<< . .

. 5
( : 22)



. . >>

Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

Search this book:
Search Tips

Advanced Search


Previous Table of Contents Next



Contract Employees and Consultants
Title
Along with downsizing has come a corresponding rise in the use of consultants and contract employees. The
Smythe Project is no different, and its use of such people challenges his efforts to build a cohesive team.
Many contract employees and consultants do not feel they are part of a team. They know that their presence is
-----------
temporary; their participation could end at any time; hence their commitment is questionable. At the same
time, many permanent employees feel slighted by the presence of independent contractors and consultants.
They feel that management is exhibiting lack of confidence in their work, or that management perceives
outside help as better than inside. Team members may also feel that the contractors or consultants are
receiving higher compensation or the best offices or equipment.
These circumstances, real or imagined, challenge any team-building effort. But they are not insurmountable,
even for Perry. He gives preference to permanent employees regarding task assignments, equipment, and
other perks. An exception is made only if the consultant or contractor has unique expertise, and, if so,
preference is only for the duration of the task. Perry also gives employees the first opportunity to participate
in decision making. (More about contractors and outsourcing in Chapter 9.)

Telecommuting and Mobile Computing
In today™s environment, team members may be spread over a wide geographical area, presenting little
opportunity to see each other. (See Chapter 19 for additional information.) Team building can be extremely
difficult, thanks to this dispersion. To foster team building, however, Perry takes three important steps:
1. He tries to have everyone on the team meet periodically. At a minimum, this meeting provides an
opportunity to exchange ideas, share information, and become acquainted.
2. He develops rules of exchange or communications etiquette. For instance, colleagues should respond
to each other within a certain time. Such etiquette enables greater interaction, which in turn increases
bonding or cohesion.
3. He assigns people to tasks that require greater interaction and, if only occasionally, meeting
physically. If meeting is costly or impossible, the task should require at least some electronic
interdependence to generate cohesion.
In general, Perry treats the word TEAMING as an acronym to remind him of how to build a good project
team:
Target Focus on the end result.
Energize Provide the emotional spark that encourages high morale and esprit de corps.
Assemble Bring people together with defined roles and responsibilities.
Move Get people to move efficiently and effectively toward the results.
Inform Have people share knowledge, skills, and expertise, laterally and vertically.
Neutralize Remove biases and preferences in decision making.
Glue Keep the team as a cohesive unit so that synergy is produced.

There is additional information on telecommuting and other technology-based innovations in Chapter 19.

The Project Manager as a Motivator
Leadership plays an important role in the successful execution of a project. However, it is not something that
can be done in a “paint-by-number” fashion. Perry, like all experienced project managers, knows that
leadership must be constantly exercised throughout a project. It requires having a basic understanding of what
motivates people.
A vision statement partly satisfies the motivational needs of a project team. Perry realizes, however, that the
vision is just one aspect of leadership. He must build teams and focus all their efforts on achieving the vision.
The vision plays another role too. It provides the basis for developing a meaningful statement of work.

Questions for Getting Started

1. Can you identify the obstacles for exercising effective leadership inherent in your project?
2. How will you develop a vision for your project? How do you plan to communicate it? What are the
challenges you face in developing and communicating that vision? How do you plan to overcome
them?
3. How will you ensure that your project stays focused on the vision? What challenges will you face?
4. How will you facilitate and expedite performance? What obstacles will you face and how will you
overcome them?
5. In what ways (e.g., job enrichment) do you plan to motivate the people on your team? What
challenges will you face and how do you plan to overcome them?
6. In what ways (e.g., focus on the vision) will you encourage team building? What obstacles will you
face and how will you overcome them?
7. If you have contractors, consultants, or telecommuters, how will they be involved? What impact will
that have on the permanent team members and what will you do about any problems that arise?


Previous Table of Contents Next




Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home

Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of
EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement.
Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

Search this book:
Search Tips

Advanced Search


Previous Table of Contents Next



Title
Chapter 5
The Statement of Work and the Project
Announcement
-----------

Perry recognizes that a key determinant for success or failure of a project is the adequacy of the definition. As
described in Chapter 1, the project manager defines the project, or determines its vision (as mentioned in
Chapter 4), goals, objectives, scope, responsibilities, and deliverables. He knows that good definition lays the
groundwork for developing reliable plans. It also sets the stage for effective communication throughout the
project cycle.
To define is to determine exactly the purpose and boundaries of the project. In other words,
• What are the goals and objectives?
• Who are the principal participants?
• When must the project be finished?
• Where will the project be executed?
• How will the result be achieved?
• Why is the project being launched?
• What are the constraints/limitations of the project?
By answering such questions Perry can better execute the other functions of project management. However,
getting answers to these and other questions is not easy. It requires considerable effort, largely by
interviewing members of the steering committee, contacting the customer, and reviewing documentation (e.g.,
the contract between the company and the Smythe family).

The Statement of Work
Although a contract has been signed between GWI and the Smythe family, many details remain unaccounted
for. Perry uses a statement of work (SOW) or, more informally, a statement of understanding to obtain and
record answers to any remaining questions.
The SOW is a definitive agreement between the customer and the project™s leadership about what is to be
accomplished. Perry knows, however, that the SOW is more than an agreement between the major
participants. It also sets the groundwork for effective communication, raises and addresses assumptions and
potential conflicts, and gives direction overall.
The SOW, then, is a medium for defining what the project will accomplish and the overall approach to take.
With an SOW Perry will have the answers to five W™s:
1. What is the product or service to be delivered?
2. Who are the primary participants, including the customers?
3. When must the project start and be completed?
4. Where will the project be undertaken?
5. Why is there a project?
More specifically, Perry will capture the following information:
• Constraints or limitations on the work
• Coordination requirements
• Levels of support from participants
• Major assumptions
• Major responsibilities
• Milestone dates
• Quality criteria
• Specific objectives
The onus is on Perry to acquire the data necessary to draft the SOW. It is also on him to draft the document
and obtain final approval. To obtain that data, Perry has several options, which include examining data from
earlier, similar projects; interviewing project sponsor, steering committee, vendors, or customers; reviewing
existing documentation, such as memos or procedures with earlier customers; and reviewing lessons learned,
if applicable, from earlier projects.
After collecting the data, Perry prepares a draft of the SOW, which follows this outline form:
I. Introduction
II. Scope
III. Assumptions
IV. Constraints
V. Performance Criteria
VI. Product/Service description

The Art of Interviewing
You don™t have to be a Barbara Walters or Larry King to conduct effective interviews. You just need to
follow a few principles:
• Determine the objectives of the interview. Is it specific information that you need or general
background information?
• Determine whether you want to do a structured or an unstructured interview.
Structured interviewing is asking a set of questions that help you get specific, often detailed information.
You use it when the subject matter is clear and unambiguous. For example, use a structured interview to
obtain specific information about a line item in a statement of work.
Unstructured interviewing is asking open-ended questions and winging it. The interviewer controls the
interview as it progresses. You use it when the subject matter is vague and greater insight into the subject
matter is necessary. For example, use an unstructured interview to obtain an understanding of the
customer™s expectations for a project.
Follow proper interviewing etiquette by asking permission to record or tape sessions, asking clear and
concise questions, keeping emotional distance from the response, listening actively, and scheduling
interview sessions at the right time. Avoid engaging in a debate and do not introduce bias in your questions.
If you follow these guidelines, interviewing will be a useful tool for acquiring information for your
statement of work.

VII. Major Responsibilities
VIII. References
IX. Amendments
X. Signatures

Exhibit 5-1 shows the draft SOW that Perry has prepared. When reviewing the draft, consider the purpose of
each major section.

Introduction

This section describes the goal of the project. It provides the name of the project, gives reasons for its
existence, names major players, and provides other pertinent information.
The Art of Negotiation
As a project manager, you will have plenty of opportunity to negotiate. You will have to negotiate
resources, schedules, budgets, and quality with customers, team members, and senior management.
Sometimes the negotiation will be formal, other times it will be informal.
When negotiating, keep these principles in mind:
1. Seek a win-win solution. Negotiation is not a victory over someone. Such victories are short-lived
and can cause greater problems later on.
2. Keep the commonalities between you and the person you™re negotiating with in the forefront of
your mind. Commonalities might include values, norms, tools, goals, or visions. By stressing what™s
common, you keep communication open.
3. Be flexible. A rigid stance may leave you with nothing or even a lose-lose result. Be flexible by
knowing what you value most and least.
4. Pick the right time and place to negotiate, one that is comfortable for both parties. Being
comfortable opens the dialogue.
5. Know as much as possible about the person you™re negotiating with.

Scope

This section lists the project™s “boundaries””that is, what is and is not to be done. The scope is important for
planning and also for minimizing changes.


Previous Table of Contents Next




Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home

Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of
EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement.
Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

Search this book:
Search Tips

Advanced Search


Previous Table of Contents Next



Assumptions
Title

This section lists any unsubstantiated ideas about the project. Assumptions may, for example, relate to levels
of internal support or existing or market conditions. Assumptions are used in planning.
----------- Constraints

Rarely does a project have unlimited resources at its disposal. Money, time, people, equipment, supplies, and
facilities are often limited in quantity and quality. Recognizing such limitations early on enables realistic
planning.
Exhibit 5-1. Statement of work (SOW).
I. Introduction
This project resulted from a request by the Smythe family of 1801 Brotherhood Avenue, Rockford,
Pennsylvania. Although our primary focus is on weddings within the continental United States, this
wedding will occur in Naples, Italy. This is GWI™s first project outside the United States. It is
expected that this project will lead to similar ones in the future, substantially increasing our revenues.
II. Scope
This project will require all our services provided for domestic weddings. These services include:
• Announcements, including to friends, relatives, and newspapers
• Ceremony and reception locations
• Decorations and props
• Entertainment
• Flowers
• Food and beverages
• Hotel accommodations
• Invitations
• Lighting
• Music
• Photography
• Prewedding parties and rehearsals, including bachelor parties and bridal showers
• Sound
• Travel
• Videotaping
• Wedding attire
• Wedding feast and cake
• Wedding transportation

Services required by the Smythes but not available through GWI will be contracted out.
III. Assumptions
The Smythe Project will be managed based on the following assumptions:
• Internal resources will be available to include electronic and staffing.
• Contracted services will perform when required.
• The project will have priority over existing projects.
• No legal problems will occur in holding a wedding outside the United States.
IV. Constraints
The following constraints will be placed on the project:
• Culture differences may impede performance.
• Resources must continue to support other wedding projects.
V. Performance Criteria
The project will comply with all requirements listed in the contract between the Smythe family and
GWI. Any deviations from the contract must be reviewed by the steering committee and require
signatures.
The project must finish on 11 June 2000. The cost for the wedding cannot exceed $1 million (U.S.).
VI. Product/Service Description
GWI will provide a full one-day wedding service on top of Mount Vesuvius on 11 June 2000. The
wedding includes providing lodging for dignitaries, food, tourist attraction events, and entertainment.
GWI will also arrange the wedding ceremony, feast, and itinerary for the honeymoon. Refer to the
contract between the Smythe family and GWI. Also refer to Section II, Scope, for additional
information.
VII. Major Responsibilities
The project manager will:
• Serve as the primary point of contact for the project.
• Develop and execute a comprehensive project plan.
• Keep the steering committee informed regarding progress.
• Use all resources efficiently and effectively.
• Evaluate changes to all baselines.

The steering committee will provide continuous overseeing for the project, which includes:
• Periodic review of progress
• Guidance and direction, when necessary
• Reporting to the internal customer
VIII. References
The primary documents supporting this statement of work are:
• Contract between GWI and the Smythe family
• Existing company policies and procedures
IX. Amendments
This document may be changed only after review and approval of first the steering committee and
then the internal customer.
X. Signatures
• Project manager
• Steering committee members
• Internal customer

Performance Criteria

This section describes the criteria for customer satisfaction. Often, it points to three criteria: cost, schedule,
and quality. The project cannot, for example, cost more than a set amount; specific milestones or red-letter
dates must be met; service or product specifications must be addressed. This information allows for
meaningful planning and ensures that the project will address key concerns.

Product/Service Description

This section has an overall description of the product or service. This description might include the basic
features, characteristics, components, or deliverables to be produced. The content may be a narrative or a
diagram. This information is useful for developing a work breakdown structure.


Previous Table of Contents Next




Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home

Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of
EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement.
Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

Search this book:
Search Tips

Advanced Search


Previous Table of Contents Next



Major Responsibilities
Title

This section delineates the high-level tasks of major participants. These tasks will be given in finer detail in
the work breakdown structure.
----------- References

This section lists any documentation that governs the content of the SOW. The documents often provide more
details for planning.

Amendments

The SOW is not something etched in stone, contrary to popular belief. It is a living document that probably
will be modified from time to time. This section is for appending any agreed-upon changes that come later.

Signatures

This section contains the approvals of all principal decision makers. At minimum, it should have signatures of
the project manager, executive sponsor, customer, and executive steering committee members. If the ultimate
customer is external to the company, as with the Smythe Project, the “customer” is frequently the liaison with
the external customer. If this is the case, the statement of work usually becomes part of the terms and
conditions of the formal contract.
Exhibit 5-2 shows a flowchart for developing a statement of work.

The Project Announcement
With a completed SOW, Perry has one more task before he can start to plan: publishing a project
announcement.
The project announcement is a widely distributed memo”albeit more than just another memo. It is also a
way to give visibility to the project, communicate to everyone the priority of the project, and acquire the
political muscle to compete with other projects.
Exhibit 5-2. Flowchart for statement of work.
Exhibit 5-3. Project announcement.
Date: 15 January 2000
To: Jones, N., et al.
cc: Rogersby, H., et al.
Subject: Smythe Project
Perry Fitzberg has been designated the project manager for the Smythe Project. He will report directly to the
executive steering committee, consisting of all functional vice-presidents of GWI.
The project must start no later than 30 January and be completed by 11 June 2000. The wedding will occur
in Naples, Italy. Approximately 1,000 people will attend the event.
Amelia
Amelia Rainbow

<< . .

. 5
( : 22)



. . >>