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introduces a replacement, time and effort are necessary to orient that new team member. The effect on the
productivity of the team depends on the point at which the turnover occurred and the role of the person who
has left the team. Turnover that occurs late in the project will have the greatest negative impact. Other team
members are too engrossed at this point to have the time to work with the new team members, who have a
great deal to absorb in order to be productive. In addition, studies indicate that loss of the project manager or
the client will have the greatest effect on the capability of the project team to bring the project in on time and
within budget. Worthy of note is that the secretary or administrative assistant has the greatest impact on the
team after the project manager and the client.
Functional managers or supervisors should be required (other than in emergencies) to give advance notice to
you of their intent to replace a team member so you have the opportunity to evaluate the impact in advance of
the actual transfer. If you take exception to the transfer, raise the issue with the manager or supervisor. If
agreement cannot be reached, you have the option of escalating the issue to an arbitrator or mediator who,
after examining priorities and impacts, will determine the appropriate course of action. This must be done
prior to the transfer; reversal of an implemented decision is often difficult and sometimes impossible.


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Not all decisions will favor you. Additionally, the longer and larger the project is, the more likely it is that
Title
transfers will compromise your team™s ability to meet the project targets. You can deal with these roadblocks
by requesting a contingency, set aside to deal with the added cost and lost time of assimilating new team
members throughout the project.
The key issue here is not the relative expertise of the original team member and the replacement; it is the
-----------
commitment, motivation, and the sense of ownership of the plan. Thus, you may take exception to transfers
even when you realize they are more experienced and productive employees than the original team member.
Three guidelines will help you deal with turnover:
1. If you can orchestrate turnover, accomplish it early in the project.
2. If the person being moved is the project manager or client, expect a significant impact.
3. If there is turnover, immediately reevaluate and renegotiate the time and budget required to
complete the project.

Adding Human Resources
Adding people to the team will have an impact on the productivity of the team as a whole. There is a law of
diminishing returns when adding personnel onto the project team: adding one more person may reduce the
time, adding another person may further reduce the time, but somewhere in the progression of adding
additional resources, the time will increase. Frederick Brooks, in his book The Mythical Man-Month, suggests
that this phenomenon occurs because the addition of new personnel requires additional communication
channels that must be established and maintained.1 Brooks puts forth this formula:
1The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1982).




where I is the number of interfaces or communication channels that must be established and E is the number
of elements or people on the project team. For example, if there are ten elements or people on the project
team, forty-five communication channels must be established (Figure 3-3). If you add one more person to the
team, there will now be eleven people on the team and fifty-five required communication channels.
Obviously there is a point beyond which the introduction of additional resources to the project is
nonproductive rather than productive. The number of interactions is significant, and it can have a profound
impact on the total number of person-hours necessary to perform the task. When you plan tasks that have
more than one person assigned to them, take into account the number of potential interactions.

Effect of Overtime
There are two major philosophies concerning overtime: (1) overtime is ineffective, and (2) overtime is
effective only when it is required for short intervals. This latter philosophy suggests that project team
members are willing to rise to the occasion and accept overtime under two conditions: they see the end of the
overtime, and they understand why it is necessary. When overtime becomes a way of life, it is no longer
effective or productive. Here™s an interesting example.
In his book Advanced Project Management, F L Harrison suggests that a person who works 6 days at 12
hours per day (72 person-hours) is approximately 88 percent productive.2 In effect, he would give the project
72 — 88 percent = 63.4 effective effort hours. If, however, this person works 7 days at 12 hours per day (84
person-hours), he would be only 77 percent productive and provide the project with 64.7 effective effort hours
(84 — 77 percent = 64.7). By working an extra 12-hour day, he would provide the project with only an
additional 1.3 hours of effective effort. Whether you agree with these percentages of productivity or not, we
believe that you will agree with the premise: people who work too much consecutive overtime show
diminished productivity.
2Advanced Project Management, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985).




Figure 3-3 Adding resources to a project.


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Project Management
by Joan Knudson and Ira Bitz
AMACOM Books
ISBN: 0814450431 Pub Date: 01/01/91

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Title
Chapter 4
A Model for Project Planninig
This is the first of two chapters that deal with the development of the project plan. In this chapter, we focus on
-----------
the process of planning and address the general procedures for planning project schedules, resources, dollars,
and work accomplishment. In Chapter 5, we explain in detail the specific tools and techniques necessary for
using these procedures.

The Integrated Project Plan
An integrated project plan is the primary tool for effective coordination of project work. It consists of separate
schedule, cost, human resource, capital asset, and achievement subplans. These subplans are integrated
through the use of a common work breakdown structure. The objectives of the project plan are to:
• Determine and portray the scope of effort required in order to fulfill the project objectives.
• Identify all personnel responsible for performance of work on the project.
• Schedule the required work (tasks) and establish a timetable.
• Indicate the human resources and capital assets necessary for each task.
• Determine the budget for each component of the work task or group of tasks.
This integrated project plan facilitates communication among senior management, the project manager, the
functional managers, the project team, and any contractor(s). The plan is designed to facilitate project
coordination, communication, planning, and control rather than to provide technical direction to the
participants. There are eight key considerations for developing integrated project plans.
How to Develop Integrated Project Plans
1. Involve personnel assigned to the team in planning at the earliest possible moment.
2. Involve team members continuously until the plan is completed and approved.
3. Avoid being too optimistic or too pessimistic in estimating. The desired estimate has a high
probability of realization. Ideally, there should be a 50 percent probability of either being over or
under the estimate.
4. Negotiate work commitments from project team members who work for functional managers
outside your authority.
5. Obtain commitments for all effort (human resources, equipment, and assets required to perform
the work) in the work breakdown structure.
6. Obtain a written commitment to project plans from all parties.
7. Remember that an integrated project plan is a step-by-step process. Each step builds on what has
been accomplished in previous steps. Avoid alterations to the planning sequence since they may
reduce participant commitment to the plan.
8. Understand that the effort required to develop the integrated project plan depends on the project™s
clarity, realism, objectives, size, scope, and complexity; the team™s experience, cooperation, and
enthusiasm; and continuous, visible, and strong support by management for the project management
process.

The act of listing tasks in a schedule or collecting costs in a cost report does not constitute project planning.
Project planning is a disciplined process supporting the coordination and direction of resources such as time,
people, and dollars to achieve product and project parameters established by management. It emphasizes the
process of planning the work required to produce the project™s end product rather than focusing on the
technical aspects necessary to produce the product. You must answer these five essential questions during
project planning:
Essential Questions to Ask During Project Planning
What (technical objectives): The question of what is to be accomplished is addressed through the review of
the technical objectives by the project manager and the team.
How (work breakdown structure): The technical objectives are achieved by developing a work breakdown
structure, which is a checklist of tasks that must be performed.
Who (resource commitment and utilization plan): The issue of who will perform the work is addressed, and
the organizational units responsible for components of the work are incorporated into the work breakdown
structure at the appropriate level of detail.
When (schedule): Further into the planning process, the questions of how long each element of work will
take, when it will be performed, and what resources and assets will be used in its performance are
addressed.
How much (budget): How much will it cost to perform the project?

An integrated project plan contains the data that support the what, how, who, when, and how much of a
project. Several benefits are realized from this integration:
1. Effective communication is encouraged within the team and to the project client and management.
2. A final check is provided for ensuring that the project objectives are attainable with the time and
resources available.
3. An integrated plan establishes the scope and a level of responsibility and authority for all team
members and their respective work efforts.
4. The plan serves as the basis for analyzing, negotiating, and recording scope changes and
commitments of time, personnel, and dollars to the project. In this way, a baseline is formed for
measuring progress, calculating variances, and determining preventive or corrective actions.
5. The plan minimizes the need for narrative reporting. Comparisons of the plan against actual
performance in the form of lists or graphics make reporting more efficient and effective. In this way, it
can provide an audit trail and a documentation of changes that can remind team members and the client
why changes were made during the evolution of the project.
6. It records, in a standard format, critical project data that can be used in planning future projects.
The Five-Step Planning Model
An integrated project plan maximizes the probability of achieving the project objectives through five major
work steps:
The Five-Step Planning Model
1. Define the project.
2. Model the project.
3. Estimate and schedule the project.
4. Balance the plan.
5. Approve and publish the plan.

Step 1: Define the Project
As discussed in Chapter 2, once you have reviewed the objectives and accepted the assignment, you must
follow a sequence of planning steps to ensure that an adequate plan will result. There is some overlap between
the start of planning and the process of developing and approving the project objectives. Early in the planning
process, the project objectives will have been thoroughly reviewed and approved by management. Then a
decision to proceed with plan development will be made.


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Acceptance of the assignment by the project manager is generally assumed. Sometimes, however, you may
Title
determine that it is in the best interests of the organization for you to refuse the assignment. You may doubt
that the technical objectives are attainable or believe that the project cannot be accomplished within the
budget and schedule. You should bring these concerns to the attention of management. A project manager™s
refusal to take the assignment commonly causes renegotiation of the objectives rather than rejection of the
----------- project. There may be an alteration of the technical objectives of the assignment, the schedule, or the cost
objectives. If you do not believe that you possess the requisite technical expertise to manage the undertaking,
refusing the assignment is also acceptable. In this case, a more technically strong individual may be assigned
to assist you.
You are well advised to perform a personal review of the adequacy of the specifications and list of applicable
standards for the end product or service. Evaluate whether there have been any external influences or
regulatory changes during the period between the formulation of the objectives and the start of the project that
might necessitate a change in the objectives. As a result of this personal assessment, you can indicate that
there is a satisfactory basis for developing the plan or initiate a process of clarification and modification of the
project objectives. At the conclusion of this effort, the objectives are either modified to address your concerns
or the project is terminated prior to plan development.
As project manager, you will serve as the integrative force throughout the project, and it is your responsibility
to establish and maintain project files that all team members will use during the project. The files should
include all original and revised project plans, all milestone products, relevant studies or research results, the
statement of objectives, status reports, and project correspondence. Upon completion of a project, the files
(often referred to as the project notebook) should be reviewed. After selective disposal of papers that are no
longer relevant, the files should be archived for future project managers to refer to. It is important not to
discard work breakdown structures and networks from old projects since the next assignment might repeat
significant portions.

Step 2: Model the Project
Modeling focuses on developing a simulation of the effort required to achieve the project objectives. The
model produces two deliverables: the work breakdown structure (WBS), which determines all the work
efforts required to bring the project to a successful completion, and the network, a sequence in which the tasks
should be performed.
The WBS is a framework in which to define the work tasks for the project. The work tasks are arranged in a
hierarchy of major categories (or phases) of work. Each category is then broken down into lower levels of
detail that describe the specific tasks necessary to complete the major categories of work. (We discuss the
details for developing these categories and work tasks in Chapter 5.)
Developing a WBS requires the contributions of the project team members. An effective method for
developing a WBS is to hold a group session where team members can freely brainstorm and discuss their
ideas. If a meeting is not feasible, interview team members one at a time or send out questionnaires. Keep in
mind, however, that a group session will always produce the best results. (At the end of this chapter, we
discuss in more detail how to set up and facilitate team meetings.)
Once the WBS has been completed, the team can develop a network showing the interrelationships among the
tasks. These interrelationships, or dependencies that the tasks have with one another, are typically referred to
as the relationship a predecessor task(s) has to a successor task(s). The relationship is determined by the
necessity of a predecessor task to be complete (or partially complete) before the successor task can begin; that
is, the start of the successor task is dependent on (or constrained by) the predecessor task. (We cover the
mechanics of developing a network in the next chapter.)

Step 3: Estimate and Schedule the Project
Estimating and scheduling focus on determining the duration, required level of funding, and required level of
resources for the project. Approaches to estimating are personal. Each individual has his or her own
techniques for developing an estimate of the effort required to perform a task and duration to complete the
task. Some organizations have estimating procedures for use by the team, but most do not, so teams typically
are left to their own devices to develop the task estimates, and the project manager is provided with minimal
guidance for review and confirmation of estimates.
Most estimators begin by estimating the person-hours required to perform a task. This number becomes the
basis for an estimate of elapsed time. Next is the determination of direct costs; these are the person-hours
multiplied by the charge-out rate of that grade of personnel. Finally, when capital assets are required to
perform the task, the type and cost to the project are determined. Estimating is a seven-step process:
Estimating Steps
A. Develop the task estimates.
B. Process the data into a preliminary plan.
C. Compare the preliminary plan to objectives.
D. Negotiate revisions to the estimates.
E. Negotiate revisions to the project objectives.
F. Make a go/no-go decision.
G. Prepare schedules and budget.

Step A: Develop the Task Estimates
The estimating data must be developed by the team members who are responsible for performing the work.
This ensures that estimates are realistic, that there is a commitment to the estimates by the team members, and
that the team will be motivated to meet the estimates. All estimates must first be processed into a preliminary
plan in which each task has a planned starting date and a planned duration. The team members furnish the
following data to you as project manager: the amount of time necessary to perform the work or effort of a
task; the amount of calendar time or elapsed workdays necessary to complete the work tasks; capital assets by
unit of measure to perform the task (e.g., purchase of equipment, special construction of facilities); and direct
costs by category to perform the task (e.g., labor and materials).
The most accurate estimates result when small increments of work are being estimated. A large or complex
task should be divided into subtasks for estimating, which can then be summed to the task estimate. Tasks can
be performed by varying numbers of persons, depending on the nature of the work and the manner in which it
is divided among the people involved. The team member should estimate each task based on the most
efficient number of persons needed to execute the effort. Later the estimate can be modified to deal with the
schedule or resource problems.
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In preparing estimates, team members should take into account nonproductive time. This downtime factor can
Title
be based on the judgment of the estimator or can be a guideline from the functional manager. Given the nature
of their work, downtime varies from unit to unit. Since projects do not constitute the entire workload of most
functional units, persons assigned to a project must be expected to be diverted from time to time to deal with
functional work. This nonproject loss factor should be used in developing estimates for elapsed time. These
----------- diversions do not affect the project budget, since time spent on other activities is not charged to the project.
The impact on the schedule, however, must be accounted for in the estimates.

Step B: Process the Data Into a Preliminary Plan
The preliminary project plan consists of a schedule derived from the dependency relationships and the task
estimates. This schedule is prepared on a time-scale calendar chart showing when tasks are to begin, how long
they will take, and when they are planned to end.
The cost budget for the project can be produced by analyzing the tasks being performed during each unit of
time and dollars being spent for capital assets and direct costs. (The mechanics of how to produce the
schedule and budget are discussed in the next chapter.)

Step C: Compare the Preliminary Plan to Objectives
If only a technical objective has been established, cost and schedule are now negotiated by you with senior
management. In most cases, the project objectives are determined by senior management and the client before
the project is assigned to you. The technical objectives are a constant. They are the same for the schedule and
budget established by senior management and for the preliminary project plan you and your team established.
The comparison undertaken is (1) between the completion date established by senior management and the
planned completion date, and (2) between the senior management budget and the planned cost.
If the comparisons are within a reasonable range of each other, there is no need to perform the remaining
subtasks. Negotiations are not necessary when the plan incorporates the commitments of the team and meets
the expectations of senior management. If the comparison is unfavorable, you must proceed to Steps D, E, and
F.
If senior management did not establish a due date for the project and/or a maximum cost, then proceed
directly to Step F and negotiate this with senior management. If the comparison is unfavorable because senior
management has allowed too much time or too high a budget for the technical objectives, you may proceed
directly to Step F and negotiate a reduction in the funding and an earlier anticipated delivery date for the
project. Step E in the estimating process is performed only if the preliminary project plan exceeds the
expectations of senior management.

Step D: Negotiate Revisions to the Estimates
This step is performed if the preliminary project plan exceeds the senior management™s and client™s schedule
and cost objectives. Perhaps senior management has established the objectives based on incomplete
information or an out-of-date historical model. Regardless of the cause of the problem, you must attempt to
reconcile the plan and the objectives through negotiation.
You may feel that the path of least resistance is to ask the client and senior management for additional time
and funds for the project. But be aware that it is not considered appropriate to make these requests until the
plan has been thoroughly reviewed and it has been determined that there are no excesses in it. Usually some
facets of the plan can be modified, and some change in the schedule and cost targets is possible.
The organization needs to be committed to realistic cost and schedule objectives. However, there are dangers
in negotiating estimate revisions, since considerable effort has been exerted to ensure that the project team is
committed to the estimates and motivated to adhere to them. The negotiation of revisions can cause the team
to lose this commitment and motivation. The result may be a set of estimates indicating that the project can be
completed by the due date and within the budget but that the team does not see as credible. Therefore, use
caution in the negotiations. Make sure that the members of the team do not alter the estimates in a manner that
renders them impossible to achieve. (We discuss different types of negotiated revisions in the next chapter.)

Step E: Negotiate Revisions to the Project Objectives
This step is a result of one of two sets of circumstances: (1) You approach the client and senior management
for the first time in order to negotiate a schedule deadline and a budget because these were not established
when the project was initiated, or, more commonly, (2) you realize there is an incompatibility between the
preliminary plan and the project objectives that cannot be eliminated by negotiating estimate revisions (Step
D).
In the first case, when you approach the client and senior management for the first time, the negotiations
should be simple and straightforward. Present the plan for senior management™s reaction and determination of
whether the time frame and cost are consistent with corporate objectives. This results in an immediate move

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