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will bring joy and happiness to the families of the newlyweds.

But the challenges of communication are many. Mental paradigms, values, beliefs, and attitudes, for example,
may restrict how the vision statement is received. People tend to filter or slant the message. Also, “pockets of
resistance” exist, reflecting nonacceptance of the vision. That resistance might be covert (subtle, negative
comments) or overt (vocalizing opposition). Another challenge is to cut through the layers of bureaucracy.
Organizational layers may filter or alter the message, either intentionally or inadvertently.
So Perry will publish the vision statement in a house newsletter. He will post it on the project™s Web site. He
will conduct information-sharing sessions or give presentations. He™ll provide a copy for each project manual
and reiterate it at training sessions and other meetings. (Chapters 13, 14, and 19 have additional information
on communciation.) The key is to ensure the vision statement is brought to everyone™s attention.

Keeping People Pocused on the Vision
Perry realizes that it is easy to get sidetracked”that is, to lose sight of the vision while “fighting fires.” He is
concerned about not letting those fires distract him or the team. If they become distracted the likelihood
increases for the schedule to slide, the project to overrun the budget, and the output to be inferior.
As project manager, Perry takes the lead in asking whether each process, activity, or action will achieve the
vision. He continually raises the issue of direction, although he wants everyone to do the same. And there are
several ways he can ensure that people stay focused, such as collecting and evaluating data regarding schedule
and budget; tracking past performance and projecting the future; identifying likely risks and ways to respond;
instituting change management disciplines; and collecting and evaluating measurements and metrics on
quality. Chapters 15 and 16 will describe methods for data collection. Of course, Perry does not do this alone.
He obtains help from team players to validate his assessments.
Facilitating and Expediting Performance
Most project teams do not operate in a vacuum. They face obstacles and frustrations, such as not having the
right equipment or having to deal with bureaucratic politics. In addition, project managers can frustrate or
facilitate the performance of team members.
Perry, of course, wants to facilitate rather than impede performance. He faces constraints on his power, yet he
refuses to take a “dying cockroach” position. He strives to eliminate physical distractions (e.g., noisy
equipment), to ensure the availability of the right tools (e.g., telecommunication equipment and software), to
shield the team from administrative red tape (e.g., computing paperwork), and to handle the political aspects
of the project (e.g., interference in daily activities by senior management).
Perry does not address every problem or obstacle that confronts the team. But he determines what is
important, in light of whether it affects the achievement of the vision.

Motivation to Participate
Perry understands that, without people, the project does not exist. He also knows that without motivated
people, performance will suffer. To motivate his team, Perry must have insight into human behavior and
direct it toward achieving the vision.
Motivation deals with the internal conditions that encourage people to act or not to act. It is a complex process
that remains intriguing to psychologists and layman alike. From Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to
contemporary practitioners, the mystery of human behavior remains, despite growth in our knowledge. From
a managerial perspective, there are many theories that work most of the time, but not always, and have proved
useful for project managers like Perry.
Credit for the birth of motivational theory largely falls to Frederick Taylor, a major contributor to the
development of the concept of scientific management. He relied on identifying the most efficient tasks to
perform a job, training people to do them, developing standards to measure performance, and separating tasks
between management and workers. The best workers”the ones meeting or exceeding the standard”received
the best pay.
Over the years, it has become quite clear that scientific management, albeit revolutionary, had negative
motivational consequences. Work often became meaningless and highly routine, and management relied
solely on financial motivations. But since Taylor, other motivational therories have been developed.


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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One is Frederick Herzberg™s two-factor theory of motivation. According to this, people are motivated via
Title
maintenance (hygiene) or motivational factors (motivators). Maintenance factors are dissatisfiers, meaning
that if not present to a sufficient degree, they will negatively impact motivation. Maintenance factors include
pay, policies, and work conditions. Motivational factors are satisfiers, meaning that if addressed, they will
positively impact performance. Motivational factors include opportunities for achievement, recognition, and
----------- advancement.
Abraham Maslow™s hierarchy of needs is another popular motivational theory. According to this, people are
motivated by five fundamental needs, in the following order: physiological, safety, love/belongingness,
self-esteem, and self-actualization. Each need must be satisfied sequentially.
Physiological needs are ones like food, sex, and water. Safety needs include psychological and physical
security. Love/belongingness needs include social acceptability. Self-esteem needs include feeling good and
confident about oneself. Self-actualization needs include realizing one™s fun potential.
Other motivational theories are more narrowly focused. According to David C. McClelland™s n Ach theory,
people have a need to achieve; the degree just varies from person to person. He found that this need was
influenced by the expectation of success and the likelihood of reward. If a manager combines the two, there™s
a greater the probability of achieving successful results. Victor Vroom developed another theory of
motivation based on an individual™s goal and the influence different behaviors have in achieving that goal. If
people feel a goal is important, they will select the appropriate behavior that promises the highest probability
of success. Hence, motivation depends on whether people place much value on a goal.
Motivational theories have laid the foundation for managerial theories. One of those is Douglas McGregor™s
Theory X and Theory Y. The Theory X style of management involves taking a negative view of human nature.
Managers believe people dislike work, will avoid it, accept little or no responsibility, and consequently need
close oversight, maybe even coercion. But Theory Y takes a positive view of human nature. Managers believe
people like work and, if the rewards and conditions are right, will commit themselves to their jobs and take on
responsibility”consequently, close oversight is unnecessary.
Research known as the Michigan studies has revealed two types of supervisory styles that can affect
motivation: production and employee-centered. Production-centered supervisors are task-oriented. They treat
people as instruments of production and intervene on how to perform the work; they tend to be autocratic in
their style. Employee-centered supervisors are people-oriented. They grant autonomy to people when
performing tasks, take a positive view of the capabilities and talents of subordinates, and tend to be
democratic in their style. The studies found that employee-centered supervisors generally achieve the best
performance.
Perry recognizes that the trend in managing people is increasingly to emphasize the people side. A dramatic
shift has occurred away from being task or mission oriented and toward taking a behaviorist approach. Project
managers, especially, must be sensitive to this shift because they often lack command and control. They must
rely on positive motivation to have people perform tasks and must understand how their own behavior affects
that of others.
Keeping the above theories in mind, Perry uses some powerful motivational tools:

Delegation
Because some project managers feel powerless (e.g., they lack command and control over people), they
equate that with a loss of control and to compensate, do many tasks themselves. The results are frequently
poor because they assume too much work. The work piles up and the schedule slides. The answer, as Perry
knows, is to delegate.
Delegating is having one person act on behalf of another. This means relinquishing authority to perform the
work but not necessarily the responsibility or accountability for the results. A reluctance to delegate often
indicates lack of confidence in oneself or the delegate. It manifests itself through comments like “I can do a
better job myself.”
Perry is a practical person who knows that delegation can have negative consequences, too. To ensure that he
delegates work correctly, he looks at the nature and importance of the tasks, the capabilities and personality of
the individuals, and the availability of time and other resources.

Job rotation, Enlargement, and Enrichment
Job rotation entails moving people from one job to another to increase their overall awareness or exposure. It
is useful for inculcating a generalist background and providing a “bit picture” viewpoint. Job enlargement
involves increasing the number of tasks and responsibilities to perform. It increases the level of effort and
challenge. Job enrichment entails structuring or assessing tasks and responsibilities to give people the
opportunity to actualize.
Applying all three tools requires careful consideration. Perry must ponder the personality, talents, expertise,
and knowledge of each individual. He must also consider nonbehavioral factors such as the availability of
time, importance of the task, learning curve, cost, and impact to quality.

Participation
Commitment is important to a project™s success. If lacking, then people will not care about the results. Perry
knows a powerful way to build commitment is through participation.
Participation means obtaining input or feedback prior to making a decision. Perry accomplishes that by
getting feedback on the statement of work, estimates, and schedules, and getting participation at meetings.
Participation breeds emotional commitment to the outcome.

Personal Goal Attainment
People have different goals”money, power, or physical surroundings”but Perry must identify the reason
each person is working on the Smythe Project. This knowledge will help him satisfy a person™s expectations
while simultaneously achieving the overall goals of the project.
What Perry hopes to achieve is to maximize output by matching effort, performance, and project goals. To do
that, Perry must know the people on the project, by holding one-on-one sessions, reviewing of personnel
documentation (r©sum©s), and personal familiarization. Only then can he motivate by satisfying the WIIFM
(What™s In It For Me) syndrome.

Personality/Task Match
Personality is the composite of characteristics that constitute a person™s behavior. How people interact with
their environment reflects their personality. One type of interaction is through the performance of tasks. Perry
knows that some people are a mismatch for certain tasks. Some may not be gregarious enough to perform
tasks involving social interaction; others lack the personality to deal with routine, repetitive tasks that involve
methodical detail.
A mismatch between personality and task can negatively impact project performance. Tasks can go
uncompleted, morale and esprit de corps can plummet, quality can suffer, and schedule can slide. To avoid
such results, Perry considers several variables when matching a person to a task. From a personality
perspective, he looks at the track record, including what they did and did not do well in the past; their
characteristics (introversion, extroversion); intelligence; self-confidence; stress handling abilities; and needs.
From a structural perspective, he also considers the complexity of the task, as well as its variety, autonomy,
and scope.

Recognition
Many people want to stand out. Receiving recognition is one way to satisfy that need.
Recognition must be done carefully; otherwise, it can be counterproductive. The idea is to find a balance
between individual and team recognition and to discover the types of recognition people value. Perry also
knows that recognition must follow some basic principles. It must be genuine, timely, fair, objective,
meaningful, and not overdone.

Stretching
Sometimes Perry will assign people to tasks that present a challenge. People view the task as more difficult
than the “typical” task, but not impossible to complete. The new challenge may exceed physical and
emotional dimensions, or present a mental challenge relating to intelligence, training, or aptitude. The idea is
to match the person to the task so that the person “stretches” and does not “break.”
One key motivational issue in recent years is the role stress plays on the project manager and the team. Perry
knows that he and his team will be under considerable stress and that he has responsibility for managing it.
There are two types of stress: negative stress (or distress) and positive stress (or eustress).


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Negative stress manifests itself in many ways. It causes ailments, from hives to heart attacks. It affects people
Title
psychologically by making them depressed and argumentative or just “wanting to give up.” It affects the
performance of the team as conflict intensifies; people start “throwing their work over the fence” and they
lower their productivity.
Perry is well aware that there are many causes for high stress. Downsizing, increased time-to-market
-----------
pressures, rapidly varying market conditions, consultants and contractors hired as replacements, and
outsourcing services all add to a stressful situation. Poor project management practices also cause stress. Such
practices include not defining roles and responsibilities clearly; unrealistically assigning resources;
compressing the schedules; providing inadequate tools; and not isolating the team from politics.
Perry realizes that he does not have to let stress have a harmful effect on him or his team. He can alleviate the
impact in several ways. For example, he can develop and revise his project plan to reflect realism, rotate
people between critical and noncritical tasks or equitably distribute the workload; provide opportunities for
the team members to go on respites or breaks from time to time; assign people to tasks that are more suitable
to their expertise level, intelligence type, or personality type; and encourage people to be flexible. As for
Perry himself, he considers all the same for himself.

Team Building
A team is more than just a group of people doing work. It is an assembly of individuals with diverse
backgrounds who interact for a specific purpose. The idea is to capture and direct the synergy generated by
the group to efficiently and effectively achieve a goal. Throughout the years, Perry has witnessed many signs
of ineffective teams.
What Is Your Team-Building Style?
Decide-X, a Bellevue, Washington, company, provides a scientific tool”also called Decide-X”to measure
how much information a person needs before reaching a decision.
According to Decide-X, people deal with team-building situations in ways that reflect their needs and
desires, as well as their preferences in dealing with direction, change, details, and other characteristics of a
work situation. There are four primary styles:
• Reactive Stimulators thrive on action and the immediate. They prefer situations or projects that are
fast-moving and have lots of pressure.
• Logical Processors thrive on logical detail while maintaining focus. They prefer situations and
projects with organizational structure.
• Hypothetical Analyzers like to solve problems using decomposition to unravel complexity. They
prefer situations and projects that provide a relatively slow pace to perform analysis.
• Relational Innovators deal in ideas from a big-picture perspective and find relationships or patterns.
They prefer situations and projects that involve blue-skying and move at a pace that allows them to do
that.
From a project management perspective, the Decide-X tool is very useful. Different combinations of styles
on a project team can influence the level of detail that goes into making a decision and how quickly it is
done. For example, if you put a Reactive Stimulator and a Relational Innovator on a task, the questions will
arise: (1) will decisions be made quickly with little attention to detail (as may be needed), or will they be
made much more slowly, to allow for exploration of detail? And (2) will the Reactive Stimulator and
Relational Innovator cooperate, or will they conflict?
Decide-X differs from other approaches, which focus only on the individual, because it looks at the
interactions of people. Decide-X is described in more detail in Gary Salton, Organizational Engineering
(Ann Arbor, Mich.: Professional Communications, 1996).

Characteristics of Poor Teams
• No processes for gaining consensus or resolving conflicts. Team squabbles and overt and covert
discussions are ongoing occurrences, making cooperation difficult, even impossible.
• Team members who lack commitment to the goal. No one has an emotional attachment to the goal.
• No camaraderie or esprit de corps. The players do not feel that they are part of a team. Instead,
everyone acts in his or her own interests.
• Lack of openness and trust. Everyone is guarded, protective of his or her own interests. Openness and
truthfulness are perceived as yielding to someone, giving a competitive advantage, or exposing
vulnerabilities.
• Vague role definitions. The reporting structures and responsibilities are unclear, causing conflicts.
Territorial disputes and power struggles occur often.
• No commonality or cohesiveness. The team is an unorganized grouping of people. No one feels a
sense of community or brotherhood. No common ground exists other than to meet periodically to work.
This results in lost synergy.
• Conformity and mind protection. Insecurity permeates people for fear of being different or
ostracized. People do not speak or share information unless it reinforces behavior or thoughts.
• Low tolerance for diversity. The pressure to conform is so intense that anyone different in thinking or
work style is ostracized or not taken seriously. Whistle-blowers and creative types, for instance, may be
viewed with suspicion. Under such circumstances no opportunity is available to capitalize on people™s
strengths and address their weaknesses.
• Insufficient resources. Whether it™s people, equipment, supplies, facilities, time, or money,
insufficient resources make teams ineffective. The situation can also lead to squabbling, dissention,
even revolts. If resources are not distributed in an objective, meaningful manner, then differences can
magnify into severe conflicts. Members of the team can quickly become polarized.
• Lack of management support. If team members perceive”whether justifiably or not”that
management is not supportive of the project, then motivation can plummet. People will feel that the
work is not valuable, at least to the organization.
• Listless team members. The goals are vague or nonexistent. Even if the goals are defined, no
one”including the project manager”seems to focus on them. Instead, everyone is aimless.
• Discontinuity between individual expectations and group expectations. There is a misalignment
between the two, with the latter not valuing the former. A symbiotic relationship between the two just
does not exist.
An ineffective team is conflict ridden, filled with distrust, unfocused, and reeking of negative competition.
These conditions manifest themselves in high turnover and absenteeism, considerable frustration levels, poor
communication, no esprit de corps, and intolerance.
Perry wants, of course, a project team with desirable characteristics:


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Characteristics of Effective Teams
Title

• Acceptance of new ideas and objective evaluation of them
• Sustained common norms, values, and beliefs without excessive conformity
• Synergy through mutual support
-----------
• Loyalty and commitment to the project
• Focus on end results
• A trusting, open attitude
• Ability to gain consensus and resolve conflicts
• High morale and esprit de corps
• Information and resources sharing
Perry knows all too well that a team with these characteristics is difficult to achieve. Yet he also knows that
such characteristics will not arise unless he takes action. There are seven actions that he takes to engender
such characteristics:
1. He sets the example. He not only espouses certain values and beliefs but also exercises them. He
wants people to be trustful and open, so he is trustful and open. He expects people to be committed, so
he is committed. In other words, he “walks the talk.”
2. He encourages communication”oral, written, and electronic. He knows that communication is more
than writing memos, standing in front of a team, or setting up a Web site. It requires sharing
information in an open and trusting manner, holding frequent meetings (status reviews and staff),
publishing a project manual, defining acronyms and jargon, employing technology as a
communications tool, and encouraging task interdependence.
3. He has the team focus on results. They direct all their energies toward achieving the vision. Whether
he or the team makes a decision, it is made in the context of achieving the vision. Perry constantly
communicates the vision and establishes change control and problem-solving processes.
4. He engenders high morale and esprit de corps by developing and maintaining the energy that comes
from teaming. He knows, however, that he must continually nurture that energy to keep it flowing. So
he empowers team members, encourages consensus building and win-win solutions, increases task
interdependence, matches the right person with the right task, and teams people with complementary
work styles.
5. He builds commitment to the vision and the project. Throughout the project cycle, team commitment
can rise or fall. Ideally, Perry wants to achieve the former. Ways to do that include matching people™s
interests with tasks, encouraging participative decision making, empowering people, seeking input and
feedback, assigning people with responsibility for completing deliverables, and keeping the project in
the forefront of everyone™s mind.
6. He lays the groundwork for synergy. A team is more than the sum of its members. But synergy
requires cooperation. Ways to obtain cooperation include providing cross-training so that people
understand each other™s roles and responsibilities, clearly defining roles and responsibilities,
determining each team member™s strengths and weaknesses and making assignments that capitalize on
the former, and having groups within the team be accountable for a complete work unit (e.g.,
subproduct or deliverable).
7. He encourages greater diversity in thinking, work style, and behavior. Always mindful of the danger
of groupthink, Perry encourages different thoughts and perspectives. He is especially aware of the
multicultural environment of the Smythe Project. The project culminates in Italy and, therefore,
requires working with people from another country. The Smythe family also has many friends around
the world who will attend the wedding. To ensure receptivity to diversity, Perry uses cross-training and
job rotation to broaden people™s understanding of each other, encourages experimentation and
brainstorming to develop new ideas and keep an open mind, seeks task interdependence to encourage
communication, and nurtures a continuous learning environment.

Team Diversity
With globalization of the economy in general and the Smythe Project in particular, Perry recognizes that the
challenge of leading a diversified team has never been greater. The team members have a variety of
backgrounds, including race, ethnicity, and religion. Leading a team in such an environment requires
heightened sensitivity to different values, beliefs, norms, and lifestyles.
Perry understands that people vary in their concept of time, ways of doing business, styles of management and
leadership, and views of how the world functions. He also understands that differences exist in the meaning of
words (semantics), interpretation of expressions (body language), perception of priorities, and definition of
team building. Needless to say, all this diversity adds complexity to the planning, coordination, and control of
the project. He knows, however, that he can deal with diversity in several ways.
1. He sets the example by embracing diversity. Through research, background reviews, interviews, and
the like, Perry learns about the diverse backgrounds of the people and encourages everyone to do the
same.
2. He is patient when dealing with people of a different background. He remains conscious of different
values and beliefs, for example, and accounts for them when leading the project.
3. He overcomes the temptation to stereotype. That is, he avoids generalizing about people based on
one characteristic. He also tackles stereotyping by team members. An effective approach is to have
people with different backgrounds work together. He can also have the team, with himself, attend
diversity training to understand and respect differences.
4. He has empathy for other people™s experiences. The word is empathy, not sympathy, since the latter
connotes patronization and condescension. He attempts to appreciate, for example, the difficulties in
reconciling different perceptions of time.
5. He encourages feedback. He is especially mindful to obtain feedback from people whose cultural
background is dramatically different from his own or from the rest of the team. This lessens the
tendency for the team to split into subgroups.


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