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Index




Adams, John Penn, William on, 89, 90, 92, 93, 105,
Articles of Confederation (1776), 110, 217
optimistic about, 253 in Pennsylvania, 100“35, 275
Declaration of Independence, on delay Pennsylvania Frame of Government
of, 246 (1681), clause in, 93
and Dickinson, opinion of, 226, 238, Quaker theory of, 43“7, 86“98, 298,
242, 248, 253 324
and Dickinson, opposes, 239, 241, in U.S. Constitution, 310“11
242 in West Jersey Concessions and
military service of, 242 Agreements, 102
Pennsylvania and, 152, 239, 271 in written documents, 43“7, 84,
Quakers and, 175, 227, 228, 239, 310“11
268 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
religious liberty and, 228 Equal Rights, 329
revelation, denies in¬‚uence of in First, 2, 252
government, 286 Fourteenth, 252
Adams, Samuel, 261, 263 Nineteenth, 328
Addams, Jane, 328 Seventeenth, 305n150
af¬rmation, 157, 193, 252, 256, 258, American Friends Service Committee,
266, 273. See also oaths 330, 333
amendment (of laws or constitution), Ames, William, 68
104. See also constitution; Anabaptism, 5, 50. See also quietism
innovation(s), legal Anabaptist(s), 2, 6
Articles of Confederation (1776), lacks anarchy, 7, 12, 297, 333
provision for, 258 federalism prevents, 308
Barclay, Robert on, 45 in the Quaker polity, 32, 39, 120, 136,
in the British system, 84“6 138, 155, 323
Clarkson, Thomas on, 326 Quakers accuse one another of, 321
Dickinson on, 200, 217, 220, Anglican(s), 57, 114, 126, 130,
245, 258“9, 274“5, 310“11, 145, 147, 160, 170, 223, 262,
314 300
Penington, Isaac on, 89, 92, 217“18 animals, treatment of, 158

365
366 Index

Annapolis Convention, 14, 249, 277“8, Baltzell, E. Digby, 15
296 Banks, John, 41
Anthony, Susan B., 320, 328 Baptists, 130, 227, 329
antiauthoritarianism, 18, 103, 111, 136, Barclay, David, 197, 274
166, 170, 309 Barclay, Robert, 124, 213, 322, 332
antigovernmentalism, 18 his Anarchy of the Ranters and other
antinomianism, 48, 63, 70, 77, 333 Libertines (1676), 30, 33, 46, 99,
Anti-Slavery International, 325 102, 138, 185, 281, 299, 310,
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 68 323
aristocracy, 299, 304, 309 his Apology for the True Christian
natural, 301, 308 Divinity (1675), 29, 35, 58, 69, 236,
spiritual, 41, 138, 142, 257, 302, 288
309 on apostolic precedent, 44
arms on constitutional amendment, 45
Britain™s use of, 210 on dissent, 40, 290, 333
Dickinson against use of, 214, 276 on government, authority of, 42, 154,
Dickinson™s use of, 15, 242“4, 248, 185, 281
264 on government, order and method of,
force of, legal de¬nition, 63 34, 260, 295“6, 299
frontiersmen™s use of, 187 on government, origins and purpose of,
government must not be resisted by, 30“3, 43, 297
104, 110, 133, 326 on moderation, 99
Quakers accused of using force of, 87 on oaths, 57
Quakers™ houses searched for, 268 on peace testimony, 52
Quakers™ refusal to bear, 63, 162 on perfection, 29, 45, 74
Quakers™ use of, 187“8, 229, 231, on persecution, 99
232 on popular sovereignty, 41, 301
radicals™ use of, 178, 261. See also on proselytization, 53
Free Quakers on Quaker process, 332
Armstrong™s Quaker Rugs, 317 on revelation versus reason, 69
Articles of Confederation (1776, on speaking as obligation, 287
Dickinson Plan), 14, 245, 249“53, on unity, 37, 38, 289
255, 276“7 Bartlett, Josiah, 270
Articles of Confederation (1777), 270, Bartram, John, 143, 156
275, 277, 295, 296 Beer, Samuel H., 297, 305, 310
Associators, 234, 259, 260, 267 benevolence, 30, 74, 148“54, 291
Attainder, Act of (1778), 271 Benezet, Anthony, 39, 158, 182, 193
Besse, Joseph, 52
Bacon, Francis, 67, 89 Bible, The, 39, 284. See also Scripture
Bailyn, Bernard, 228 Biddle, Clement, 229
balance Biddle, Edward, 233
in the polity, 12“13, 85, 98“100, Biddle, Owen, 229
108, 112, 125, 165, 173, 176, Bingley, William, 51
233, 238, 249, 275, 299, 304, Black, William, 145
306“7, 309, 323 Blackwell, John, 116“20, 126
in Quaker theory/practice, 6, 11, 34, Board of War, 270
36, 71, 100, 125, 128, 136, 176, Boorstin, Daniel, 170
201, 217, 290, 309, 319, 329“30, boycott, 158, 208, 210, 220, 224,
332 331
Index 367

Braithwaite, William C., 2 Dickinson defends, 198“200, 256“7
Bringhouse, Jonathan, 164 the Pennsylvania constitution (1776)
Bringhurst, James, 55, 122, 185, 192“4 compared with, 254“5
Brissot de Warville, Jean-Paul, 35, 143, provisions of, 132
153 as a Quaker constitution, 103,
British Army, 255, 267, 268 133“5, 137, 165“6, 198“200, 252,
Brown, Moses, 274 297
Bryan, George, 254 Quakers loyal to, 223, 266, 269
Bugg, Francis, 50, 60, 62, 142, 170, Chew, Samuel, 164
171 Childress, James F., 9
bureaucracy, 12, 18, 25“6, 33, 41, Church of England, 49, 58, 174, 198,
47, 60, 100, 104, 118, 137, 167, 298
169, 303, 330. See also Quaker Churchman, George, 53, 158, 185, 194,
process 320
Burgess, Glenn, 88 City Tavern (Philadelphia), 227
Burke, Edmund, 114, 286, 310 civil disobedience, 267
Burnyeat, John, 34 Clarkson, Thomas on, 325“6
Burrough, Edward, 95, 139, 322, de¬ned/described, 6“7, 9, 57, 100,
325 324“7, 329, 332“3
Bushell™s Case, 90, 294 Dickinson advocates, 209, 211, 219,
Byllynge, Edward, 81, 91, 101“2, 107 220
Dymond, Jonathan on, 326“7
Calhoon, Robert M., 261 as fundamental right, 96, 217
Calvert, Charles (Lord Baltimore), 121 Gregg, Richard on, 329“30
Calvinism (reformed). See Puritanism as judicial review, 97
Calvinists. See Puritan(s) King, Martin Luther, Jr. and, 57, 268,
campaign for royal government, 178, 332“3
195“202, 208, 230, 248, 252, 257, of Paul, Alice, 328
287 peaceful protest, most extreme form of,
Cannon, James, 254 6, 11, 214
Canons and Institutions (1668“69). See of Pemberton, James, 268
Discipline, The political obligation and, 7, 10, 96
Carolina (North and South), 130, 156, political requisites of, 7
300 practices that are not, 7, 61, 100, 208,
Caswell, Richard, 229 324
Catholicism. See Roman Church; popery Quakers originate, 8, 11“12, 47“63,
Cato (John Trenchard and Thomas 94, 97, 312, 324

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