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source of X and the point f (x) =: βX is the target of X. We denote by πs ,
r s r
0 ¤ s ¤ r, the projection jx f ’ jx f of r-jets into s-jets. By Jx (M, N ) or
J r (M, N )y we mean the set of all r-jets of M into N with source x ∈ M or
target y ∈ N , respectively, and we write Jx (M, N )y = Jx (M, N ) © J r (M, N )y .
r r

The map j r f : M ’ J r (M, N ) is called the r-th jet prolongation of f : M ’ N .

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
118 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

12.3. Proposition. If two pairs of maps f , f : M ’ N and g, g : N ’ Q ¯
r¯ ¯(x), then j r (g —¦ f ) = j r (¯ —¦ f ).
r r r
satisfy jx f = jx f and jy g = jy g , f (x) = y = f
¯ xg
r¯ ¯
Proof. Take a curve γ on M with γ(0) = x. Then jx f = jx f implies f —¦γ ∼r f —¦γ,
¯¯ r r
lemma 12.1 gives g —¦ f —¦ γ ∼r g —¦ f —¦ γ and jy g = jy g yields g —¦ f —¦ γ ∼r g —¦ f —¦ γ.
¯ ¯ ¯
Hence g —¦ f —¦ γ ∼r g —¦ f —¦ γ.
In other words, r-th order contact of maps is preserved under composition. If
r r r r
X ∈ Jx (M, N )y and Y ∈ Jy (N, Q)z are of the form X = jx f and Y = jy g, we
can de¬ne the composition Y —¦ X ∈ Jx (M, Q)z by
Y —¦ X = jx (g —¦ f ).
By the above proposition, Y —¦ X does not depend on the choice of f and g. We
remark that we ¬nd it useful to denote the composition of r-jets by the same
symbol as the composition of maps. Since the composition of maps is associative,
the same holds for r-jets. Hence all r-jets form a category, the units of which
are the r-jets of the identity maps of manifolds. An element X ∈ Jx (M, N )y
is invertible, if there exists X ’1 ∈ Jy (N, M )x such that X ’1 —¦ X = jx (idM )
r r

and X —¦ X ’1 = jy (idN ). By the implicit function theorem, X ∈ J r (M, N ) is
invertible if and only if the underlying 1-jet π1 X is invertible. The existence of
such a jet implies dim M = dim N . We denote by invJ r (M, N ) the set of all
invertible r-jets of M into N .
¯ ¯
12.4. Let f : M ’ M be a local di¬eomorphism and g : N ’ N be a map.
Then there is an induced map J r (f, g) : J r (M, N ) ’ J r (M , N ) de¬ned by
J r (f, g)(X) = (jy g) —¦ X —¦ (jx f )’1
r r

where x = ±X and y = βX are the source and target of X ∈ J r (M, N ). Since
the jet composition is associative, J r is a functor de¬ned on the product category
Mfm —Mf . (We shall see in 12.6 that the values of J r lie in the category FM.)
12.5. We are going to describe the coordinate expression of r-jets. We recall
that a multiindex of range m is a m-tuple ± = (±1 , . . . , ±m ) of non-negative
integers. We write |±| = ±1 + · · · + ±m , ±! = ±1 ! · · · ±m ! (with 0! = 1), x± =
(x1 )±1 . . . (xm )±m for x = (x1 , . . . , xm ) ∈ Rm . We denote by
‚ |±| f
D± f =
(‚x1 )±1 . . . (‚xm )±m
the partial derivative with respect to the multiindex ± of a function f : U ‚
Rm ’ R.
Proposition. Given a local coordinate system xi on M in a neighborhood of x
and a local coordinate system y p on N in a neighborhood of f (x), two maps f ,
r r
g : M ’ N satisfy jx f = jx g if and only if all the partial derivatives up to order
r of the components f p and g p of their coordinate expressions coincide at x.
Proof. We ¬rst deduce that two curves γ(t), δ(t) : R ’ N satisfy γ ∼r δ if and
only if
dk (y p —¦ γ)(0) dk (y p —¦ δ)(0)
(1) =
dtk dtk
Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
12. Jets 119

k = 0, 1, . . . , r, for all coordinate functions y p . On one hand, if γ ∼r δ, then
y p —¦ γ ’ y p —¦ δ vanishes to order r, i.e. (1) is true. On the other hand, let (1)
hold. Given a function • on N with coordinate expression •(y 1 , . . . , y n ), we ¬nd
by the chain rule that all derivatives up to order r of • —¦ δ depend only on the
partial derivatives up to order r of • at γ(0) and on (1). Hence • —¦ γ ’ • —¦ δ
vanishes to order r at 0.
If the partial derivatives up to the order r of f p and g p coincide at x, then
r r
the chain rule implies f —¦ γ ∼r g —¦ γ by (1). This means jx f = jx g. Conversely,
assume jx f = jx g. Consider the curves xi = ai t with arbitrary ai . Then the
r r

coordinate condition for f —¦ γ ∼r g —¦ γ reads

(D± f p (x))a± = (D± g p (x))a±
|±|=k |±|=k

k = 0, 1, . . . , r. Since ai are arbitrary, (2) implies that all partial derivatives up
to order r of f p and g p coincide at x.
Now we can easily prove that the auxiliary relation γ ∼r δ can be expressed
in terms of r-jets.
r r
Corollary. Two curves γ, δ : R ’ M satisfy γ ∼r δ if and only if j0 γ = j0 δ.
Proof. Since xi —¦ γ and xi —¦ δ are the coordinate expressions of γ and δ, (1) is
r r
equivalent to j0 γ = j0 δ.
12.6. Write Lr r m n r
m,n = J0 (R , R )0 . By proposition 12.5, the elements of Lm,n
can be identi¬ed with the r-th order Taylor expansions of the generating maps,
i.e. with the n-tuples of polynomials of degree r in m variables without absolute
term. Such an expression
ap x±

will be called the polynomial representative of an r-jet. Hence Lr m,n is a nu-
merical space of the variables a± . Standard combinatorics yields dim Lr
m,n =
’ 1 . The coordinates on Lr will sometimes be denoted more explic-
n m,n
itly by ap , ap , . . . , ap1 ...ir , symmetric in all subscripts. The projection πs : Lr
i ij i
’ Ls consists in suppressing all terms of degree > s.
The jet composition Lr — Lr ’ Lr is evaluated by taking the composi-
m,n n,q m,q
tion of the polynomial representatives and suppressing all terms of degree higher
than r. Some authors call it the truncated polynomial composition. Hence the
jet composition Lr —Lr ’ Lr is a polynomial map of the numerical spaces
m,n n,q m,q
in question. The sets Lr can be viewed as the sets of morphisms of a category
Lr over non-negative integers, the composition in which is the jet composition.
The set of all invertible elements of Lr m,m with the jet composition is a Lie
group Gm called the r-th di¬erential group or the r-th jet group in dimension m.
For r = 1 the group G1 is identi¬ed with GL(m, R). That is why some authors
use GLr (m, R) for Gr . m
In the case M = Rm , we can identify every X ∈ J r (Rm , Rn ) with a triple
(±X, (jβX t’1 ) —¦ X —¦ (j0 t±X ), βX) ∈ Rm — Lr — Rn , where tx means the
r r

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
120 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

translation on Rm transforming 0 into x. This product decomposition de¬nes
the structure of a smooth manifold on J r (Rm , Rn ) as well as the structure of
a ¬bered manifold π0 : J r (Rm , Rn ) ’ Rm — Rn . Since the jet composition in

Lr is polynomial, the induced map J r (f, g) of every pair of di¬eomorphisms
f : Rm ’ Rm and g : Rn ’ Rn is a ¬bered manifold isomorphism over (f, g).
Having two manifolds M and N , every local charts • : U ’ Rm and ψ : V ’ Rn
determine an identi¬cation (π0 )’1 (U —V ) ∼ J r (Rm , Rn ). Since the chart chang-
ings are smooth maps, this de¬nes the structure of a smooth ¬bered manifold on
π0 : J r (M, N ) ’ M — N . Now we see that J r is a functor Mfm — Mf ’ FM.
Obviously, all jet projections πs are surjective submersions.
12.7. Remark. In de¬nition 12.2 we underlined the geometrical approach to
the concept of r-jets. We remark that there exists a simple algebraic approach

as well. Consider the ring Cx (M, R) of all germs of smooth functions on a
manifold M at a point x and its subset M(M, x) of all germs with zero value

at x, which is the unique maximal ideal of Cx (M, R). Let M(M, x)k be the
k-th power of the ideal M(M, x) in the algebraic sense. Using coordinates one
veri¬es easily that two maps f , g : M ’ N , f (x) = y = g(x), determine the

same r-jet if and only if • —¦ f ’ • —¦ g ∈ M(M, x)r+1 for every • ∈ Cy (N, R).
12.8. Velocities and covelocities. The elements of the manifold Tk M :=
J0 (Rk , M ) are said to be the k-dimensional velocities of order r on M , in short

(k, r)-velocities. The inclusion Tk M ‚ J r (Rm , M ) de¬nes the structure of a
smooth ¬ber bundle on Tk M ’ M . Every smooth map f : M ’ N is extended
r r r r r r
into an FM-morphism Tk f : Tk M ’ Tk N de¬ned by Tk f (j0 g) = j0 (f —¦ g).
Hence Tk is a functor Mf ’ FM. Since every map Rk ’ M1 — M2 coincides

with a pair of maps Rk ’ M1 and Rk ’ M2 , functor Tk preserves products.
For k = r = 1 we obtain another de¬nition of the tangent functor T = T1 .
We remark that we can now express the contents of de¬nition 12.2 by saying
r r r r
that jx f = jx g holds if and only if the restrictions of both T1 f and T1 g to
(T1 M )x coincide.
The space Tk M = J r (M, Rk )0 is called the space of all (k, r)-covelocities on

M . In the most important case k = 1 we write in short T1 = T r— . Since Rk is a
r— r r r
vector space, Tk M ’ M is a vector bundle with jx •(u) + jx ψ(u) = jx (•(u) +
r r
ψ(u)), u ∈ M , and kjx •(u) = jx k•(u), k ∈ R. Every local di¬eomorphism
r— r— r—
f : M ’ N is extended to a vector bundle morphism Tk f : Tk M ’ Tk N ,
jx • ’ jf (x) (• —¦ f ’1 ), where f ’1 is constructed locally. In this sense Tk is a
r r r—

functor on Mfm . For k = r = 1 we obtain the construction of the cotangent
bundles as a functor T1 = T — on Mfm . We remark that the behavior of Tk on
1— r—

arbitrary smooth maps will be re¬‚ected in the concept of star bundle functors
we shall introduce in 41.2.
12.9. Jets as algebra homomorphisms. The multiplication of reals induces
a multiplication in every vector space Tx M by
r r r
(jx •(u))(jx ψ(u)) = jx (•(u)ψ(u)),
r— r r
which turns Tx M into an algebra. Every jx f ∈ Jx (M, N )y de¬nes an algebra
r r— r— r r
homomorphism hom(jx f ) : Ty N ’ Tx M by jy • ’ jx (• —¦ f ). To deduce

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
12. Jets 121

the converse assertion, consider some local coordinates xi on M and y p on N
centered at x and y. The algebra Ty N is generated by j0 y p . If we prescribe
r— r

quite arbitrarily the images ¦(j0 y p ) in Tx M , this is extended into a unique
r r—

algebra homomorphism ¦ : Ty N ’ Tx M . The n-tuple ¦(j0 y p ) represents
r— r— r
the coordinate expression of a jet X ∈ Jx (M, N )y and one veri¬es easily ¦ =
hom(X). Thus we have proved
Proposition. There is a canonical bijection between Jx (M, N )y and the set of
r— r—
all algebra homomorphisms Hom(Ty N, Tx M ).

For r = 1 the product of any two elements in Tx M is zero. Hence the algebra
— —
homomorphisms coincide with the linear maps Ty N ’ Tx M . This gives an
identi¬cation J 1 (M, N ) = T N — T — M (which can be deduced by several other
ways as well).
12.10. Kernel descriptions. The projection πr’1 : T r— M ’ T r’1— M is a

linear morphism of vector bundles. Its kernel is described by the following exact
sequence of vector bundles over M

0 ’ S T M ’ T M ’ ’ T r’1— M ’ 0
r r—
’ ’ ’’ ’

where S r indicates the r-th symmetric tensor power. To prove it, we ¬rst con-
struct a map p : — T — M ’ T r— M . Take r functions f1 , . . . , fr on M with
values zero at x and construct the r-jet at x of their product. One sees directly
r 1 1 r
that jx (f1 . . . fr ) depends on jx f1 , . . . , jx fr only and lies in ker(πr’1 ). We have
r 1 1
jx (f1 . . . fr ) = jx f1 jx fr , where means the symmetric tensor prod-
uct, so that p is uniquely extended into a linear isomorphism of S r T — M into
ker(πr’1 ).
Next we shall use a similar idea for a geometrical construction of an iden-
ti¬cation, which is usually justi¬ed by the coordinate evaluations only. Let y ˆ
denote the constant map of M into y ∈ N .
Proposition. The subspace (πr’1 )’1 (jx y ) ‚ Jx (M, N )y is canonically iden-
r r’1 r

ti¬ed with Ty N — S r Tx M .

1 r r—
Proof. Let B ∈ Ty N and jx fp ∈ Tx M , p = 1, . . . , r. For every jy • ∈ Ty N ,
take the value B• ∈ R of the derivative of • in direction B and construct a
r r
function (B•)f1 (u) . . . fr (u) on M . It is easy to see that jy • ’ jx ((B•)f1 . . . fr )
r— r—
is an algebra homomorphism Ty N ’ Tx M . This de¬nes a map p : Ty N —
— — r
Tx M — . . . —Tx M ’ Jx (M, N )y . Using coordinates one veri¬es that p generates
linearly the required identi¬cation.
For r = 1 we have a distinguished element jx y in every ¬ber of J 1 (M, N ) ’

M — N . This identi¬es J (M, N ) with T N — T M .
In particular, if we apply the above proposition to the projection
r r
πr’1 : (Tk M )x ’ (Tk M )x , x ∈ M , we ¬nd

(πr’1 )’1 (j0 x) = Tx M — S r Rk— .
(2) ˆ

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
122 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

12.11. Proposition. πr’1 : J r (M, N ) ’ J r’1 (M, N ) is an a¬ne bundle,

the modelling vector bundle of which is the pullback of T N — S r T — M over
J r’1 (M, N ).

Proof. Interpret X ∈ Jx (M, N )y and A ∈ Ty N — S r Tx M ‚ Jx (M, N )y as alge-
r r
r— r— r— r
bra homomorphisms Ty N ’ Tx M . For every ¦ ∈ Ty N we have πr’1 (A(¦))
= 0 and π0 (X(¦)) = 0. This implies X(¦)A(Ψ) = 0 and A(¦)A(Ψ) = 0
for any other Ψ ∈ Ty N . Hence X(¦Ψ) + A(¦Ψ) = X(¦)X(Ψ) = (X(¦) +
A(¦))(X(Ψ) + A(Ψ)), so that X + A is also an algebra homomorphism Ty N ’
Tx M . Using coordinates we ¬nd easily that the map (X, A) ’ X + A gives
rise to the required a¬ne bundle structure.
Since the tangent space to an a¬ne space is the modelling vector space, we ob-
tain immediately the following property of the tangent map T πr’1 : T J r (M, N )

’ T J r’1 (M, N ).
r r
Corollary. For every X ∈ Jx (M, N )y , the kernel of the restriction of T πr’1 to

TX J r (M, N ) is Ty N — S r Tx M .
12.12. The frame bundle of order r. The set P r M of all r-jets with source
0 of the local di¬eomorphisms of Rm into M is called the r-th order frame
bundle of M . Obviously, P r M = invTm (M ) is an open subset of Tm (M ),
r r

which de¬nes a structure of a smooth ¬ber bundle on P r M ’ M . The group
Gr acts smoothly on P r M on the right by the jet composition. Since for
every j0 •, j0 ψ ∈ Px M there is a unique element j0 (•’1 —¦ ψ) ∈ Gr satisfying
r r r r
(j0 •)—¦(j0 (•’1 —¦ψ)) = j0 ψ, P r M is a principal ¬ber bundle with structure group
r r r

Gr . For r = 1, the elements of invJ0 (Rm , M )x are identi¬ed with the linear
isomorphisms Rm ’ Tx M and G1 = GL(m), so that P 1 M coincides with the
bundle of all linear frames in T M , i.e. with the classical frame bundle of M .
Every velocities space Tk M is a ¬ber bundle associated with P r M with stan-

dard ¬ber Lr . The basic idea consists in the fact that for every j0 f ∈ (Tk M )x
r r
and j0 • ∈ Px M we have j0 (•’1 —¦ f ) ∈ Lr , and conversely, every j0 g ∈ Lr
r r r r
k,m k,m
r r r r
and j0 • ∈ Px M determine j0 (•—¦g) ∈ (Tk M )x . Thus, if we formally de¬ne a left
action Gr — Lr ’ Lr by (j0 h, j0 g) ’ j0 (h —¦ g), then Tk M is canonically
r r r r
m k,m k,m
identi¬ed with the associated ¬ber bundle P r M [Lr ]. k,m
Quite similarly, every covelocities space Tk M is a ¬ber bundle associated
with P r M with standard ¬ber Lr with respect to the left action Gr —Lr ’
m,k m,k
Lr , (j0 h, j0 g) ’ j0 (g —¦ h’1 ). Furthermore, P r M — P r N is a principal ¬ber
r r r
bundle over M — N with structure group Gr — Gr . The space J r (M, N ) is a
m n
¬ber bundle associated with P r M — P r N with standard ¬ber Lr with respect
to the left action (Gr — Gr ) — Lr ’ Lr , ((j0 •, j0 ψ), j0 f ) ’ j0 (ψ —¦ f —¦ •’1 ).

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