Temperament Types, by David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates.
Another popular tool is Abraham Maslow™s hierarchy of needs, described in Chapter 4. This model is easier
to use, since it identifies people™s needs according to hierarchical order: physiological (food), safety (shelter),
social (acceptance), esteem (sense of importance), and self-actualization (becoming). The satisfaction, or lack
of earlier needs, dictates the motivations of people.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Another popular, though less widespread, personality tool is Robert
Title
Transactional Analysis
Transactional analysis, or TA, describes how people interact with each other via ego states. An ego state is a
combination of feelings and experiences that manifest themselves in the way people consistently behave.
----------- Essentially, behavior reflects one™s feelings and experiences.
TA posits three ego states: parent, child, and adult.
• The parent ego state reflects parental feelings and experiences, like being critical and directive.
• The adult ego state reflects being realistic and objective when dealing with people.
• The child ego state reflects childlike behavior, like trying to please, uncontrollable laughter, or
rebelliousness.
The interaction between two people reflects a transaction. There are several types of transactions between
people, with some being parent-to-parent, parent-to-child, and parent-to-adult. Such transactions can be
detected through body language and verbally.
An excellent book on TA is Born to Win: Transactional Analysis with Gestalt Experiments, by Muriel
James and Dorothy Jongeward (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1987).

Bolton™s social style matrix. Bolton divides social styles and personal expectations into two dimensions:
assertiveness and responsiveness. Assertiveness is the energy or effort individuals invest in influencing others.
Responsiveness is the energy or effort individuals invest in controlling their emotions when dealing with other
people. The combination of assertiveness and responsiveness creates social stereotypes: analytical (logical),
driver (determined), amiable (diplomatic), and expressive (spontaneous). Bolton™s topology does not say
which social style is better or worse, or which one is good or bad. It simply states that people have to deal
with life in general and social environments in particular. For more information, see Social Style/Management
Style by Robert and Dorothy Bolton.
There are, of course, a plethora of theories about people and how to understand them, from Sigmund Freud
and Carl Jung to B. F. Skinner and Frederick Herzberg. The key is to find a model or tool that works best for
you, then apply it in your own circumstances.
An interesting and often reliable side concept about people is their body language. According to motivational
experts, our body language reveals more about us than what we say. Some experts estimate that body
language makes up 70 to 90 percent of a conversation. This means you need to pay attention to facial
expressions, body movements, posture, and eye movements. A mastery of the art of reading body language
can help the project manager discern whether people are truly committed to the project or providing honest
status information.
There are two caveats about relying on body language. The first is to look at body language in totality”that
is, avoid relying on one body movement alone. The other is that cultural differences can mislead in the
interpretation of true motivations. In some cultures, for instance, it is acceptable behavior to stand closer
together or to maintain eye contact while in others it is not. A misinterpretation can result in real problems.
Perry keeps this thought in mind, since the Smythe wedding will occur in Italy; body language in Italy can
have entirely different meanings from that in the United States.

Deal With Conflict Effectively

Conflict is a way of life and it can surface anytime during the project cycle. Conflict can arise over sharing
people, equipment, supplies, or money; over goals and specifications; between personalities; over differences
of opinion; and even over power.
The potential for conflict is highest, however, at the beginning, when a project manager competes for
resources or when difficulties arise over contractual requirements. And conflict at the beginning can lead to
even more difficulties later if it is not addressed properly. The potential for conflict is high, too, at the end of
the cycle, when participants face schedule pressures. Conflict in and of itself is not bad. It can alert project
managers to problems that must be addressed. The challenge is to manage the conflict in a manner that leads
to project success rather than failure.
Project managers, like all people, deal with conflict differently. Some project managers avoid it, letting it
smolder. Some project managers give up every time a conflict surfaces. Other project managers deny that
conflict exists at all. And some masterfully blame others. These are all defense mechanisms. Nevertheless,
they do not deal with the conflict. All these mechanisms manage to do is avoid conflict or push it into the
background.


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