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Alex., 1991

Alex, Mathew, and Ravi, 1991

Alex et al., 1991; Alex et al., 1992

Alex., 1991, pg. 7

(short comm.)

\citetext{short comm.}

The \citetext command allows arbitrary text to be placed in the current citation paren-
theses. This may be used in combination with \citealp.

Partial citations

In author“year schemes, it is sometimes desirable to be able to refer to the authors with-
out the year, or vice versa. This is provided with the extra commands

Alex et al.

Alex, Mathew, and Ravi


\citeyear{ale91} 1991


Citations aliasing

Sometimes one wants to refer to a reference with a special designation, rather than by the
authors, i.e. as Paper I, Paper II. Such aliases can be de¬ned and used, textually and/or
parenthetically with:

’ Paper I
’ (Paper I)

These citation commands function much like \citet and \citep: they may take multiple
keys in the argument, may contain notes, and are marked as hyperlinks.

Selecting citation style and punctuation

Use the command \bibpunct with one optional and six mandatory arguments:
The opening bracket symbol, default = (
The closing bracket symbol, default = )
The punctuation between multiple citations, default = ;
The letter ˜n™ for numerical style, or ˜s™ for numerical superscript style, any other letter
for author“year, default = author--year;
5. The punctuation that comes between the author names and the year
6. The punctuation that comes between years or numbers when common author lists are
suppressed (default = ,);
The optional argument is the character preceding a post-note, default is a comma
plus space. In rede¬ning this character, one must include a space if that is what one

Example 1

changes the output of


[Jones et al. 1990; 1991, James et al. 1992].

Example 2

changes the output of
\citep[and references therein]{jon90}


(Jones et al. 1990; and references therein).


Bibliographic database is a database in which all the useful bibliographic entries can be
stored. The information about the various publications is stored in one or more ¬les with
the extension .bib. For each publication, there is a key that identi¬es it and which may
be used in the text document to refer to it. And this is available for all documents with
a list of reference in the ¬eld. This database is useful for the authors/researchers who
are constantly referring to the same publications in most of their works. This database
system is possible with the BIBTEX program supplied with the LTEX package.


BIBTEX is an auxiliary program to LTEX that automatically constructs a bibliography for

a LTEX document from one or more databases. To use BIBTEX, you must include in your

LTEX input ¬le a \bibliography command whose argument speci¬es one or more ¬les

that contain the database. For example

The above command speci¬es that the bibliographic entries are obtained from database1.bib
and database2.bib. To use BIBTEX, your LTEX input ¬le must contain a \bibliographystyle

command. This command speci¬es the bibliography style, which determines the format
of the source list. For example, the command

speci¬es that entries should be formatted as speci¬ed by the plain bibliography style
(plain.bst). We can put \bibliographystyle command anywhere in the document after
the \begin{document} command.


Standard BIBTEX style. Entries sorted alphabetically with numeric labels.
Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but entries are printed in order of
citation, rather than sorted. Numeric labels are used.
Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but the labels of the entries are formed
from the author™s name and the year of publication.
Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but entries are more compact, since
¬rst names, month, and journal names are abbreviated.
Alternative BIBTEX style, used for the journals of the Association for Comput-
ing Machinery. It has the author name (surname and ¬rst name) in small caps,
and numbers as labels.


Alternative BIBTEX style, used by the journals of the American Psychology As-
sociation. It should be used together with the LTEX apalike package. The

bibliography entries are formatted alphabetically, last name ¬rst, each entry
having a hanging indentation and no label.

Examples of some other style ¬les are:

abbrv.bst, abstract.bst, acm.bst, agsm.bst, kluwer.bst, named.bst, named.sty, nat-
alpha.bst, amsalpha.bst, authordatei.bst, bib.sty, natbib.bst, nature.sty, nature.bst,
authordate1-4.sty, bbs.bst, cbe.bst, cell.bst, phcpc.bst, phiaea.bst, phjcp.bst, phrmp.bst
dcu.bst, harvard.sty, ieeetr.bst, jtb.bst, plainyr.bst, siam.bst

Various organisations or individuals have developed style ¬les that correspond to the
house style of particular journals or editing houses. We can also customise a bibliography
style, by making small changes to any of the .bst ¬le, or else generate our own using the
makebst program.

Steps for running BIBTEX with LTEX

1. Run LTEX, which generates a list of \cite references in its auxiliary ¬le, .aux.

2. Run BIBTEX, which reads the auxiliary ¬le, looks up the references in a database
(one or more .bib ¬les, and then writes a ¬le (the .bbl ¬le) containing the formatted
references according to the format speci¬ed in the style ¬le (the .bst ¬le). Warning
and error messages are written to the log ¬le (the .blg ¬le). It should be noted that
BIBTEX never reads the original LTEX source ¬le.

3. Run LTEX again, which now reads the .bbl reference ¬le.

4. Run LTEX a third time, resolving all references.

Occasionally the bibliography is to include publications that were not referenced in
the text. These may be added with the command

given anywhere within the main document. It produces no text at all but simply informs
BIBTEX that this reference is also to be put into the bibliography. With \nocite{*}, every
entry in all the databases will be included, something that is useful when producing a list
of all entries and their keys.
After running BIBTEX to make up the .bbl ¬le, it is necessary to process LTEX at least

twice to establish both the bibliography and the in-text reference labels. The bibliography
will be printed where the \bibliography command is issued; it infact inputs the .bbl ¬le.


Though bibliographic database creation demands more work than typing up a list of
references with the thebibliography environment; it has a great advantage that, the en-
tries need to be included in the database only once and are then available for all future
publications even if a different bibliography style is demanded in later works, all the in-
formation is already on hand in the database for BIBTEX to write a new thebibliography
environment in another format. Given below is a specimen of an entry in bibliographic

AUTHOR ="Donald E. Knuth",

TITLE ={The \TeX{}book},
EDITION ="third"
PUBLISHER ="Addison-Wesley",
ADDRESS ={Reading, MA},
YEAR =1986 }

The ¬rst word, pre¬xed @, determines the entry type. The entry type is followed by
the reference information for that entry enclosed in curly braces { }. The very ¬rst entry
is the key for the whole reference by which it is referred to in the \cite command. In the
above example it is knuth:86a. The actual reference information is then entered in various
¬elds, separated from one another by commas. Each ¬eld consists of a ¬eld name, an =
sign, with optional spaces on either side, and the ¬eld text. The ¬eld names shows above
are AUTHOR, TITLE, PUBLISHER, ADDRESS, and YEAR. The ¬eld text must be enclosed either
in curly braces or in double quotation marks. However, if the text consists solely of a
number, as for YEAR above, the braces or quotation marks may be left off.
For each entry type, certain ¬elds are required, others are optional, and the rest
are ignored. These are listed with the description of the various entry types below. If a
required ¬eld is omitted, an error message will appear during the BIBTEX run. Optional
¬elds will have their information included in the bibliography if they are present, but
they need not be there. Ignored ¬elds are useful for including extra information in the
database that will not be output, such as a comment or an abstract of a paper. Ignored
¬elds might also be ones that are used by other database programs.
The general syntax for entries in the bibliographic database reads

field_name = {field text},
field_name = {field text} }

The names of the entry types as well as the ¬eld names may be written in capitals
or lower case letters, or in a combination of both. Thus @BOOK, @book, and @bOOk are all
acceptable variations.
The outermost pair of braces for the entire entry may be either curly braces { }, as
illustrated, or parentheses ( ). In the latter case, the general syntax reads

@entry_type(key, ... ..)

However, the ¬eld text may only be enclosed within curly braces {...} or double quotation
marks ... as shown in the example above.
The following is a list of the standard entry types in alphabetical order, with a brief
description of the types of works for which they are applicable, together with the required
and optional ¬elds that they take.
Entry for an article from a journal or magazine.
author, title, journal, year.
required ¬elds:
volume, number, pages, month, note.
optional ¬elds:
Entry for a book with a de¬nite publisher.
author or editor, title, publisher, year.
required ¬elds:
volume or number, series, address, edition, month, note.
optional ¬elds:
Entry for a printed and bound work without the name of a publisher
or sponsoring organisation.
required ¬elds:
author, howpublished, address, month, year, note.
optional ¬elds:

Entry for an article in conference proceedings.
required ¬elds: author, title, booktitle, year.
optional ¬elds: editor, volume or number, series, pages, address, month, organisa-
tion, publisher, note.
Entry for a part (chapter, section, certain pages) of a book.
required ¬elds: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year.
optional ¬elds: volume or number, series, type, address, edition, month, note.
@incollection: Entry for part of a book that has its own title.
required ¬elds: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year.
optional ¬elds: editor, volume or number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edi-
tion, month, note.
@inproceedings: Entry for an article in conference proceedings.
required ¬elds: author, title, booktitle, year.
optional ¬elds: editor, volume or number, series, pages, address, month, organisa-
tion, publisher, note.
Entry for technical documentation.
required ¬elds: title.
optional ¬elds: author, organisation, address, edition, month, year, note.
@masterthesis: Entry for a Master™s thesis.
required ¬elds: author, title, school, year.
optional ¬elds: type, address, month, note.
Entry for a work that does not ¬t under any of the others.
required ¬elds: none.
optional ¬elds: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note.
Entry for a PhD thesis.
required ¬elds: author, title, school, year.
optional ¬elds: type, address, month, note.
Entry for conference proceedings.
required ¬elds: title, year.
optional ¬elds: editor, volume or number, series, address, month, organisation,
publisher, note.
Entry for an unpublished work with an author and title.
required ¬elds: author, title, note.
optional ¬elds: month, year.

Example of a LTEX ¬le (sample.tex) using bibliographical database (bsample.bib)


\section*{Example of Citations of Kind \texttt{plain}}
Citation of a normal book˜\cite{Eijkhout:1991} and an edited
book˜\cite{Roth:postscript}. Now we cite an article written by a
single˜\cite{Felici:1991} and by multiple
authors˜\cite{Mittlebatch/Schoepf:1990}. A reference to an
article inside proceedings˜\cite{Yannis:1991}.
We refer to a manual˜\cite{Dynatext} and a technical
report˜\cite{Knuth:WEB}. A citation of an unpublished
work˜\cite{EVH:Office}. A reference to a chapter in a
book˜\cite{Wood:color} and to a PhD thesis˜\cite{Liang:1983}.

An example of multiple

\bibliographystyle{plain} %% plain.bst
\bibliography{bsample} %% bsample.bib

Procedure for producing references for the above ¬le sample.tex which uses bib-
liographic data base bsample.bib
$ latex sample % 1st run of LaTeX

$ bibtex sample % BibTeX run
% Then sample.bbl file will
% be produced

$ latex sample % 2nd run of LaTeX

If still unresolved citation references
$ latex sample % 3rd run of LaTeX



A table of contents is a special list which contains the section numbers and corresponding

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