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˜ ˜
= j0 (F g —¦ F tg’1 (x) —¦ s(g ’1 (x)))
∈ J 0 F Rm
= j0 (F t’x —¦ F g —¦ F tg’1 (x) —¦ s(g ’1 (x)))
k k
∈ Tm S
j0 (t’x —¦ g —¦ tg’1 (x) ), s(g ’1 (x)) .
k r
= j0 ˜

In particular, if a = j0 g ∈ G1 ‚ Gr+k , i.e. g is linear, then
m m

(a, j0 s) = j0 ( (j0 g, s —¦ g ’1 (x))) = j0 ( —¦ s —¦ g ’1 ).
k k k r k
(2) ˜ ˜ ˜

As a consequence of the last two propositions we get the basic result for
¬nding natural operators of prescribed types. Consider natural bundles F or F
on Mfm of ¬nite orders r or r , with standard ¬bers S or S and induced actions
or of Gr or Gr , respectively. If q = max{r + k, r } with some ¬xed k ∈ N
m m
then the actions k and trivially extend to actions of Gq on both Tm S and
S and we have
Theorem. There is a canonical bijective correspondence between the set of
F and the set of all smooth Gq -
all k-th order natural operators A : F m
equivariant maps between the left Gq -spaces Tm S and S .

14.19. Examples.
1. By the construction in 3.4, the Lie bracket of vector ¬elds is a bilinear
natural operator [ , ] : T • T T of order one, see also corollary 3.11. The
corresponding bilinear Gm -equivariant map is

b = (b1 , . . . , bm ) : Tm Rm — Tm Rm ’ Rm
1 1

bj (X i , X k ; Y m , Ypn ) = X i Yij ’ Y i Xi .

Later on we shall be able to prove that every bilinear equivariant map b : Tm Rm —

Tm Rm ’ Rm is a constant multiple of b composed with the jet projections and,

moreover, every natural bilinear operator is of a ¬nite order, so that all bilinear
natural operators on vector ¬elds are the constant multiples of the Lie bracket.
On the other hand, if we drop the bilinearity, then we can iterate the Lie bracket

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
146 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

to get operators of higher orders. But nevertheless, one can prove that there are
no other G2 -equivariant maps b : Tm Rm — Tm Rm ’ Rm beside the constant
1 1
multiples of b and the projections Tm Rm — Rm ’ Rm . This implies, that the

constant multiples of the Lie bracket are essentially the only natural operators
T •T T of order 1.
2. The exterior derivative introduced in 7.8 is a ¬rst order natural oper-
ator d : Λk T — Λk+1 T — . Formula 7.8.(1) expresses the corresponding G2 -m
equivariant map

Tm (Λk Rm— ) ’ Λk+1 Rm—

(’1)j+1 •i1 ...ij ...ik+1 ,ij
(•i1 ...ik , •i1 ...ik ,ik+1 ) ’

where the hat denotes that the index is omitted. We shall derive in 25.4 that
for k > 0 this is the only G2 -equivariant map up to constant multiples. Con-
sequently, the constant multiples of the exterior derivative are the only natural
operators of the type in question.
14.20. In concrete problems we often meet a situation where the representa-
tions of Gr are linear, or at least their restrictions to G1 ‚ Gr turn the
m m m
standard ¬bers into GL(m)-modules. Then the linear equivariant maps between
the standard ¬bers are GL(m)-module homomorphisms and so the structure of
the modules in question is often a very useful information for ¬nding all equi-
variant maps. Given a G1 -module V and linear coordinates y p on V , there are
|±| p
the induced coordinates y± = ‚‚x± on Tm V , where xi are the canonical coor-
p k

dinates on Rm and 0 ¤ |±| ¤ k. Then the linear subspace in Tm V de¬ned by

y± = 0, |±| = i, coincides with V — S i Rm— . Clearly, these identi¬cations do not

depend on our choice of the linear coordinates y p . Formula 14.18.(2) shows that
Tm V = V • · · · • V — S k Rm— is a decomposition of Tm V into G1 -submodules
k k
and the same formula implies the following result.
Proposition. Let V be a G1 -invariant subspace in —p Rm — —q Rm— and let us
consider a representation : Gr ’ Di¬(V ) such that its restriction to G1 ‚ Gr
m m m
is the canonical tensorial action. Then the restriction of the induced action k
of Gr+k on Tm V = V • · · · • V — S k Rm— to G1 ‚ Gr+k is also the canonical
m m m
tensorial action.
14.21. Some geometric constructions are performed on the whole category Mf
of smooth manifolds and smooth maps. Similarly to natural bundles, the bundle
functors on the category Mf present a special case of the more general concept
of bundle functors.
De¬nition. A bundle functor on the category Mf is a covariant functor F : Mf
’ FM satisfying the following conditions
(i) B —¦ F = IdMf , so that the ¬ber projections form a natural transformation
p : F ’ IdMf .
(ii) If i : U ’ M is an inclusion of an open submanifold, then F U = p’1 (U )
and F i is the inclusion of p’1 (U ) into F M .

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
14. Natural bundles and operators 147

(iii) If f : P — M ’ N is a smooth map, then F f : P — F M ’ F N , de¬ned
by F f (p, ) = F fp , p ∈ P , is smooth.
For every non-negative integer m the restriction Fm of a bundle functor F
on Mf to the subcategory Mfm ‚ Mf is a natural bundle. Let us call the
sequence S = {S0 , S1 , . . . , Sm , . . . } of the standard ¬bers of the natural bundles
Fm the system of standard ¬bers of the bundle functor F . Proposition 14.2
implies that for every m there is the canonical isomorphism Rm — Sm ∼ F Rm , =
(x, s) ’ F tx (s), and given an m-dimensional manifold M , pM : F M ’ M is a
locally trivial bundle with standard ¬ber Sm .
Analogously to 14.3 and 14.4, a bundle functor F on Mf is said to be of
order r if for every smooth map f : M ’ N and point x ∈ M the restriction
F f |Fx M depends only on jx f . Then the maps FM,N : J r (M, N )—M F M ’ F N ,
FM,N (jx f, y) = F f (y) are called the associated maps to the r-th order functor
F . Since in the proof of proposition 14.3 we never used the invertibility of
the jets in question, the same proof applies to the present situation and so the
associated maps to any ¬nite order bundle functor on Mf are smooth. For every
m-dimensional manifold M , there is the canonical structure of the associated
bundle F M ∼ P r M [Sm ], cf. 14.5.
Let S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } be the system of standard ¬bers of an r-th order bundle
functor F on Mf . The restrictions m,n of the associated maps FRm ,Rn to
J0 (Rm , Rn )0 — Sm have the following property. For every A ∈ J0 (Rm , Rn )0 ,
r r

B ∈ J0 (Rn , Rp )0 and s ∈ Sm

—¦ A, s) =
(1) m,p (B n,p (B, m,n (A, s)).

Hence instead of the action of one group Gr on the standard ¬ber in the case
of bundle functors on Mfm , we get an action of the category Lr on S, see
below and 12.6 for the de¬nitions. We recall that the objects of Lr are the
non-negative integers and the set of morphisms between m and n is the set
Lr = J0 (Rm , Rn )0 .
Let S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } be a system of manifolds. A left action of the category
L on S is de¬ned as a system of maps m,n : Lr — Sm ’ Sn satisfying (1).
The action is called smooth if all maps m,n are smooth. The canonical action of
Lr on the system of standard ¬bers of a bundle functor F is called the induced
action. Every induced action of a ¬nite order bundle functor is smooth.
14.22. Consider a system of smooth manifolds S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } and a smooth
action of the category Lr on S. We shall construct a bundle functor L deter-
mined by this action. The restrictions m of the maps m,m to invertible jets
form smooth left actions of the jet groups Gr on manifolds Sm . Hence for every
m-dimensional manifold M we can de¬ne LM = P r M [Sm ; m ]. Let us recall the
notation {u, s} for the elements in P r M —Gr Sm , i.e. {u, s} = {u—¦A, m (A’1 , s)}
for all u ∈ P r M , A ∈ Gr , s ∈ Sm . For every smooth map f : M ’ N we de¬ne
Lf : F M ’ F N by

Lf ({u, s}) = {v, —¦ A —¦ u, s)}
m,n (v

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
148 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

r r r
where m = dimM , n = dimN , u ∈ Px M , A = jx f , and v ∈ Pf (x) N is an arbi-
trary element. We claim that this is a correct de¬nition. Indeed, chosen another
representative for {u, s} and another frame v ∈ Pf (x) , say {u —¦ B, m (B ’1 , s)},

and v = v —¦ C, formula 14.21.(1) implies

Lf ({u —¦ B, m (B , s)} =
—¦ v ’1 —¦ A —¦ u —¦ B, ’1
= {v —¦ C, m,n (C m (B , s))} =
’1 ’1
= {v —¦ C, —¦ A —¦ u, s))} =
n (C , m,n (v
= {v, —¦ A —¦ u, s)}.
m,n (v

One veri¬es easily all the axioms of bundle functors, this is left to the reader.
On the other hand, consider an r-th order bundle functor F on Mf and
its induced action . Let L be the corresponding bundle functor, we have
just constructed. Analogously to 14.6, there is a canonical natural equivalence
χ : L ’ F . In fact, we have the restrictions of χ to manifolds of any ¬xed di-
mension which consists of the maps qM determining the canonical structures of
associated bundles on the values F M , see 14.6. It remains only to show that
r r
F f —¦ χM = χN —¦ F f for all smooth maps f : M ’ N . But given j0 g ∈ Px M ,
r r
j0 h ∈ Pf (x) N and s ∈ Sm , we have

F f —¦ χM ({j0 g, s}) = F f —¦ F g(s) = F h —¦ F (h’1 —¦ f —¦ g)(s)

r ’1
r r
—¦ f —¦ g), s)) = χN —¦ Lf ({j0 g, s}).
= χN (j0 h, m,n (j0 (h

Since in geometry we usually identify naturally equivalent functors, we have
Theorem. There is a bijective correspondence between the set of r-th order
bundle functors on Mf and the set of smooth left actions of the category Lr on
systems S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } of smooth manifolds.
14.23. Natural transformations. Consider a smooth action or of the
category L on a system S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } or S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } of smooth
manifolds, respectively. A sequence • of smooth maps •i : Si ’ Si is called a
smooth Lr -equivariant map between and if for every s ∈ Sm , A ∈ Lr it m,n
•n ( m,n (A, s)) = m,n (A, •m (s)).

Theorem. There is a bijective correspondence between the set of natural trans-
formations of two r-th order bundle functors on Mf and the set of smooth Lr -
equivariant maps between the induced actions of Lr on the systems of standard
Proof. Let χ : F ’ G be a natural transformation, or k be the induced action
on the system of standard ¬bers S = {S0 , S1 , . . . } or Q = {Q0 , Q1 , . . . }, respec-
tively. As we proved in 14.11, all maps χM : F M ’ GM are over identities. Let

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
15. Prolongations of principal ¬ber bundles 149

us de¬ne •n : Sn ’ Qn as the restriction of χRn to Sn . If j0 f ∈ Lr , s ∈ Sm ,

r r
= χRn —¦ F f (s) = Gf —¦ χRm (s) = km,n (j0 f, •m (s)),
•n ( m,n (j0 f, s))

so that the maps •m form a smooth Lr -equivariant map between and k. More-
over, the arguments used in 14.11 imply that χ is completely determined by the
maps •m .
Conversely, by virtue of 14.22, we may assume that the functors F and G
coincide with the functors L and K constructed from the induced actions. Con-
sider a smooth Lr -equivariant map • between and k. Then we can de¬ne for
all m-dimensional manifolds M maps χM : F M ’ GM by

χM := {idP r M , •m }.

The reader should verify easily that the maps χM form a natural transforma-
14.24. Remark. Let F be an r-th order bundle functor on Mf . Its in-
duced action can be interpreted as a smooth functor Finf : Lr ’ Mf , where
the smoothness means that all the maps Lr — Finf (m) ’ Finf (n) de¬ned by
(A, x) ’ Finf A(x) are smooth. Then the concept of smooth Lr -equivariant maps
between the actions coincides with that of a natural transformation. Hence we
can reformulate theorems 14.22 and 14.23 as follows. The full subcategory of
r-th order bundle functors on Mf in the category of functors and natural trans-
formations is naturally equivalent to the full subcategory of smooth functors
Lr ’ Mf . Let us also remark, that the Lr -objects can be viewed as numerical
spaces Rm , 0 ¤ m < ∞, with distinguished origins. Then every Mf -object is
locally isomorphic to exactly one Lr -object and, up to local di¬eomorphisms,
Lr contains all r-jets of smooth maps. Therefore, we can call Lr the r-th order
skeleton of Mf . We shall work out this point of view in our treatment of general
bundle functors in the next chapter. Let us mention that the bundle functors
on Mfm also admit such a description. Indeed, the r-th order skeleton then
consists of the group Gr only.

15. Prolongations of principal ¬ber bundles

15.1. In the present section, we shall mostly deal with the category PBm (G)
consisting of principal ¬ber bundles with m-dimensional bases and a ¬xed struc-
ture group G, with PB(G)-morphisms which cover local di¬eomorphisms be-
tween the base manifolds. So a PBm (G)-morphism • : (P, p, M ) ’ (P , p , M )
is a smooth ¬bered map over a local di¬eomorphism •0 : M ’ M satisfying
• —¦ ρg = ρg —¦ • for all g ∈ G, where ρ and ρ are the principal actions on P and
P . In particular, every automorphism • : Rm — G ’ Rm — G is fully determined
by its restriction • : Rm ’ G, •(x) = pr2 —¦ •(x, e), where e ∈ G is the unit, and
¯ ¯

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150 Chapter IV. Jets and natural bundles

by the underlying map •0 : Rm ’ Rm . We shall identify the morphism • with
the couple (•0 , •), i.e. we have

(1) •(x, a) = (•0 (x), •(x).a).

Analogously, every morphism ψ : Rm — G ’ P , i.e. every local trivialization of
P , is determined by ψ0 and ψ := ψ|(Rm — {e}) : Rm ’ P covering ψ0 . Further
˜ ’1
we de¬ne ψ1 = ψ —¦ ψ0 , so that ψ1 is a local section of the principal bundle P ,
and we identify the morphism ψ with the couple (ψ0 , ψ1 ). We have

ψ(x, a) = (ψ1 —¦ ψ0 (x)).a .

Of course, for an automorphism • on Rm — G we have • = pr2 —¦ •.
¯ ˜
15.2. Principal prolongations of Lie groups. We shall apply the construc-
tion of r-jets to such a situation. Since all PB m (G)-objects are locally isomorphic
to the trivial principal bundle Rm — G and all PBm (G)-morphisms are local iso-
morphisms, we ¬rst have to consider the group Wm G of r-jets at (0, e) of all
automorphisms • : Rm — G ’ Rm — G with •0 (0) = 0, where the multiplication
µ is de¬ned by the composition of jets,

µ(j r •(0, e), j r ψ(0, e)) = j r (ψ —¦ •)(0, e).

This is a correct de¬nition according to 15.1.(1) and the inverse elements are
the jets of inverse maps (which always exist locally). The identi¬cation 15.1 of
automorphisms on Rm — G with couples (•0 , •) determines the identi¬cation

Wm G ∼ Gr — Tm G,
r r
j r •(0, e) ’ (j0 •0 , j0 •).
r r
(1) ¯

Let us describe the multiplication µ in this identi¬cation. For every •, ψ ∈
PBm (G)(Rm — G, Rm — G) we have

ψ —¦ •(x, a) = ψ(•0 (x), •(x).a) = (ψ0 —¦ •0 (x), ψ(•0 (x)).•(x).a)
¯ ¯

so that given any (A, B), (A , B ) ∈ Gr — Tm G we get

µ (A, B), (A , B ) = A —¦ A , (B —¦ A ).B .

Here the dot means the multiplication in the Lie group Tm G, cf. 12.13. Hence
there is the structure of a semi direct product of Lie groups on Wm G. The Lie
group Wm G = Gr Tm G is called the (m, r)-principal prolongation of Lie group
r r
15.3. Principal prolongations of principal bundles. For every principal
¬ber bundle (P, p, M, G) ∈ ObPB m (G) we de¬ne

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