ńņš. 28 |

Rm corresponding to the canonical basis of the Lie algebra of GL(m) are of the

ā‚

form Ī“i y j ā‚yk . Every local coordinates (xi ) on an open subset U ā‚ M deļ¬ne

k

ā‚ ā‚

a section Ļ : U ā’ P 1 M formed by the coordinate frames ( ā‚x1 , . . . , ā‚xm ) and it

holds Ļā— ĪøM = dxi . On the other hand, from the explicite equation 25.2.(2) of Ī“

i

i

we deduce easily that the restriction of the connection form Ļ = (Ļj ) of Ī“ to Ļ

ā‚

is (ā’Ī“i (x)dxk ). Thus, if we consider the coordinate expression Ī¾ i (x) ā‚xi of Ī¾ in

jk

our coordinate system and we write j Ī¾ i for the additional coordinates of Ī¾,

we obtain from 17.14

ā‚Ī¾ i

Ī¾i = ā’ Ī“i Ī¾ k .

j kj

j

ā‚x

Comparing with the classical formula in [Kobayashi, Nomizu, 63, p. 144], we

conclude that our quantities Ī“i diļ¬er from the classical Christoļ¬el symbols by

jk

sign and by the order of subscripts.

Remarks

The development of the theory of natural bundles and operators is described

in the preface and in the introduction to this chapter. But let us come back

to the jet groups. As mentioned in [Reinhart, 83], it is remarkable how very

little of existing Lie group theory applies to them. The results deduced in our

exposition are mainly due to [Terng, 78] where the reader can ļ¬nd some more

information on the classiļ¬cation of Gr -modules. For the ļ¬rst order jet groups,

m

it is very useful to study in detail the properties of irreducible representations,

cf. section 34. But in view of 13.15 it is not interesting to extend this approach

to the higher orders. The bundle functors on the whole category Mf were ļ¬rst

studied by [JanyĖka, 83]. We shall continue the study of such functors in chapter

s

IX.

The basic ideas from section 15 were introduced in a slightly modiļ¬ed situation

by [Ehresmann, 55]. Every principal ļ¬ber bundle p : P ā’ M with structure

group G determines the associated groupoid P P ā’1 which can be deļ¬ned as the

factor space P Ć— P/ ā¼ with respect to the equivalence relation (u, v) ā¼ (ug, vg),

u, v ā P , g ā G. Writing uv ā’1 for such an equivalence class, we have two

projections a, b : P P ā’1 ā’ M , a(uv ā’1 ) = p(v), b(uv ā’1 ) = p(u). If E is a ļ¬ber

bundle associated with P with standard ļ¬ber S, then every Īø = uv ā’1 ā P P ā’1

determines a diļ¬eomorphism qu ā—¦ (qv )ā’1 : EaĪø ā’ EbĪø , where qv : S ā’ EaĪø and

qu : S ā’ EbĪø are the ā˜frame mapsā™ introduced in 10.7. This deļ¬nes an action of

groupoid P P ā’1 on ļ¬ber bundle E. The space P P ā’1 is a prototype of a smooth

groupoid over M . In [Ehresmann, 55] the r-th prolongation Ī¦r of an arbitrary

smooth groupoid Ī¦ over M is deļ¬ned and every action of Ī¦ on a ļ¬ber bundle

E ā’ M is extended into an action of Ī¦r on the r-th jet prolongation J r E

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

Remarks 167

of E ā’ M . This construction was modiļ¬ed to the principal ļ¬ber bundles by

[Libermann, 71], [Virsik, 69] and [KolĀ“Ė, 71b].

ar

The canonical R -valued form on the ļ¬rst order frame bundle P 1 M is one

m

of the basic concepts of modern diļ¬erential geometry. Its generalization to r-th

order frame bundles was introduced by [Kobayashi, 61]. The canonical form

on W 1 P (as well as on W r P ) was deļ¬ned in [KolĀ“Ė, 71b] in connection with

ar

some local considerations by [Laptev, 69] and [Gheorghiev, 68]. Those canonical

forms play an important role in a generalization of the Cartan method of moving

frames, see [KolĀ“Ė, 71c, 73a, 73b, 77].

ar

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

168

CHAPTER V.

FINITE ORDER THEOREMS

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a general framework for the theory

of geometric objects and operators and to reduce local geometric considerations

to ļ¬nite order problems. In general, the latter is a hard analytical problem and

its solution essentially depends on the category in question. Roughly speaking,

our methods are eļ¬cient when we deal with a suļ¬ciently large class of smooth

maps, but they fail e.g. for analytic maps.

We ļ¬rst extend the concepts and results from section 14 to a wider class of

categories. Then we present our important analytical tool, a nonlinear gener-

alization of well known Peetre theorem. In section 20 we prove the regularity

of bundle functors for a class of categories which includes Mf , Mfm , FM,

FMm , FMm,n , and we get near to the ļ¬niteness of the order of bundle func-

tors. It remains to deduce estimates on the possible orders of jet groups acting

on manifolds. We derive such estimates for the actions of jet groups in the cat-

egory FMm,n so that we describe all bundle functors on FMm,n . For n = 0

this reproves in a diļ¬erent way the classical results due to [Palais, Terng, 77]

and [Epstein, Thurston, 79] on the regularity and the ļ¬niteness of the order of

natural bundles.

The end of the chapter is devoted to a discussion on the order of natural

operators. Also here we essentially proļ¬t from the nonlinear Peetre theorem.

First of all, its trivial consequence is that every (even not natural) local operator

depends on inļ¬nite jets only. So instead of natural transformations between the

inļ¬nite dimensional spaces of sections of the bundles in question, we have to deal

with natural transformations between the (inļ¬nite) jet prolongations. The full

version of Peetre theorem implies that in fact the order is ļ¬nite on large subsets

of the inļ¬nite jet spaces and, by naturality, the order is invariant under the

action of local isomorphisms on the inļ¬nite jets. In many concrete situations the

whole inļ¬nite jet prolongation happens to be the orbit of such a subset. Then all

natural operators from the bundle in question are of ļ¬nite order and the problem

of ļ¬nding a full list of them can be attacked by the methods developed in the

next chapter.

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

18. Bundle functors and natural operators 169

18. Bundle functors and natural operators

Roughly speaking, the objects of a diļ¬erential geometric category should be

manifolds with an additional structure and the morphisms should be smooth

maps. The following approach is somewhat abstract, but this is a direct modiļ¬-

cation of the contemporary point of view to the concept of a concrete category,

which is deļ¬ned as a category over the category of sets.

18.1. Deļ¬nition. A category over manifolds is a category C endowed with a

faithful functor m : C ā’ Mf . The manifold mA is called the underlying manifold

of C-object A and A is said to be a C-object over mA.

The assumption that the functor m is faithful means that every induced map

mA,B : C(A, B) ā’ C ā (mA, mB), A, B ā ObC, is injective. Taking into account

this inclusion C(A, B) ā‚ C ā (mA, mB), we shall use the standard abuse of

language identifying every smooth map f : mA ā’ mB in mA,B (C(A, B)) with a

C-morphism f : A ā’ B.

The best known examples of categories over manifolds are the categories Mfm

or Mf , the categories FM, FMm , FMm,n of ļ¬bered manifolds, oriented man-

ifolds, symplectic manifolds, manifolds with ļ¬xed volume forms, Riemannian

manifolds, etc., with appropriate morphisms.

For a category over manifolds m : C ā’ Mf , we can deļ¬ne a bundle functor on

C as a functor F : C ā’ FM satisfying B ā—¦ F = m where B : FM ā’ Mf is the

base functor. However, we have seen that the localization property of a natural

bundle over m-dimensional manifolds plays an important role. To incorporate it

into our theory, we adapt the general concept of a local category by [Eilenberg,

57] and [Ehresmann, 57] to the case of a category over manifolds.

18.2. Deļ¬nition. A category over manifolds m : C ā’ Mf is said to be local , if

every A ā ObC and every open subset U ā‚ mA determine a C-subobject L(A, U )

of A over U , called the localization of A over U , such that

(a) L(A, mA) = A, L(L(A, U ), V ) = L(A, V ) for every A ā ObC and every

open subsets V ā‚ U ā‚ mA,

(b) (aggregation of morphisms) if (UĪ± ), Ī± ā I, is an open cover of mA and f ā

ā

C (mA, mB) has the property that every f ā—¦iUĪ± is a C-morphism L(A, UĪ± ) ā’ B,

then f is a C-morphism A ā’ B,

(c) (aggregation of objects) if (UĪ± ), Ī± ā I, is an open cover of a manifold M

and (AĪ± ), Ī± ā I, is a system of C-objects such that mAĪ± = UĪ± and L(AĪ± , UĪ± ā©

UĪ² ) = L(AĪ² , UĪ± ā© UĪ² ) for all Ī±, Ī² ā I, then there exists a unique C-object A

over M such that AĪ± = L(A, UĪ± ).

We recall that the requirement L(A, U ) is a C-subobject of A means

(i) the inclusion iU : U ā’ mA is a C-morphism L(A, U ) ā’ A,

(ii) if for a smooth map f : mB ā’ U the composition iU ā—¦ f is a C-morphism

B ā’ A, then f is a C-morphism B ā’ L(A, U ).

There are categories like the category VB of vector bundles with no localiza-

tion of the above type, i.e. we cannot localize to an arbitrary open subset of the

total space. From our point of view it is more appropriate to consider VB (and

other similar categories) as a category over ļ¬bered manifolds, see 51.4.

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

170 Chapter V. Finite order theorems

18.3. Deļ¬nition. Given a local category C over manifolds, a bundle functor on

C is a functor F : C ā’ FM satisfying B ā—¦ F = m and the localization condition:

(i) for every inclusion of an open subset iU : U ā’ mA, F (L(A, U )) is the

restriction pā’1 (U ) of the value pA : F A ā’ mA over U and F iU is the

A

inclusion pā’1 (U ) ā’ F A.

A

In particular, the projections pA , A ā ObC, form a natural transformation

p : F ā’ m. We shall see later on that for a large class of categories one can

equivalently deļ¬ne bundle functors as functors F : C ā’ Mf endowed with such

a natural transformation and satisfying the above localization condition.

18.4. Deļ¬nition. A locally deļ¬ned C-morphism of A into B is a C-morphism

f : L(A, U ) ā’ L(B, V ) for some open subsets U ā‚ mA, V ā‚ mB. A C-object A

is said to be locally homogeneous, if for every x, y ā mA there exists a locally

deļ¬ned C-isomorphism f of A into A such that f (x) = y. The category C is called

locally homogeneous, if each C-object is locally homogeneous. A local skeleton of

a locally homogeneous category C is a system (CĪ± ), Ī± ā I, of C-objects such that

locally every C-object A is isomorphic to a unique CĪ± . In such a case we say

that A is an object of type Ī±. The set I is called the type set of C. A pointed local

skeleton of a locally homogeneous category C is a local skeleton (CĪ± ), Ī± ā I,

with a distinguished point 0Ī± ā mCĪ± for each Ī± ā I.

A C-morphism f : A ā’ B is said to be a local isomorphism, if for every

x ā mA there are neighborhoods U of x and V of f (x) such that the restricted

map U ā’ V is a C-isomorphism L(A, U ) ā’ L(B, V ). We underline that a local

isomorphism is a globally deļ¬ned map, which should be carefully distinguished

from a locally deļ¬ned isomorphism.

18.5. Examples. All the categories Mfm , Mf , FMm,n , FMm , FM are lo-

cally homogeneous. A pointed local skeleton of the category Mf is the sequence

(Rm , 0), m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , while a pointed local skeleton of the category FM is

the double sequence (Rm+n ā’ Rm , 0), m, n = 0, 1, 2 . . . .

18.6. Deļ¬nition. The space J r (A, B) of all r-jets of a C-object A into a C-

object B is the subset of the space J r (mA, mB) of all r-jets of mA into mB

generated by the locally deļ¬ned C-morphisms of A into B. If it is useful to

underline the category C, we write CJ r (A, B) for J r (A, B).

18.7. Deļ¬nition. A locally homogeneous category C is called inļ¬nitesimally

admissible, if we have

(a) J r (A, B) is a submanifold of J r (mA, mB),

(b) the jet projections Ļk : J r (A, B) ā’ J k (A, B), 0 ā¤ k < r, are surjective

r

submersions,

(c) if X ā J r (A, B) is an invertible r-jet of mA into mB, then X is generated

by a locally deļ¬ned C-isomorphism.

Taking into account (c), we write

invJ r (A, B) = J r (A, B) ā© invJ r (mA, mB).

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

18. Bundle functors and natural operators 171

18.8. Assume C is inļ¬nitesimally admissible and ļ¬x a pointed local skeleton

(CĪ± , 0Ī± ), Ī± ā I. Let us write C r (Ī±, Ī²) = J0Ī± (CĪ± , CĪ² )0Ī² for the set of all r-jets

r

of CĪ± into CĪ² with source 0Ī± and target 0Ī² . Deļ¬nition 18.7 implies that every

C r (Ī±, Ī²) is a smooth manifold, so that the restrictions of the jet composition

C r (Ī±, Ī²) Ć— C r (Ī², Ī³) ā’ C r (Ī±, Ī³) are smooth maps. Thus we obtain a category C r

over I called the r-th order skeleton of C.

By deļ¬nition 18.7, Gr := invJ0Ī± (CĪ± , CĪ± )0Ī± is a Lie group with respect to the

r

Ī±

jet composition, which is called the r-th jet group (or the r-th diļ¬erential group)

of type Ī±. Moreover, if A is a C-object of type Ī±, then P r A := invJ0Ī± (CĪ± , A) is

r

a principal ļ¬ber bundle over mA with structure group Gr , which is called the

Ī±

r-th order frame bundle of A. Let us remark that every jet group Gr is a LieĪ±

r

subgroup in the usual jet group Gm , m = dimCĪ± .

For example, all objects of the category FMm,n are of the same type, so that

FMm,n determines a unique r-th jet group Gr ā‚ Gr m+n in every order r. In

m,n

other words, Gm,n is the group of all r-jets at 0 ā Rm+n of ļ¬bered manifold

r

isomorphisms f : (Rm+n ā’ Rm ) ā’ (Rm+n ā’ Rm ) satisfying f (0) = 0.

18.9. The following assumption, which deals with the local skeleton of C only,

has purely technical character.

A category C is said to have the smooth splitting property, if for every smooth

curve Ī³ : R ā’ J r (CĪ± , CĪ² ), Ī±, Ī² ā I, there exists a smooth map Ī“ : R Ć— mCĪ± ā’

r

mCĪ² such that Ī³(t) = jc(t) Ī“(t, ), where c(t) is the source of r-jet Ī³(t).

Since Ī³(t) is a curve on J r (CĪ± , CĪ² ), we know that Ī³(t) is generated by a

system of locally deļ¬ned C-morphisms. So we require that on the local skeleton

this can be done globally and in a smooth way. In all our concrete examples

the underlying manifolds of the objects of the canonical skeleton are numerical

spaces and each polynomial map determined by a jet of J r (CĪ± , CĪ² ) belongs to

C. This implies immediately that C has the smooth splitting property.

Deļ¬nition. An inļ¬nitesimally admissible category C with the smooth splitting

property is called admissible.

18.10. Regularity. From now on we assume that C is an admissible category.

A family of C-morphisms f : M ā’ C(A, B) parameterized by a manifold M is

said to be smoothly parameterized, if the map M Ć—mA ā’ mB, (u, x) ā’ f (u)(x),

is smooth.

Deļ¬nition. A bundle functor F : C ā’ FM is called regular , if F transforms

every smoothly parameterized family of C-morphisms into a smoothly parame-

terized family of FM-morphisms.

18.11. Deļ¬nition. A bundle functor F : C ā’ FM is said to be of order r,

r ā N, if for any two locally deļ¬ned C-morphisms f and g of A into B, the

r r

equality jx f = jx g implies that the restrictions of F f and F g to the ļ¬ber Fx A

of F A over x ā mA coincide.

18.12. Associated maps. An r-th order bundle functor F deļ¬nes the so-called

associated maps

FA,B : J r (A, B) Ć—mA F A ā’ F B, r

(jx f, y) ā’ F f (y)

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

172 Chapter V. Finite order theorems

where the ļ¬bered product is constructed with respect to the source projection

J r (A, B) ā’ mA.

Proposition. The associated maps of an r-th order bundle functor F on an

admissible category C are smooth if and only if F is regular.

Proof. By locality, it suļ¬ces to discuss

FCĪ± ,CĪ² : J r (CĪ± , CĪ² ) Ć—mCĪ± F CĪ± ā’ F CĪ² .

Consider a smooth curve (Ī³(t), Ī“(t)) on J r (CĪ± , CĪ² )Ć—mCĪ± F CĪ± , so that pCĪ± Ī“(t) =

c(t), where c(t) is the source of r-jet Ī³(t). Since C has the smooth splitting

property, there exists a smooth map Ī“ : R Ć— mCĪ± ā’ mCĪ² such that Ī³(t) =

r

jc(t) Ī“(t, ). The regularity of F implies Īµ(t) := F (Ī“(t, ))(Ī“(t)) is a smooth curve

on F CĪ² . By the deļ¬nition of the associated map, it holds FCĪ± ,CĪ² (Ī³(t), Ī“(t)) =

Īµ(t). Hence FCĪ± ,CĪ² transforms smooth curves into smooth curves. Now, we can

use the following theorem due to [Boman, 67]

A mapping f : Rm ā’ Rn is smooth if and only if for every smooth curve

c : R ā’ Rm the composition f ā—¦ c is smooth.

Then we conclude FCĪ± ,CĪ² is a smooth map. The other implication is obvi-

ous.

18.13. The induced action. Consider an r-th order regular bundle functor

F on an admissible category C. The ļ¬bers SĪ± = F0Ī± CĪ± , Ī± ā I, will be called the

standard ļ¬bers of F . Write FĪ±Ī² for the restriction of FCĪ± ,CĪ² to C r (Ī±, Ī²) Ć— SĪ± ā’

SĪ² . In the following deļ¬nition we consider an arbitrary system (SĪ± ), Ī± ā I, of

manifolds with indices from the type set of C.

Deļ¬nition. A smooth action of C r on a system (SĪ± ), Ī± ā I, of manifolds is a

system Ļ•Ī±Ī² : C r (Ī±, Ī²) Ć— SĪ± ā’ SĪ² of smooth maps satisfying

Ļ•Ī²Ī³ (b, Ļ•Ī±Ī² (a, s)) = Ļ•Ī±Ī³ (b ā—¦ a, s)

for all Ī±, Ī², Ī³ ā I, a ā C r (Ī±, Ī²), b ā C r (Ī², Ī³), s ā SĪ± .

By proposition 18.12, FĪ±Ī² are smooth maps so that they form a smooth action

of C r on the system of standard ļ¬bers.

18.14. Theorem. There is a canonical bijection between the regular r-th order

bundle functors on C and the smooth actions of the r-th order skeleton of C.

Proof. For every regular r-th order bundle functor F on C, FĪ±Ī² is a smooth

action of C r on (F0Ī± CĪ± ), Ī± ā I. Conversely, let (Ļ•Ī±Ī² ) be a smooth action of

C r on a system of manifolds (SĪ± ), Ī± ā I. The inclusion Gr ā’ C r (Ī±, Ī±) gives a

Ī±

r

smooth left action of GĪ± on SĪ± . For a C-object A of type Ī± we deļ¬ne GA to be

the ļ¬ber bundle associated to P r A with standard ļ¬ber SĪ± . For a C-morphism

f : A ā’ B we deļ¬ne Gf : GA ā’ GB by

Gf ({u, s}) = {v, Ļ•Ī±Ī² (v ā’1 ā—¦ jx f ā—¦ u, s)}

r

r r

x ā mA, u ā Px A, v ā Pf (x) B, s ā SĪ± . One veriļ¬es easily that G is a well-

deļ¬ned regular r-th order bundle functor on C, cf. 14.22. Clearly, if we apply

the latter construction to the action FĪ±Ī² , we get a bundle functor naturally

equivalent to the original functor F .

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

18. Bundle functors and natural operators 173

18.15. Natural transformations. Given two bundle functors F , G : C ā’

FM, by a natural transformation T : F ā’ G we shall mean a system of base-

preserving morphisms TA : F A ā’ GA, A ā ObC, satisfying Gf ā—¦ TA = TB ā—¦ F f

for every C-morphism f : A ā’ B. (We remark that for a large class of admissi-

ble categories every natural transformation between any two bundle functors is

formed by base-preserving morphisms, see 14.11.)

Given two smooth actions (Ļ•Ī±Ī² , SĪ± ) and (ĻĪ±Ī² , ZĪ± ), a C r -map

Ļ„ : (Ļ•Ī±Ī² , SĪ± ) ā’ (ĻĪ±Ī² , ZĪ± )

is a system of smooth maps Ļ„Ī± : SĪ± ā’ ZĪ± , Ī± ā I, satisfying

Ļ„Ī² (Ļ•Ī±Ī² (a, s)) = ĻĪ±Ī² (a, Ļ„Ī± (s))

for all s ā SĪ± , a ā C r (Ī±, Ī²).

Theorem. Natural transformations F ā’ G between two r-th order regular

bundle functors on C are in a canonical bijection with the C r -maps between the

corresponding actions of C r .

Proof. Given T : F ā’ G, we deļ¬ne Ļ„Ī± : F0Ī± CĪ± ā’ G0Ī± CĪ± by Ļ„Ī± (s) = TCĪ± (s).

One veriļ¬es directly that (Ļ„Ī± ) is a C r -map (FĪ±Ī² , F0Ī± CĪ± ) ā’ (GĪ±Ī² , G0Ī± CĪ± ). Con-

versely, let (Ļ„Ī± ) : (Ļ•Ī±Ī² , SĪ± ) ā’ (ĻĪ±Ī² , ZĪ± ) be a C r -map between two smooth ac-

tions of C r . Then the induced bundle functors transform A ā ObC of type Ī± into

the ļ¬ber bundle associated with P r A with standard ļ¬bers SĪ± and ZĪ± and we

deļ¬ne TA = (idP r A , Ļ„Ī± ). One veriļ¬es easily that T is a natural transformation

between the induced bundle functors.

18.16. Morphism operators. We are going to generalize the concept of nat-

ural operator from 14.15 in the following three directions: 1. We replace the

category Mfm by an admissible category C over manifolds. 2. We consider the

operators deļ¬ned on morphisms of ļ¬bered manifolds. 3. We study an operator

deļ¬ned on some morphisms only, not on all of them. We start with the general

concept of a morphism operator.

ā

If Y1 ā’ M and Y2 ā’ M are two ļ¬bered manifolds, we denote by CM (Y1 , Y2 )

the space of all base-preserving morphisms Y1 ā’ Y2 . Given another pair Z1 ā’

M and Z2 ā’ M of ļ¬bered manifolds, a morphism operator D is a map D : E ā‚

ā ā

CM (Y1 , Y2 ) ā’ CM (Z1 , Z2 ). In the case Z1 is a ļ¬bered manifold over Y1 , i.e. we

have a surjective submersion q : Z1 ā’ Y1 , we also say that D is a base extending

operator.

In general, if we have four manifolds N1 , N2 , N3 , N4 , a map Ļ : N3 ā’ N1 and

a subset E ā‚ C ā (N1 , N2 ), an operator A : E ā’ C ā (N3 , N4 ) is called Ļ-local,

if the value As(x) depends only on the germ of s at Ļ(x) for all s ā E, x ā N3 .

k k

Such an operator is said to be of order k, 0 ā¤ k ā¤ ā, if jĻ(x) s1 = jĻ(x) s2 implies

As1 (x) = As2 (x) for all s1 , s2 ā E, x ā N3 . We call A regular if smoothly pa-

rameterized families in E are transformed into smoothly parameterized families

in C ā (N3 , N4 ).

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993

174 Chapter V. Finite order theorems

Assume we have a surjective submersion q : Z1 ā’ Y1 . Then we have deļ¬ned

ā ā

both local and k-th order operators CM (Y1 , Y2 ) ā’ CM (Z1 , Z2 ) with respect to

q. Such a k-th order operator D determines the associated map

k k

D : JM (Y1 , Y2 ) Ć—Y1 Z1 ā’ Z2 , (jy s, z) ā’ Ds(z),

(1) y = q(z),

ā

k

where JM (Y1 , Y2 ) means the space of all k-jets of the maps of CM (Y1 , Y2 ). If

D is regular, then D is smooth. Conversely, every smooth map (1) deļ¬nes a

ā ā

regular operator CM (Y1 , Y2 ) ā’ CM (Z1 , Z2 ), s ā’ D((j k s) ā—¦ q, ) : Z1 ā’ Z2 ,

ā

s ā CM (Y1 , Y2 ).

ńņš. 28 |