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and of two projectable vector ¬elds · and · on Y , 50.4.(2) is specialized to

˜· ˜ ˜¯ ˜ ¯˜
L[·,¯] s = LV· L· s · LV · L· s

where V· or V · is the restriction of T · or T · to the vertical tangent bundle
¯ ¯
V Y ‚ T Y . Furthermore, if we have a vector bundle E ’ M and a linear vector
¬eld on E, then V· is of the form V· = · • ·, since the tangent map of a linear
map coincides with the original map itself. Thus, if we separate the restricted Lie
derivatives in (1) in the case · and · are linear, we ¬nd L[·,¯] s = L· L· s’L· L· s.
¯ ¯ ¯
This proves proposition 50.1.

The general concept of Lie derivative of a map f : M ’ N with respect to a
pair of vector ¬elds on M and N was introduced by [Trautman, 72]. The oper-
ations with linear vector ¬elds from the second half of section 47 were described

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Remarks 393

in [Janyˇka, Kol´ˇ, 82]. In the theory of multilinear natural operators, the com-
s ar
mutativity with the Lie di¬erentiation is also used as the starting point, see
[Kirillov, 77, 80]. Proposition 48.4 was proved by [Cap, Slov´k, 92]. According
to [Janyˇka, Modugno, to appear], there is a link between the in¬nitesimally nat-
ural operators and certain systems in the sense of [Modugno, 87a]. The concept
of a sector r-form was introduced in [White, 82].
The Lie derivatives of morphisms of ¬bered manifolds were studied in [Kol´ˇ,ar
82a] in connection with the higher order variational calculus in ¬bered manifolds.
We remark that a further analysis of formula 49.3.(3) leads to an interesting fact
that a Lagrangian of order at least three with at least two independent variables
does not determine a unique Poincar´-Cartan form, but a family of such forms
only, see e.g. [Kol´ˇ, 84b], [Saunders, 89]. The general bracket formula from
section 50 was deduced in [Kol´ˇ, 82c].

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993


In chapters IV and V we have explained that the natural bundles coincide
with the associated ¬ber bundles to higher order frame bundles on manifolds.
However, in both di¬erential geometry and mathematical physics one can meet
¬ber bundles associated to an ˜abstract™ principal bundle with an arbitrary struc-
ture group G. If we modify the idea of bundle functor to such a situation, we
obtain the concept of gauge natural bundle. This is a functor on principal ¬ber
bundles with structure group G and their local isomorphisms with values in ¬ber
bundles, but with ¬bration over the original base manifold. The most important
examples of gauge natural bundles and of natural operators between them are
related with principal connections. In this chapter we ¬rst develop a description
of all gauge natural bundles analogous to that in chapter V. In particular, we
prove that the regularity condition is a consequence of functoriality and locality
and that any gauge natural bundle is of ¬nite order. We also present sharp
estimates of the order depending on the dimensions of the standard ¬bers. So
the r-th order gauge natural bundles coincide with the ¬ber bundles associated
to r-th principal prolongations of principal G-bundles (see 15.3), which are in
bijection with the actions of the group Wm G on manifolds.
Then we discuss a few concrete problems on ¬nding gauge natural opera-
tors. The geometrical results of section 52 are based on a generalization of the
Utiyama theorem on gauge natural Lagrangians. First we determine all gauge
natural operators of the curvature type. In contradistinction to the essential
uniqueness of the curvature operator on general connections, this result depends
on the structure group in a simple way. Then we study the di¬erential forms
of Chern-Weil type with values in an arbitrary associated vector bundle. We
¬nd it interesting that the full list of all gauge natural operators leads to a new
geometric result in this case. Next we determine all ¬rst order gauge natural
operators transforming principal connections to the tangent bundle. In the last
section we ¬nd all gauge natural operators transforming a linear connection on
a vector bundle and a classical linear connection on the base manifold into a
classical linear connection on the total space.

51. Gauge natural bundles
We are going to generalize the description of all natural bundles F : Mfm ’
FM derived in sections 14 and 22 to the gauge natural case. Since the concepts
and considerations are very similar to some previous ones, we shall proceed in a

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51. Gauge natural bundles 395

rather brief style.
51.1. Let B : FM ’ Mf be the base functor. Fix a Lie group G and recall
the category PBm (G), whose objects are principal G-bundles over m-manifolds
and whose morphisms are the morphisms of principal G-bundles f : P ’ P with
the base map Bf : BP ’ B P lying in Mfm .
De¬nition. A gauge natural bundle over m-dimensional manifolds is a functor
F : PBm (G) ’ FM such that
(a) every PBm (G)-object π : P ’ BP is transformed into a ¬bered manifold
qP : F P ’ BP over BP ,
(b) every PBm (G)-morphism f : P ’ P is transformed into a ¬bered mor-
phism F f : F P ’ F P over Bf ,
(c) for every open subset U ‚ BP , the inclusion i : π ’1 (U ) ’ P is trans-
formed into the inclusion F i : qP (U ) ’ F P .
If we intend to point out the structure group G, we say that F is a G-natural
¯ r r
51.2. If two PBm (G)-morphisms f , g : P ’ P satisfy jy f = jy g at a point
y ∈ Px of the ¬ber of P over x ∈ BP , then the fact that the right translations
r r
of principal bundles are di¬eomorphisms implies jz f = jz g for every z ∈ Px . In
this case we write jr f = jr g.
x x

De¬nition. A gauge natural bundle F is said to be of order r, if jr f = jr g
x x
implies F f |Fx P = F g|Fx P .
51.3. De¬nition. A G-natural bundle F is said to be regular if every smoothly
parameterized family of PBm (G)-morphisms is transformed into a smoothly pa-
rameterized family of ¬bered maps.
51.4. Remark. By de¬nition, a G-natural bundle F : PBm (G) ’ FM satis¬es
B —¦ F = B and the projections qP : F P ’ BP form a natural transformation
q : F ’ B.
In general, we can consider a category C over ¬bered manifolds, i.e. C is
endowed with a faithful functor m : C ’ FM. If C admits localization of objects
and morphisms with respect to the preimages of open subsets on the bases with
analogous properties to 18.2, we can de¬ne the gauge natural bundles on C as
functors F : C ’ FM satisfying B—¦F = B—¦m and the locality condition 51.1.(c).
Let us mention the categories of vector bundles as examples. The di¬erent way
of localization is the source of a crucial di¬erence between the bundle functors
on categories over manifolds and the (general) gauge natural bundles. For any
two ¬bered maps f , g : Y ’ Y we write jr f = jr g, x ∈ BY , if jy f = jy g for
r r
x x
all y ∈ Yx . Then we say that f and g have the same ¬ber r-jet at x. The space
¯ ¯
of ¬ber r-jets between C-objects Y and Y is denoted by Jr (Y, Y ). For a general
category C over ¬bered manifolds the ¬niteness of the order of gauge natural
bundles is expressed with the help of the ¬ber jets. The description of ¬nite
order bundle functors as explained in section 18 could be generalized now, but
there appear di¬culties connected with the (generally) in¬nite dimension of the
corresponding jet groups. Since we will need only the gauge natural bundles

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396 Chapter XII. Gauge natural bundles and operators

on PBm (G) in the sequel, we will restrict ourselves to this category. Then the
description will be quite analogous to that of classical natural bundles. Some
basic steps towards the description in the general case were done in [Slov´k, 86]
where the in¬nite dimensional constructions are performed with the help of the
smooth spaces in the sense of [Fr¨licher, 81].
51.5. Examples.
(1) The choice G = {e} reproduces the natural bundles on Mfm
(2) The functors Qr : PBm (G) ’ FM of r-th order principal connections
mentioned in 17.4 are examples of r-th order regular gauge natural bundles.
(3) The gauge natural bundles W r : PBm (G) ’ PB m (Wm G) of r-th principal

prolongation de¬ned in 15.3 play the same role as the frame bundles P r : Mfm ’
FM did in the description of natural bundles.
(4) For every manifold S with a smooth left action of Wm G, the construction
of associated bundles to the principal bundles W r P yields a regular gauge natural
bundle L : PBm (G) ’ FM. We shall see that all gauge natural bundles are of
this type.
51.6. Proposition. Every r-th order regular gauge natural bundle is a ¬ber
bundle associated to W r .
Proof. Analogously to the case of natural bundles, an r-th order regular gauge
natural bundle F is determined by the system of smooth associated maps

¯ ¯
FP,P : Jr (P, P ) —BP F P ’ F P

and the restriction of FRm —G,Rm —G to the ¬ber jets at 0 ∈ Rm yields an action
of Wm G = Jr (Rm — G, Rm — G)0 on the ¬ber S = F0 (Rm — G). The same
considerations as in 14.6 complete now the proof.
51.7. Theorem. Let F : PBm (G) ’ Mf be a functor endowed with a natu-
ral transformation q : F ’ B such that the locality condition 51.1.(c) holds.
Then S := (qRm —G )’1 (0) is a manifold of dimension s ≥ 0 and for every
P ∈ ObPBm (G), the mapping qP : F P ’ BP is a locally trivial ¬ber bun-
dle with standard ¬ber S, i.e. F : PBm (G) ’ FM. The functor F is a regular
gauge natural bundle of a ¬nite order r ¤ 2s + 1. If moreover m > 1, then
s s
r ¤ max{
(1) , + 1}.
m’1 m

All these estimates are sharp.
Brie¬‚y, every gauge natural bundle on PB m (G) with s-dimensional ¬bers is
one of the functors de¬ned in example 51.5.(4) with r bounded by the estimates
from the theorem depending on m and s but not on G. The proof is based on
the considerations from chapter V and it will require several steps.
51.8. Let us point out that the restriction of any gauge natural bundle F to
trivial principal bundles M — G and to morphisms of the form f — id : M — G ’
N — G can be viewed as a natural bundle Mfm ’ FM. Hence the action „ of

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51. Gauge natural bundles 397

the abelian group of ¬ber translations tx : Rm — G ’ Rm — G, (y, a) ’ (x + y, a),
i.e. „x = F tx , is a smooth action by 20.3. This implies immediately the assertion
on ¬ber bundle structure in 51.7, cf. 20.3. Further, analogously to 20.5.(1) we
¬nd that the regularity of F follows if we verify the smoothness of the induced
action of the morphisms keeping the ¬ber over 0 ∈ Rm on the standard ¬ber
S = F0 (Rm — G).
51.9. Lemma. Let U ‚ S be a relatively compact open set and write

F •(U ) ‚ S
QU =

where the union goes through all • ∈ PB m (G)(Rm — G, Rm — G) with •0 (0) =
(0). Then there is r ∈ N such that for all z ∈ QU and all PB m (G)-morphisms
•, ψ : Rm — G ’ Rm — G, •0 (0) = ψ0 (0) = 0, the condition jr • = jr ψ implies
0 0
F •(z) = F ψ(z).
Proof. Every morphism • : Rm — G ’ Rm — G is identi¬ed with the couple •0 ∈
C ∞ (Rm , Rm ), • ∈ C ∞ (Rm , G). So F induces an operator F : C ∞ (Rm , Rm —
G) ’ C ∞ (F (Rm — G), F (Rm — G)) which is qRm —G -local and the map qRm —G
is locally non-constant. Consider the constant map e : Rm ’ G, x ’ e, and the
m m
map idRm — e : R ’ R — G corresponding to idRm —G . By corollary 19.8, there
r r
is r ∈ N such that j0 f = j0 (idRm — e) implies F f (z) = z for all z ∈ U . Hence if
jr • = jr idRm —G , then F •(z) = z for all z ∈ U and the easy rest of the proof is
0 0
quite analogous to 20.4.
51.10. Proposition. Every gauge natural bundle is regular.
Proof. The whole proof of 20.5 goes through for gauge natural bundles if we

choose local coordinates near to the unit in G and replace the elements j0 fn ∈
G∞ by the couples (j0 fn , j0 •n ) ∈ G∞ Tm G and idRm by idRm — e. Let us
∞ ∞ ∞
¯ ˆ
m m
remark that also „x gets the new meaning of F (tx ).
51.11. Since every natural bundle F : Mf ’ FM can be viewed as the gauge
natural bundle F = F —¦ B : PBm (G) ’ FM, the estimates from theorem 51.7
must be sharp if they are correct, see 22.1. Further, the considerations from 22.1
applied to our situation show that we complete the proof of 51.7 if we deduce
that every smooth action of Wm G on a smooth manifold S factorizes to an action
of Wm G, k ¤ r, with k satisfying the estimates from 51.7.
So let us consider a continuous action ρ : Wm G ’ Di¬(S) and write H for its
kernel. Hence H is a closed normal Lie subgroup and the kernel H0 ‚ Gr of m
the restriction ρ0 = ρ|Gr always contains the normal Lie subgroup Bk ‚ Gr r
m m
with k = 2dimS + 1 if m = 1 and k = max{ dimS , dimS + 1} if m > 1. Let us
m’1 m
r r k
denote Kk the kernel of the jet projection Wm G ’ Wm G.
Lemma. For every Lie group G and all r, k ∈ N, r > k ≥ 1, the normal closed
r r r
Lie subgroup in Wm G generated by Bk {e} equals to Kk .
Proof. The Lie group Wm G can be viewed as the space of ¬ber jets Jr (Rm —
G, Rm — G)0 and so its Lie algebra wr g coincides with the space of ¬ber jets at

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398 Chapter XII. Gauge natural bundles and operators

0 ∈ Rm of (projectable) right invariant vector ¬elds with projections vanishing
at the origin. If we repeat the consideration from the proof of 13.2 with jets
replaced by ¬ber jets, we get the formula for Lie bracket in wr g, [jr X, jr Y ] =
m 0 0
’jr [X, Y ]. Since every polynomial vector ¬eld in wr g decomposes into a sum
r r r
of X1 ∈ gm and a vertical vector ¬eld X2 from the Lie algebra Tm g of Tm G, we
get immediately the action of gr on Tm g, [j0 X1 + 0, 0 + jr X2 ] = ’jr LX1 X2 .
r r
m 0 0
Now let us ¬x a base ei of g and elements Yi ∈ Tm g, Yi = jr x1 ei . Taking any
functions fi on Rm with j0 fi = 0, the r-jets of the ¬elds Xi = fi ‚/‚x1 lie in the

kernel br ‚ gr and we get

[j0 Xi , jr Yi ] = ’jr fi ei ∈ Tm g.
r r
0 0

Hence [br , Tm g] contains the whole Lie algebra of the kernel Kk and so the latter
r r
algebra must coincide with the ideal in wr g generated by br {0}. Since the
m k
kernel K1 is connected this completes the proof.
51.12. Corollary. Let G be a Lie group and S be a manifold with a continuous
left action of Wm G, dimS = s ≥ 0. Then the action factorizes to an action of
s s
Wm G with k ¤ 2s + 1. If m > 1, then k ¤ max{ m’1 , m + 1}. These estimates
are sharp.
The corollary concludes the proof of theorem 51.7.
51.13. Given two G-natural bundles F , E : PBm (G) ’ FM, every natural
transformation T : F ’ E is formed be a system of base preserving FM-
morphisms, cf. 14.11 and 51.8. In the same way as in 14.12 one deduces
Proposition. Natural transformations F ’ E between two r-th order G-
natural bundles over m-dimensional manifolds are in a canonical bijection with
the Wm G-equivariant maps F0 ’ E0 between the standard ¬bers F0 = F0 (Rm —

G), E0 = E0 (Rm — G).
51.14. De¬nition. Let F and E be two G-natural bundles over m-dimensional
manifolds. A gauge natural operator D : F E is a system of regular operators
∞ ∞
DP : C F P ’ C EP for all PBm (G)-objects π : P ’ BP such that
(a) DP (F f —¦ s —¦ Bf ’1 ) = F f —¦ DP s —¦ Bf ’1 for every s ∈ C ∞ F P and every
PBm (G)-isomorphism f : P ’ P ,
(b) Dπ’1 (U ) (s|U ) = (DP s)|U for every s ∈ C ∞ F P and every open subset
U ‚ BP .
51.15. For every k ∈ N and every gauge natural bundle F of order r its com-
position J k —¦ F with the k-th jet prolongation de¬nes a gauge natural bundle
functor of order k + r, cf. 14.16. In the same way as in 14.17 one deduces
Proposition. The k-th order gauge natural operators F E are in a canonical
bijection with the natural transformations J k F ’ E.
In particular, this proposition implies that the k-th order G-natural operators
s k
E are in a canonical bijection with the Wm G-equivariant maps J0 F ’ E0 ,
where s is the maximum of the orders of J k F and E and J0 F = J0 F (Rm — G).
k k

Electronic edition of: Natural Operations in Differential Geometry, Springer-Verlag, 1993
52. The Utiyama theorem 399

51.16. Consider the G-natural connection bundle Q and an arbitrary G-natural
bundle E.
Proposition. Every gauge natural operator A : Q E has ¬nite order.
Proof. By 51.8, every G-natural bundle F determines a classical natural bundle
N F by N F (M ) = F (M —G), N F (f ) = F (f —idG ). Given a G-natural operator
D: F E, we denote by N D its restriction to N F , i.e. N DM = DM —G . Clearly,
N D is a classical natural operator N F ’ N E.
Since our operator A is determined locally, we may restrict ourselves to the
product bundle M — G. Then we have a classical natural operator N A. In this
situation the standard ¬ber g — Rm— of Q coincides with the direct product of
dimG copies of Rm— . Hence we can apply proposition 23.5.

52. The Utiyama theorem

52.1. The connection bundle. First we write the equations of a connection
“ on Rm — G in a suitable form. Let ep be a basis of g and let ω p be the
corresponding (left) Maurer-Cartan forms given by p ω p (Xg )ep = T (»g’1 )(X).
(ω p )e = “p (x)dxi
(1) i
be the equations of “(x, e), x ∈ Rm , e = the unit of G. Since “ is right-invariant,
its equations on the whole space Rm — G are
ω p = “p (x)dxi .
(2) i
The connection bundle QP = J 1 P/G is a ¬rst order gauge natural bundle
with standard ¬ber g — Rm— . Having a PB m (G)-isomorphism ¦ of Rm — G into
y = •(x) · y,
(3) x = f (x),
¯ ¯ f (0) = 0
with • : Rm ’ G, its 1-jet j1 ¦ ∈ Wm G is characterized by

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