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• Business orientation
• Coaching
• Communication
• Conflict resolution
• Cross-functional thinking
• Customer orientation
• Delegation
• Diversity orientation
• Facilitation
• Interviewing
• Mediation
• Meetings management
• Negotiation
• Networking
• Political savvy
• Power of persuasion
• Priority setting
• Sensitivity
• Successful delivery of product
• Team building
• Time management
Of course, she also recognizes the need for additional skills:
• Communications (writing and public speaking)
• Computer literacy
• Knowledge of human resource management, procurement, and quality
• Legal affairs
• Organizational
• Planning
• Product/technical knowledge
• Risk management
• Statistics and mathematics


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Finally, Amelia recognizes that the project manager must have certain personality characteristics:
Title
• Analytical
• Can deal with uncertainty and ambiguity
• Conceptual
----------- • Creative
• Delivers a product or service
• Exhibits courage
• Facilitates
• Flexible and adaptable
• Has high ethical standards
• Has self-confidence
• Has self-control
• Innovative
• Looks at the overall picture
• Maintains accountability
• Maintains credibility
• Makes decisions
• Mediates
• Remains open-minded
• Self-reliant and independent
• Solves problems
• Stays focused
• Takes risks
• Trustworthy
• Understands legal matters
• Willing to change and provide recognition
The Power of the Project Manager
Power is often defined as the ability to influence key players in the decision-making process to achieve a
goal. In other words, power means getting what one wants.
Project managers often feel powerless because they lack the powers of functional managers, such as hiring
and firing. While true, they are not as powerless as they think. According to management theorists John
French and Bertram Raven, five different sources of power exist. Each applies to varying extents to the
project manager.
• Coercive power uses fear as a primary tool. It involves inflicting punishment. Project managers
usually have little coercive power in an overt sense. On a more subtle level, however, they may not
assign certain people to coveted tasks, not invite them to meetings, or not communicate with them.
• Reward power uses positive financial and nonmonetary tools. Most project managers lack the
power to use monetary incentives. However, they can provide feedback to functional managers on
performance, which in turn provides a basis for determining salary increases. Project managers can
also pay for training and dispense other perks. From a nonmonetary perspective, they can reward
people by assigning them to high-visibility tasks, as well as involve them in the decision-making
process.
• Legitimate power is the authority granted by the institution. In other words, such power allows
managers to “order” people with the full backing of the institution. Project managers, especially in a
matrix environment, lack this power”they must use other power sources. Still, they have some
legitimate power, especially if they have the political support of a powerful senior manager.
• Expert power is based on a person™s knowledge credentials, expertise, or education. Project
managers are often chosen for these characteristics and they gain considerable power in this regard.
The only problem is that project managers often become narrowly focused, failing to see the big
picture and working on other key areas. In addition, they have power only as long as people respect
those characteristics.
• Referent power is based on trait theory”that is, a person™s characteristics. These project managers
have certain characteristics that make people want to follow them. An example of such a trait is
charisma.

In the end, she wants someone who can lead groups of people as well as individuals, provide a vision of what
the project is to achieve, be able to communicate effectively, ensure that people stay focused on the vision,
motivate people to participate, and facilitate and expedite performance. After conversations with executives
on the steering committee and after reviewing the performance records of prospective candidates, Amelia
selects Perry Fitzberg as the project manager.
At this point, you have seen the initial steps taken by senior management in assessing the worth of the project,
evaluating its prospects for success, and establishing the responsibility for project management. Review the
following questions, then move on to Chapter 3, where the qualities of project leadership are considered from
a broad perspective.

Questions for Getting Started

1. What type of organizational structure does your project have? Is it task force? Matrix?
2. What soft skills will you need to lead your project? Do you know what areas to improve upon?
3. What hard skills will you need to lead your project? Do you know what areas to improve upon?
4. What aspects of your personality will prove useful in leading your project? Do you know what
aspects to improve upon?
5. How will you provide a vision of what the project is to achieve?
6. Do you communicate effectively?
7. How will you ensure that people stay focused on the vision?
8. Do you have ideas for motivating people to participate?
9. Can you facilitate and expedite their performance?
10. What ideas do you have for leading groups of people?


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 3
The Qualities of Good Leadership
Our concept of leadership has evolved over the years. The term was once confused with management, but
-----------
today the two are distinct roles, each with its own characteristics. Rather than debate a definition of
leadership, it is advantageous to discuss what leaders do. That way, you can come around to a better, fuller
understanding of the concept.

What Leaders Do
It is increasingly clear that leaders do more than plan, organize, control, coordinate, and budget. While such
activities are important and must be done, project leadership goes beyond those functions. In other words,
leadership involves more than being logical, analytical, and sequential”that is, it™s more than simply
applying the mental thought processes originating in the left side of the brain.
Leadership takes on a holistic perspective by including the “people side” in project management, and it
embraces the future rather than preserves the status quo. Thus, leadership is dynamic rather than static. It
involves looking at the present and determining the steps to move on to some desired future state (e.g., a
vision buttressed with meaningful goals that serve as guideposts). Leadership, not surprisingly, requires being
results-oriented. By developing a vision and goals, the project leader gives the team a sense of purpose. The
leader also helps align people and other resources to focus on achieving results, thereby increasing project
efficiency and effectiveness. Consequently, the emphasis is on what and why rather than how. At all times,
judgments are based on the big picture, which is the vision.
Leadership embraces change. It requires constantly asking, “What are we doing? Is that the only way to do it?
Can we do it better?” Questioning the status quo is characteristic of leadership. It requires viewing a
constantly changing environment while pursuing the vision. This emphasis on change therefore requires a
willingness to adopt new processes, procedures, and roles if they will more efficiently and effectively help
attain the vision. Flexibility and adaptability are two characteristics of good leadership.
Leadership means the ability to motivate. Contemporary leadership theories and practices emphasize the
people side. Leadership entails active listening techniques in conflict management, “reading” people to
understand their messages and motives, negotiating through open communication, and “thinking outside the
box,” all in an effort to attain the vision.
From a motivational perspective, leadership is getting people to perform enthusiastically, confidently, and in a
highly committed way. It implies delegating, empowering, coaching, building trust, handling diversity (people
from different cultures and disciplines), laying the groundwork for creativity, and facilitating performance.
Leadership involves communicating. Communication is not just giving effective presentations; it is also
listening to the “want to hears” and the “need to hears.” It requires communicating laterally and vertically in a
manner that is open and engenders trust. It means being open and honest at all times”that is, creating an
atmosphere of trust, where hidden agendas and dishonesty have no place. All decisions and behaviors are of
the highest ethical standards, to ensure credibility and trustworthiness up, down, and across the chain of
command.
Leadership requires a constancy of purpose. It means keeping the vision in the forefront of everyone™s mind
by continually asking the question, “How will this help to achieve the vision?” That translates to being
results-oriented and aligning responses and processes in a focused, disciplined manner.
Here, too, leadership involves a willingness to take smart, calculated risks. Leaders look for better ways not
only to conduct business but also to take action. They embrace ambiguity and complexity in a manner that
fosters innovative ideas and solutions to achieve the vision. They build cohesive teams that have synergy.
Team members share information and other resources in a way that encourages cross-functional participation.
Leaders build an atmosphere of trust and mutual support, emphasizing relational rather than hierarchical
interactions and directing team energy toward achieving the vision. Thus, leadership means facilitating rather
than impeding performance. Leaders help people do their jobs in a positive, not negative, way. They remove
obstacles to performance, not create them. They secure the resources. However, they do more. They can
maneuver through the “halls of power,” network with key players, and interact with the customer to ensure
satisfaction of all requirements and specifications. In addition, they can be political if it furthers the interests
of the project.
Finally, leaders put the customer first. They strive to understand everything about the customer”for example,
needs, tastes, and relevant market conditions. The customer is king and drives the vision; without that focus
on the vision, the project becomes quixotic.

When Leadership Falters or Is Missing
Leadership encourages greater productivity. An experienced team member or project manager only has to
work once on a project to understand the difference between a project with leadership and one without it. But
being a project manager has never been harder. The days of managing the team with “thou shalts,” with the
support of a clearly designed organizational structure and rational, logical discipline, are over. Good project
managers know the value of exercising effective leadership throughout the project cycle. They know that the
leader must inspire the team to accomplish goals and objectives at a level that meets, even exceeds,
expectations.
That is not as simple as it sounds. The people to be inspired are not just the ones working directly on the
project. They are also the ones whom the leader reports to (e.g., customer and senior management) and those
who support the project for a short period of time (e.g., contract employees and consultants). With all these
players, in a constantly changing environment, effective leadership is critical.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Although leadership is important for a project, it rarely is seen on some projects. The reasons for this are
Title
many, and are worth noting.
1. There is a tendency to select people solely for their technical expertise. While expertise is important,
it is a mistake to assume that expertise is equivalent to leadership. Leadership goes beyond technical
prowess, increasingly recognized as subordinate to other qualities. Often, a person selected for his or
-----------
her technical expertise relies on that quality at the expense of the project.
2. There is a failure to distinguish between project leadership and project management. Project
management deals with the mechanics of managing a project, such as building a schedule; project
leadership deals with much bigger issues”for example, ensuring that people focus on the vision. (See
box on page 25.)
3. There is a tendency to wear blinders. In a complex, constantly changing environment, many project
managers seek security by grabbing on to a small piece rather than looking at the big picture. They may
focus, for example, solely on technical issues or on the schedule at the expense of more important
areas.
4. There is a tendency to be heroic. That is, they try to do everything themselves and be all things to all
people. They eventually start to overcontrol and in the end, as many experienced project managers
know, control very little, even themselves. They fail, for example, to delegate.
5. There is a tendency to emphasize hard rather than soft skills. Hard skills are scheduling and
statistical analysis; soft skills are active listening and writing. It is not uncommon for project managers
of technical projects to disparagingly refer to soft skills as “touchy-feely.” Yet time and again, studies
have shown that soft skills can prove as critical, indeed more so, in a project™s success.
6. There is a tendency to select project managers based on the FBI (Friends, Brothers, and In-laws)
principle. Senior managers often select people they like or who are like themselves, who may or may
not have the attributes of a project leader.
7. There is a tendency by senior management to micromanage a project. They treat the project as a pet,
smothering it with attention, thereby killing any initiative by the project manager or the team. An
example is requiring any action, even the smallest, to have approval from senior management. Such an
oppressive atmosphere makes it impossible to exercise project leadership.
8. There is a failure to recognize that leadership is ongoing. It starts at the beginning and continues
throughout the project cycle. Yet especially with long-term projects, managers tend to forget about
inspiring people and their leadership assumes a posture of benign neglect.
9. There is a tendency to ignore or not recognize the indicators of poor leadership. These indicators
include a high turnover or absenteeism rate among team members, repetitive problems with the quality
of output, and constant slippage of major milestone dates. Of course, these indicators may reflect other
problems; however, there™s a high correlation between problems in leadership and those in
performance.
10. There is a tendency toward window dressing rather than dealing with substantive issues. Window
dressing concentrates on images; substantive issues probe the root causes. While looking good has its
immediate advantages, too much emphasis on image can have deleterious effects as the underlying
problems persist and become more acute.
Project Management vs. Project Leadership
Is there a difference between project management and project leadership?
Project management uses the tools, knowledge, and techniques needed for defining, planning, organizing,
controlling, leading, and closing a project. Project leadership appears, therefore, to be a subset of project
management. But it would be a mistake to assume that project leadership is secondary to project
management. Project leadership is the only function that occurs throughout the project cycle. It is, in many
ways, the glue that holds the other functions together. The output from defining, planning, organizing,
controlling, and closing a project depends largely on how well project leadership is exhibited. Without solid
leadership, performance of the other functions will be marginal at best.
Industries are replete with examples of projects that had well-defined plans and plenty of financial support,
yet achieved less than satisfactory results. Project managers must gain and retain the confidence of myriad
players, including the project sponsor, client, team, and senior management. Project leadership, then, means
going beyond the mechanics of managing a project, such as building a work breakdown structure,
constructing schedules, or managing change. It calls for inspiring all players to accomplish the goals and
objectives in a manner that meets or exceeds expectations.

Are Leaders Born or Made?
For a long time, people have debated whether leaders were born or made. The issue remains relatively
unsettled, although most management experts believe that leaders are made rather than born. Basically, there
are three theories of leadership: trait theories, situational contingency theories, and personal behavior theories.
1. Trait theorists say that people contain characteristics that make them leaders. These characteristics
could be based on personality, internal motivations, physical features, or a combination of two or more.
2. Situational contingency theorists deal with different leadership styles under varying circumstances.
Typical leadership styles are either task or people centered and, depending on the circumstances, one
style is preferable to another.
3. Personal behavior theorists deal with views on how leaders perceive people and their role in an
organization. Some managers stress the people side while others emphasize the mission.
Regardless of approach, the contemporary viewpoint is that managers in general and project managers in
particular stress people rather than task completion. So if you are currently a project manager”or strive to
become one”keep the leadership qualities discussed in this chapter foremost in your mind.
It is our hope, of course, that you will avoid these pitfalls and become an effective, successful project leader.
Part II begins with the initial steps of project management and concludes with a chapter on closure. The latter
discusses how to learn from past mistakes so that future projects will have successful outcomes.


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by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Part II
The Basic Functions of Project Management
Chapter 4
-----------

The Vision Statement and Motivating for Project
Success
Perry Fitzberg, newly appointed manager for GWI™s Smythe Project, knows all too well that leadership
involves more than just building schedules and calculating budgets. As project manager it will be his job to:
1. Provide a vision of what the project is to achieve.
2. Communicate that vision to all involved.
3. Ensure that everyone stays focused on that vision.
4. Motivate people to participate in the project.
5. Facilitate and expedite performance.
6. Build an effective team.
But let™s examine each of these points, one at a time.

Providing the Project Vision
From a project management perspective, the vision describes what the project is to achieve. It is often a
high-level statement supported by a list of goals and objectives. The vision is essentially an idea of some
desired end state, expressed in a form that everyone understands, can relate to, and can feel a sense of
commitment to.
Perry knows that the vision should be clear, concise, and direct. He used several sources to draft the
statement, including the minutes of meetings and the formal contract with the customer. Perry also knows that
the vision statement will require commitment by people working directly and indirectly on the project. To
engender this commitment, he solicits feedback to make revisions where appropriate. This helps generate
commitment, encourages raising important questions, and possibly addresses communciation problems before
they can negatively impact the project. Exhibit 4-1 is his vision statement for the Smythe Project.
Having a vision statement at the outset offers several advantages:
1. It clearly formulates in people™s minds what the project is to achieve. In other words, it
communicates the scope of the project, helping to avoid “scope creep,” that is, unintentional expansion
of the project™s boundaries.
2. It provides a basis for managing the project. All subsequent activities are planned, organized, and
controlled from the perspective of that vision. “Mapping” becomes easier because everyone knows
what perspective to take.
3. It bridges the communications gap. Since a vision statement describes what the project is to achieve,
there™s less chance for ambiguity as people understand the importance of their activities.
4. The vision statement provides a basis for evaluating performance. Throughout the project cycle,
questions will arise about performance. The vision statement is the yardstick against which
performance can be judged.
5. It determines the importance of questions that arise during the project. What is important and what is
not must always be clear. A vision statement is the tool to help answer those questions.
6. The vision statement empowers, it gives people a means for independent judgment. Essentially it is
the criterion for decision making.

Communicating the Vision
A vision statement is worthless, of course, unless other people know about it. Therefore, Perry widely
distributes the statement. He ensures that the right people receive the statement at the right time.
Making the vision statement public has obvious benefits, which are important to state here. For example, it
gives people a sense of the scope of the project. It establishes the groundwork for effective communication via
a common language and mental framework. Finally, it helps build a sense of community.
Exhibit 4-1. Vision statement.
Smythe Project Vision Statement
Provide a wedding with the grandest of flair, which all attendees will talk about for years to come and which

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