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The flow of information between the project manager, team members, the customer, and senior
management.
finish-to-finish dependency
The relationship between tasks whereby they must finish around the same time.
finish-to-start dependency
The relationship between tasks whereby an earlier activity, or predecessor, completes before the next
one, or successor, can begin.
fixed cost
Unalterable charge owing to changes in work volume (e.g., cost of facilities usage).
float, free
The time that an activity can slide without impacting the start date of its successor. Tasks with free float
appear on the noncritical path.
float, total
The time that an activity can slide without impacting the project completion date.
flowchart
Pictures and diagrams used for displaying processes and procedures.
form
Document that captures and communicates information; useful for providing audit trails.
formulation phase
A time in a project cycle when complete project plans are developed, which include a statement of
work, work breakdown structure, and schedule.
forward pass
Using durations and dependencies in a network diagram and moving from left to right through a
network diagram, beginning with the very first task to calculate the early start and finish dates.
Gantt chart
See bar chart.
global efficiency factor (GEF)
estimate A technique that incorporates nonproductive time into an estimate.
groupware computing
A computing environment allowing the sharing of applications and data.
hierarchy of needs
A psychological model of motivation developed by Abraham Maslow. It identifies people™s needs
according to this hierarchical order: physiological (food), safety (shelter), social (acceptance), esteem
(sense of importance), and self-actualization (becoming).
histogram
A graphical depiction of resources being or that have been utilized. The high points are called peaks
and low points are called valleys.
histogram, leveled
A histogram with the extreme peaks and valleys smoothed out.
histogram, unleveled
A histogram with an irregular shape, consisting of many peaks and valleys.
implementation phase
A time in a project cycle when the execution of the plan achieves the goals and objectives.
indirect cost
Charge not necessarily related to the building of a product (e.g., rent and taxes).
installation phase
A time in a project cycle when the final product is delivered to the customer.
Internet technology
Electronic technology that ties together communities throughout an organization.
intranet
Basically the same computing technology as that used to operate the Internet. The primary difference
between the two is that an intranet uses a firewall, or server, to regulate or screen communications.
item-by-item format procedure
Procedural documentation that contains a mixture of topics.
job enlargement
Increasing the number of tasks and responsibilities to perform on a job.
job enrichment
Structuring or assigning tasks and responsibilities to give a person the opportunity to actualize.
job rotation
Moving a person from one job to another to increase his overall awareness or exposure.
key project indicator (KPI)
Element of a project that contributes to its successful completion.
lag
The gap between the end of one task and the start of another.
late finish date
The latest time a task can be completed.
late start date
The latest time a task can begin.
leading
The only function of project management that simultaneously occurs when executing the other five
functions. It involves inspiring people to accomplish goals and objectives at a level that meets or
exceeds expectations.
lessons learned document
A medium for capturing the successes, challenges, and other information of a project.
maintenance factor
A dissatisfier, meaning that if not present to a sufficient degree, it will negatively impact motivation.
management estimate at completion (MEAC)
A combination of actual expenditures to date plus the remaining estimate to complete the project.
management reserve
A fund set aside to address unexpected costs, usually 3 to 5 percent of the total estimate for the project.
managerial level
The detail that is “rolled up” to higher levels for reporting purposes, usually the higher levels in the
work breakdown structure.
matrix structure
Resources from functional organizations that are shared with other projects.
mean
The average of the values for items in a group of data.
median
A position average at the midpoint for a frequency distribution.
meeting, ad hoc
A type of meeting that is held irregularly, often spontaneously, by team members.
meeting, staff
A type of session that is held regularly. All team members meet to receive information from the project
manager and to share additional data and insights.
memo
A brief document that should contain a date, subject title, addressee, signature block, purpose
statement; it should also answer the who, what, when, where, and why of a subject.
metrics
Tools and techniques to determine standards and track against them.
metrics, qualitative
Intangible, noncalibrated measures that are subjective.
metrics, quantitative
Tangible, calibrated measures that are objective.
Michigan studies
Management research that revealed two types of supervisory styles that can affect motivation:
production and employee centered.
milestone chart
The outlay on a Gantt chart that shows an icon or symbol for the occurrence of an event rather than a
bar for durations.
mobile computing
An information systems environment that enables team members to work at remote locations and
provide timely results.
mode
The value that appears most frequently in a series of numbers.
monitoring
Projecting into the future using past performance.
most likely estimate
The effort (usually in hours) to complete a task under normal or reasonable conditions.
most optimistic estimate
The effort to complete a task under the best or ideal circumstances.
most pessimistic estimate
The effort to complete a task under the worst conceivable circumstances.
motivational factor
A satisfier, meaning psychological desire that if addressed will positively impact performance.
Myers-Briggs type indicator
A psychological tool that identifies personality types based on the combination of four preferences:
extrovert versus introvert; sensing versus intuitive; thinking versus feeling; and judging versus
perceiving.
n Ach
A theory by David C. McClelland that found people have a need to achieve; the degree varies from
person to person.
narrative format procedure
Procedural documentation that communicates information in essay style.
network diagram
A chart displaying the logical relationships, or dependencies, between the tasks.
newsletter
A communications tool that keeps everyone abreast of important happenings and information. It serves
as a record of activities and accomplishments.
ninety (90) percent syndrome
90 percent of a project is completed, while the last 10 percent consumes most of the flow time.
nonburdened rate
The labor cost minus the cost of fringe benefits and overhead.
nonrecurring costs
A charge that appears only once (e.g., the purchase of equipment).
organizing
A function of project management that orchestrates the use of resources cost-effectively to execute
plans. It involves activities like assembling a team, clarifying relationships among parties, preparing
procedures, creating a project manual, and setting up project history files.
overrun
A positive value for total estimate-at-completion.
overtime labor rate
The charge that exceeds 40 hours per week, including time and a half and double time.
Pareto chart
A diagram that displays information to determine the potential causes of a problem.
participative management
A managerial approach for getting people involved by getting their input or feedback prior to making a
decision.
personality
The composite set of characteristics that make up a person™s behavior.
planning
A function of project management that determines the steps needed to execute a project, assigns who
will perform them, and identifies their start and completion dates.
playscript format procedure
Procedural documentation that is similar to the sequential format. It is best used for procedures
involving two or more people.
precedence diagramming method
See program evaluation and review technique.
predecessor task
A task that precedes the occurrence of another task.
procedures
Documentation that provides detailed information on performing tasks.
product breakdown structure (PBS)
A delineation of the segments that constitute the final product or service.
productivity adjustment percent (PAP)
An estimating approach that applies the global efficiency factor on a larger scale. It involes applying an
overall productivity factor to the estimate for all tasks.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
A precedence diagramming method often used in nonconstruction environments (e.g., information
systems, pharmaceutical, and engineering industries). It uses three estimates to complete a task: most
likely, most pessimistic, and most optimistic.
project
A discrete set of tasks performed in a logical sequence to attain a specific result. Each task and the
entire project have a start and stop date.
project announcement
A memo that is widely distributed to announce the beginning of a project.
project communications
Establishing an infrastructure for disseminating information. It involves setting up the project office,
establishing and conducting appropriate meetings, giving effective presentations, and applying
interpersonal skills.
project cycle
The set of phases for completing a project.
project history file
A drawer in a filing cabinet, a directory on a personal computer, or file server that stores important
documentation.
project leadership
Inspiring people to perform in a manner that meets or exceeds expectations. project library A central
means for storing information.
project management
The tools, knowledge, and techniques used to lead, define, plan, organize, control, and close a project.
project management, classical approach
The use of three standard items (cost, schedule, and quality) to determine the success of a project.
project manager
the person who interacts with myriad people (e.g., sponsors, senior management, client, and team
members) to achieve the goals of a project. project manual A compendium of reference material for a
project.
project office
A central location established to manage a project.
quality
A service or product that satisfies the requirements and expectations of the customer.
reading people
Understanding the true motives of people by their actions.
recurring cost
Charge that appears regularly (e.g., long-term payments for facilities).
regular labor rates
The wage rate amount earned for less than or equal to 40 hours per week.
replanning
Redoing the project plan by making wholesale changes to cost, schedule, and quality.
report
A feedback mechanism to communicate information.
resource allocation
The distribution of materials, labor, etc., among tasks.
resource profile
A graphic display of the planned or actual use of one or more resources over the duration of one or
more tasks.
risk, acceptable
Allowing a threat to negatively affect a task on the non-critical path.
risk, external
A threat that originates from outside the scope of a project.
risk, internal
A threat that originates from inside the scope of a project.
risk, long-term
A threat that has an impact in the distant future.
risk, manageable
A threat that can be managed.
risk, short-term
A threat that has an immediate impact.
risk, unacceptable
A threat that negatively affects a task on the critical path.
risk, unmanageable
A threat that can™t be managed.
risk acceptance
Accepting a risk rather than preventing or mitigating its impact.
risk adaptation
Taking measures that will mitigate a risk™s impact.
risk analysis
Identifying the components of a project, its risks, and the controls that should be or are in place.
risk avoidance
Taking action that will keep a risk from seriously impacting a project.
risk control
Deciding what action to take to prevent or mitigate the impact of a risk.
risk evaluation
Collecting information and determining the adequacy of controls.
risk identification
Recognizing the major elements of a project and their associated risks.
risk management
The process of identifying, analyzing, controlling, and reporting risk.
risk management, qualitative
An approach for managing risks that relies on judgments using criteria to determine outcomes.
risk management, quantitative
An approach for managing risks that relies mainly on statistical calculation to determine risks and their
probability of occurrence.
risk reporting
Informing team members and senior management of risks and their associated controls.
risk transfer
Letting someone else assume a risk.
rules of exchange
Communications etiquette.
satisfier
Psychological desire that, if addressed, will have a positive impact on performance.
scattergram
A graphic that shows the relationship between two variables. Sometimes called a scatter or correlation
chart.
schedule variance
The difference between planned and actual start and end dates.
scheduling
Logically sequencing tasks and then calculating start and stop dates for each one. The result of
scheduling is a diagram showing the logical sequence and the calculated dates.
scientific management
Identifying the most efficient tasks to perform a job, train people on them, develop standards to
measure performance, and separate work between management and workers.
scientific wildly assumed guess (SWAG)
estimate The most popular but most unreliable estimating technique. It requires making one-time
estimates to complete a task.
sequential format procedure
Procedural document that presents information.
social style matrix
A psychological or sociological tool that divides social styles and personal expectations based upon two
dimensions, assertiveness and responsiveness.
span of control
The number of people that a project manager can effectively manage.
standard deviation
The degree that each occurrence in a frequency distribution is located from the mean. It measures
dispersion.
start-to-start dependency
The relationship between tasks whereby two or more of them begin around the same time.
statement of understanding (SOU)
An informal statement of work.
statement of work (SOW)
An agreement between the customer and project™s leadership on the exact definition of the project.
status review
A type of session to collect information to determine progress against cost, schedule, and quality
criteria set for a project.
steering committee
A group of people providing general oversight of and guidance of the project.
stretching
Assigning people to tasks that challenge them.
successor task
An activity that starts after the completion of a previous one.
sustaining phase
A time in a project life cycle where the product is under the customer™s cognizance and an
infrastructure exists to maintain and enhance it.
synergy
The output of a group, usually greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
task breakdown structure (TBS)
A top-down listing of tasks to build a part or perform an aspect of a service.
task force structure
A group of people assembled who are dedicated to completing a specific goal.
technical level
The lower level of the work breakdown structure that contains the actual tasks to perform, which will
be used for rollups when reporting to management.
telecommuting
People participating on projects using personal computers at their homes.
Theory X
A style of management that takes a negative view of human nature.
Theory Y
A style of management that takes a positive view of human nature.
threat
The occurrence of an event that negatively affects a project.
tracking
Looking at past performance.
trend chart
A graphical chart to display past performance and forecast results based upon the history.
underrun
A negative value for total estimate-at-completion.
variable cost
The charge that varies depending upon consumption and workload.
variance
The difference between what is planned and what has actually occurred up to a specific point in time.
videoconferencing
People interacting across geographical regions using video as the medium.
visibility wall or room
A place where all project documentation and other related information are showcased.
vision
An idea of a desired result in the future.
vision statement
A document describing what the project will achieve.
vulnerability
The inherent degree of weakness of components.
work breakdown structure (WBS)
A detailed listing of the deliverables and tasks for building a product or delivering a service. It is
top-down, broad-to-specific, and hierarchical.
work package level
The tasks or subtasks that will be used for assigning responsibilities, constructing schedules, and
tracking progress. It is the lowest level in the work breakdown structure.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
References
Books
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