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mark the occurrence of an event. The icon has a duration of zero. This event might be receiving approval or
the completion of a task. Exhibit 8-10 is an example of a milestone chart. Like the basic bar chart, it is best
used when reporting to senior management.
Exhibit 8-10. Milestone chart.
Month
Task Duration Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
1.0 Parties Ê
2.0 Stationery Ê
3.0 Photography/ Ê
Videography
4.0 Gifts and favors Ê
5.0 Attire Ê
6.0 Transportation Ê
7.0 Fees Ê
8.0 Flowers Ê
9.0 Honeymoon Ê
10.0 Guests Ê

Perry uses the network diagram to plan the details of the project and manage it from day to day. He uses the
bar chart for reporting to senior management.

The Schedule as a Road Map
Using the work breakdown structure and the time estimates that he developed earlier, Perry builds a realistic
schedule. The schedule provides a road map for him and all team members to follow.
However, he realizes that a schedule can help him to accomplish only so much. He also needs to organize his
project so that he can efficiently and effectively execute his plan.
Questions for Getting Started
1. Did you develop a network diagram or a bar chart? Or both?
2. If you developed a network diagram, did you:
• Assign task numbers to each item in the WBS? Is the numbering scheme meaningful?
• Identify the people who will help you put the logic together?
• Tie all the tasks together to form a complete, logical diagram?
• Convert the hours for each task to flow time or duration?
• Calculate the early and late start and finish dates for each task?
• Consider the constraints, such as imposed dates, when calculating dates?
• Consider relationship types and lag?
• Calculate float to identify the critical path(s)?
• Obtain all core team members™ concurrence?
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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 9
Resource Allocation:
Aligning People and Other Resources With Tasks
-----------

For the Smythe Project to succeed, Perry must have sufficient resources”that is, both people and things”and
use them efficiently and effectively. Resource allocation, a part of the organizing function, allows him to do
that.
As Perry knows, a project manager has a wide variety of resources to employ, including people, supplies,
equipment, and facilities. People, for most projects in general and for the Smythe Project in particular, are the
predominant resource and, consequently, the major focus here to illustrate resource allocation principles.
Resource allocation involves four basic steps:

1. Identify the Tasks Involved
Perry goes directly to the network diagram to identify the tasks involved in his project. These tasks are the
same ones as at the work package level in the work breakdown structure (see Chapter 6).

2. Assign Resources to Those Tasks
Perry starts determining how to best apply his resources. When assigning people resources, he considers
several factors, including:
• Availability
• Available budget
• Education/training
• Equipment to do work
• Expertise
• Individual™s desire or interest
• Knowledge
• Personality
• Teaming
Perry also considers behavioral factors, such as personality. He recognizes that some people may not be
suitable to do certain tasks (e.g., an engineer may well be unsuitable to do the work of a salesman).
Perry also considers the motivational tools at his disposal. He will use job enlargement, for instance, to
challenge certain people to assume more responsibilities. He uses job enrichment to motivate other team
members. And he considers job rotation. Of course, Perry recognizes that there are some risks, mainly the
inability of the person to handle different or greater responsibilities. However, Perry is willing to take the
chance in applying his people resources, since the potential payback in productivity will easily outweigh the
risks.
When allocating resources, Perry applies the following heuristics (or rules of thumb):
• With noncritical tasks, give preference to the task with the least float.
• Give priority to tasks on the critical path.
• If two activities are critical and have the same float, give preference to the more complex task.

3. Build a Resource Profile
The resource profile graphically displays the planned and actual use of one or more resources over the
duration of a task, group of tasks, or entire project. The display is often a histogram, as shown in Exhibit 9-1.
The x-axis shows a time continuum reflecting the early or late start and finish dates. The y-axis shows the
cumulative hours to perform one or more tasks. The continuous vertical bars profile the cumulative hours that
someone will work on one or more concurrent tasks.
The initial histogram often has an irregular shape. The high points are peaks, reflecting greater use of
resources at a specific point in time. The low points are valleys, reflecting lower use of resources at a specific
point in time. Exhibit 9-1 is an example of a histogram with several peaks and valleys.
An irregular shape to the histogram reflects that resources are being employed inefficiently or ineffectively.
The peaks may indicate that the schedule is too tight (i.e., compressed durations), thereby requiring extensive
overtime to complete the work. The schedule may be too loose (i.e.,




Exhibit 9-1. Unleveled histogram.

durations too spread out). The valleys may indicate that too much time is available to complete a task. Either
way, such scenarios can negatively affect motivation, performance, and productivity. Too much duration
communicates a lack of importance or urgency. Too little duration can lead to burnout, negative conflict, and
work owing to oversights or mistakes.
Therefore, Perry attempts to reduce the number of peaks and valleys by smoothing out the histogram as much
as possible, similar to what appears in Exhibit 9-2. The result is called a leveled histogram, and the process of
smoothing it out is called level loading. Of course, a histogram is rarely flat.

4. Adjust the Schedule or Pursue Alternatives
Perry can level his histogram in several ways. He can change the logic of the schedule so that the number of
concurrent activities someone is as. signed is less. He can change the relationship between two activities (e.g.,
change a start-to-start relationship to a finish-to-start one) or add lag between the two activities to reduce
concurrency. He can also reduce the float of noncritical activities by lengthening their duration without
changing the total hours of effort. Finally, he can reduce the output from certain tasks, thereby leveling the
work.
When it becomes impossible to alter the schedule, then Perry can rearrange assignments to lower the working
hours per day or employ an alternative person, such as a consultant or contract employee (see “Consultants
and Outsources,” below).
Exhibit 9-2. Leveled histogram.
Overtime and Burnout
On many projects, especially ones where meeting the completion date is critical, overtime is the norm rather
than the rule. Periodic overtime is fine, but if taken to the extreme, it can have long-term effects on team
members and influence overall performance on the project.
From a behavioral perspective, extensive overtime can result in burnout, which is a common condition in
the information systems world. Burnout can lead to omissions, rework, and scrapped work, all contributing
to lower productivity. From a schedule, cost, and quality perspective, excessive overtime has an effect, too.
People™s performance becomes impaired.
Too much overtime is symptomatic of major project management problems. There may be an unrealistic
schedule, a management-by-crisis situation, poorly trained people, inadequate equipment or facilities, low
morale, or lack of teamwork. If excessive overtime becomes the norm, serious replanning is required.
To avoid overtime problems, level the major peaks in the histogram.

Exhibit 9-3. Work assignments.

Task No. Description Duration (Days) Assigned to Hours/Day

6.1.1.1 Identify limousine service to church 3 Ewing 8

6.1.1.2 Coordinate limousine service to church 1 Ewing 8

6.1.1.3 Identify limousine service to reception 3 Ewing 8

6.1.1.4 Coordinate limousine service to reception 1 Eisenberg 8

6.1.2.1 Determine transportation requirements to 3 Ewing 8
church

6.1.2.2 Coordinate transportation to church 1 Eisenburg 8

6.1.2.3 Determine transportation requirements to 2 Ewing 8
and from reception

6.1.2.4 Coordinate transportation to and from 1 Eisenberg 8
reception

6.1.2.5 Arrange for valet service for church 1 Smith 8

6.1.2.6 Arrange for valet service for reception 1 Smith 8



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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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How Perry Levels the Load
Title

Perry develops a histogram for tasks related to transportation (6.0 in the work breakdown structure). He
notices that the histogram for Ewing has high peaks in the beginning and a sharp drop several days later.
Exhibit 9-3 shows the assignments of everyone to this task, Exhibit 9-4 shows the original histogram for
----------- Ewing, and Exhibit 9-5 shows that portion of the network diagram related to transportation.
Perry figures he has several options:
1. Switch the start-to-start relationship to finish-to-start for tasks 6.1.1.3 or 6.1.2.3, or both with
6.1.1.1.
2. Double the duration but not the work effort (hours) for 6.1.1.2, which is a noncritical-path task.
3. Replace Ewing on certain concurrent tasks (e.g., 6.1.1.1, 6.1.1.3, or 6.1.2.3, or both) with additional
help (e.g., consultant, contractor, or outsource). This will reduce the peak for Ewing.
4. Change the precedence relationships between tasks.
After making the changes to the assignments and changing the precedence relationships (see Exhibit 9-6), he
generates a leveled histogram for Ewing (see Exhibit 9-7).

Consultants and Outsources

Consultants
From time to time, project managers will not have sufficient labor resources to complete their projects. A
solution is to hire consultants.
But hiring consultants should not be done lightly, since their services can prove expensive and the quality of
their output is often debatable.
Take the following steps when hiring consultants.
1. Know exactly what you expect from the consultant. Is it a deliverable product? Is it a document or
just “advice” in oral form?
2. Look at several consultants rather than one as a sole source. Reliance on one consultant increases
dependency.
Exhibit 9-4. Unleveled histogram for Ewing.




Exhibit 9-5. Network diagram (portion for transportation).
3. Conduct a background investigation. Who is on their client list? How satisfied are the clients with
their work? What is their reputability in performing that type of work?
4. Monitor the performance. Expect periodic reviews to preclude the unexpected lack of delivery. Have
those reviews documented to prevent legal problems regarding the quality of output.
5. Include the tasks of consultants in the work breakdown structure and on the schedule. If
nonperformance occurs, it is easier to show the impact on the overall progress of the project, at least
from a schedule and cost perspective.
6. Ensure that the terms and conditions of an agreement exactly describe the deliverable. Don™t rely on
general statements, which can eventually lead to disagreements that can only be resolved in the courts.




Exhibit 9-6. Network diagram with logic change.

Outsourcing Services
An alternative to using consultants is outsourcing, by which an independent vendor provides a service and
assumes responsibility for the results. For example, a project manager might outsource the development and
delivery of a deliverable or component of the product being built.
Outsourcing has its advantages. It can help shift the development of difficult, complex deliverables to
expertise that does not exist on the team. It can shift nonessential deliverables to outside vendors so that the
team can focus on critical matters. Finally, it can allow for flexibility in responding to a fast-paced
environment, since less is invested in a project infrastructure and the outsourcing can be canceled without
investing too much.
Outsourcing has its disadvantages, too. The potential for losing control may be high. The work can cost more
initially. And it takes time to find a reliable outsourcing vendor.
To ensure that you make a good outsourcing decision:
1. Do an analysis to determine if outsourcing is a better option than having the team do the work.
2. Select from several outsourcing vendors. Compare each one, not just on a cost basis but also on
reputability of work and service.
3. Identify what is too critical to outsource. A bad outsourcing decision can have disastrous results on
the entire project.
4. Identify what you can outsource. Often, these are services or deliverables not essential to the
outcome of the project.
5. If outsourcing something critical, then ensure that reviews and audits are stipulated in the contract.
Actually, the rights for reviews and audits should be incorporated in the contract as a general rule, but
especially for critical services or deliverables.
Exhibit 9-7. Leveled histogram for Ewing.
Accelerated Projects
It™s called fast-tracking. It is building a product or delivering a service in a very short period of time, usually
undertaken for a time-to-market circumstance in an emergency. Information system projects that must
deliver an application under market pressure quite commonly fit this category.
People on accelerated projects work at a feverish pace for a short time. There are usually several concurrent
activities.
Fast-tracking works best when the project has a previous history, the team members are highly skilled and
have previous experience, and the opportunity for reuse exists. The emphasis is on getting results quickly
and correctly. Little time is available for experimentation, even creativity.
The downside to fast-tracking is burnout. While the focus on results does provide opportunities for effective
teaming, failures can be magnified and lead to finger pointing. Fast-tracking also requires constant training
and retraining so people can perform quickly.
Fast-tracking accelerates the life of a project. In exchange for speedy delivery, however, it can have
long-term negative consequences.

Summing Up Resource Allocation

The principles of resource allocation apply to inanimate objects such as desks and supplies no less than to
people. In either case allocating resources requires identifying the tasks, making assignments, building
profiles, and making adjustments to satisfy requirements. There is, however, one major difference. When
doing people allocation, Perry must be sensitive to their psychological needs (e.g., feelings, values), which, of
course, is not necessary for inanimate objects. This psychological factor becomes especially important not
only when Perry assigns tasks but also when he starts to organize his team to efficiently and effectively
achieve the goals of the project.

Questions for Getting Started
1. Did you identify the tasks to allocate your resources?
2. Do you know all the different types of resources you will need?
3. Is there a resource pool where you can get all the resources you need? If not, will you need
consultants? Will you need to out-source?
4. Did you assign people to all the tasks?
5. Did you run a resource histogram for each person?
6. Did you need to or attempt to level each of the histograms?
7. When you assign people to tasks, do you consider behavioral as well as technical factors?
8. If you use consultants or outsourcing, did you perform a background analysis first?
9. If overtime appears in the histograms, is it constant or sporadic? If the former, what steps are you
willing to take to deal with the effects of burnout?


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Project Management Practitioner's Handbook
by Ralph L. Kleim and Irwin S. Ludin
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814403964 Pub Date: 01/01/98

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Title
Chapter 10
Team Organization
Over the years, Perry has seen the symptoms of poor team organization. Some projects have too many leaders,
-----------
leaving only a few people to do the work and making coordination difficult. Other projects have too many
layers of management, impeding effective communication; team members become frustrated, waiting for all
the leaders to reach agreement or gain approvals. To augment frustration levels, tasks frequently are unclear,
lacking definitions of roles and responsibilities.
Good organization makes sense; yet project managers often give too little attention to organizing their group.
Frequently, teams are an assembly of people and nothing more. Some project managers fear alienating people
by setting up a project organization. Others lack an appreciation for its contribution to project success. Still
others have a preference for an unofficial organizational structure.
Through the function of organization, Perry can realize many advantages. His team can operate more
efficiently, since responsibilities and reporting relationships will be clearly defined. It can operate more
effectively, because each person will know what is expected of him or her. The team has higher morale,
because roles and reporting relationships will be clear ” which in turn reduces the opportunities for conflict.

Ten Prerequisites for Effective Organization
Perry must satisfy some preliminary requirements to build a formal organization, especially one that handles
medium to large projects like his:
1. He must know the project goals. This knowledge will help to determine how to best arrange his
resources.
2. He must know all the players. This knowledge will help him to determine who will support him
directly and who will provide ad hoc support.
3. He must understand the political climate. Although the team may be temporary, the project may be
around for a long time.
4. He must receive preliminary concurrence on the project organization from all the major players
(e.g., senior management, customers).
5. He must determine the appropriate span of control. This means determining how many people he
can effectively manage before establishing an additional layer of management (e.g., appointing team
leaders).
6. He must publish the organization chart as early as possible. This action will clarify roles early and
reduce the opportunity for conflict. It will also make assigning responsibilities easier.
7. He must consider how much autonomy to grant people on the project. This will depend on how
much control he wants to maintain. If he wants tight control, he will limit the autonomy he grants to
project participants.
8. He must consider issues of authority, responsibility, and accountability. How much authority will he
have and how much can he grant? How much responsibility can he relinquish and still be accountable
for the results?
9. He must consider how to group the functions of the project team. Should he mix them or segregate
them? If the latter, how will he encourage information sharing, communication, and teaming?
10. He must identify the line and staff functions. The goal of the project will help determine the
positions. Line functions contribute directly to the results; these are typically people on the core team.
Staff functions do not contribute directly to the results and ordinarily they are not part of the core team.

Types of Organizational Structure
There are two basic types of organizational structures for a project: task force and matrix. The task force
structure is shown in Exhibit 10-1.
The task force is a group of people assembled to complete a specific goal. The team is completely focused on
that goal and, consequently, devotes its entire energies to its accomplishment. By its very nature, task forces
are temporary; the team is disassembled once the goal is accomplished. It also usually operates autonomously,
with its own budget and authority.
The task force has the advantage of giving visibility to a project. It isolates team members from organizational
myopia and frees them from daily administrivia. It enables creativity and experimentation within the confines
of the goal and scope of the project.
Despite these advantages, Perry does not like the task force structure, at least for the Smythe Project. Since a
task force would last for only a fixed duration, there™s a danger that few people would have loyalty to the
project and stay the course. As the project experiences difficulties, some people might depart early, leaving it
vulnerable to schedule slippages and lapses in quality.




Exhibit 10-1. Task force structure.
As the project grows, too, it can become too independent, “stealing” people from other projects. Other
organizations and projects are robbed of badly needed expertise. As a project ends, the task force may

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