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Gordon), 70, 85, 97 Rustin, Bayard on, 330“2
Chalkley, Thomas, 159 scholarship on, 9
Charles I, 88, 218 Thoreau, Henry David and, 327,
Charles II, 58, 62, 107, 256, 288, 333 329
Charter of Pennsylvania (granted by civil Quakerism, 137, 186, 201, 319
Charles II, c. 1681), 107, 256 Civil Rights Movement, 6, 8, 329
Charter of Privileges (1701), 147, Civil War, American, 224, 296, 315“16,
179“80, 244, 274 324
abolished, 155, 239, 249, 262, 271 Civil War, English, 218. See also Puritan
in the campaign to replace with royal Revolution
government, 195“202 Clark, Abraham, 253
creation of, 130“4, 179 Clarkson, Thomas, 37, 325“7
368 Index

clerk of the meeting conscientious objection, 5, 9, 223, 266“7,
Kinsey, John as, 161, 168 271
Pemberton, Israel as, 177, 180 constituent sovereignty, 92, 297, 326
Pemberton, James as, 177, 193 constitution. See also amendment (of
role of, 41“2, 109, 303 laws or constitution); government
Cockson, Edward, 142 (civil and ecclesiastical); law; unity/
Coercive Acts (1774), 225“6 union
come-outerism, 321“2, 324 American understanding of, 98,
Committee on Public Safety 313“14
(Pennsylvania), 233 ancient, described, 72
common law, 67, 90“1, 93, 149, 218, Antebellum reformers and, 323“4
281, 285. See also custom Clarkson, Thomas on, 326
change in, 84“6, 105 de¬ned, 70
described, 48, 83 Dickinson on, 198, 213“14, 245
Dickinson distrusts, 213 as a living entity, 11, 45, 101, 213,
as experience, 286 310
liberty of conscience and, 75 man-made, 31, 46, 77
Quakers distrust, 61, 91, 93, 287 Quaker theory of, summarized, 11, 78,
reason and, 80, 84, 91, 285, 286 100, 101, 325
as structure of discourse, 88 as sacred and perpetual, 45“6, 73, 83,
Concessions and Agreements (West 101, 108, 130, 213, 216, 235, 282,
Jersey, 1676“77), 81“2, 101“2, 291, 296
106 Scripture compared with, 77
Congress, Confederation, 251, 276, 277 unwritten, 72, 85, 297
Congress, Continental, 232 written, 10, 43“7, 72“3, 77, 85, 89,
Articles of Confederation (1776) 101, 104, 291, 295“6, 298
revised by, 252 Constitution, U.S., 279, 288, 297, 310,
conscientious objectors and, 267, 271 323
convening of the First, 226 Constitutional Convention, 14, 194, 214,
Dickinson™s instructions to 247, 259, 279, 285, 296, 302“3,
Pennsylvania delegates, 234, 309, 314
239“40 Constitutionalists, 259, 265“6, 271,
Dickinson™s membership in, 14, 226, 275
252“3, 262 Continental Army, 276
Dickinson™s motives in, 242 Conventicle Acts (1664), 58, 169
Dickinson™s reputation in, 234“5, 265 Convention (Pennsylvania
Dickinson™s writings for, 233“5, 258 Revolutionary), 253“6, 258“9, 263,
as an illegal meeting, 298 266“7
independence, debates/votes on, convincement, 11, 35, 38, 53, 59,
241“2 148“54, 290. See also
Pennsylvania government, overthrow proselytization
planned by, 239, 254 Council of Censors (Pennsylvania), 258,
Pennsylvania placed under martial law 275“6
by, 260 Council of Safety (Pennsylvania), 260,
Quakers and, 226“33, 239, 268, 263“4, 267
270“1. See also Virginia Exiles covenant. See government (civil and
Congress, Federal, 306, 308 ecclesiastical), contract theory of
Congress, Stamp Act, 14, 208 Cr` vec“ur, J. Hector St. John de, 122,
e
Connecticut, 227, 276 143, 156
Index 369

Crook, John, 86 Constitutional Convention, member
custom, 212. See also common law; of, 14
history on constitutional perfection, 296,
as a guide, 28, 86 310“11
law and, 10, 48, 60, 72, 84, 86, 88, in the Continental Congress, 226,
90“1, 209, 285“7 252“3, 262
Quakers reject, 35, 44, 50, 52, 91, 158, custom, suspicious of, 287
209, 213, 287, 297 his Declaration for the Causes and
as ritual, 70, 287 Necessity of Taking Up Arms
Cutler, Manasseh, 152 (1775), 14, 233, 234
defensive war, belief in, 192, 233,
D™Emilio, John, 330 312
Dayton, Elias, 253 Delaware, president of, 14, 193
De Berthune, Maximillian, Duke of Sully, on dissent, duty of, 201, 212, 216,
200 219, 287, 289“90, 295
Deane, Silas, 227, 229 on dissent, limits of, 216“21, 243,
death penalty, 149, 258, 262 290
Declaration of Independence (1776), 13, his Essay of a Frame of Government
15, 207, 242, 262“4, 293 for Pennsylvania (1776), 255, 258,
Declaration of Indulgence (1687), 54 262, 302
Declaration of Rights (Pennsylvania), on experience, 285“6
179, 255, 258“9, 272 his Fabius Letters (1788), 15, 281“11
deism, 146 on factions, 306“7
Delaware, 15, 259, 263“5, 308 federalism, 299“310
Dickinson president of, 14, 193, 323 First Petition to the King (1774), 14
democracy, 34, 41, 260, 309 on ¬rst principles (of government),
danger of excesses in, 300, 306 213“14
despotism in, 38, 257, 294, 307, “Friends and Countrymen” (1765),
308 209
pure, 257, 260, 301 on government, limits of, 63, 213, 215,
representative, 41, 100, 125, 257, 260, 218
301 on government, order and method of,
Descartes, Ren´ , 89
e 295, 299“310
Dewsbury, William, 40 on government, origins and purpose,
Dickinson, John 290“5
his Address from Congress to the independence and, 14“15, 241“4
Inhabitants of Quebec (1774), 14 in¬‚uence of, 193, 222, 225“6, 262“5,
America™s ¬rst political hero, 211 313“14
Annapolis Convention, chairman of, his Late Regulations Respecting the
278 British Colonies on the Continent of
Articles of Confederation (1776), 241, America Considered (1765), 210
249“53 on law, distinguishes between positive
and the Bible, 284 and fundamental, 213“15
in the campaign for royal government, his Letter to the Inhabitants of Quebec
198“202 (1774), 258
civil disobedience, advocates, 208“9, his Letters from a Farmer in
211, 225 Pennsylvania (1767“68), 14, 207,
on constitutional amendment, 217, 211“21, 224“5, 288“9
220, 245, 259, 274“5, 310“11 Liberty Song, The (1768), 211
370 Index

Dickinson, John (cont.) Stamp Act Congress, 208
major achievements of, 14“15 testimonies of, 193“4, 273,
military service of, 14, 234“5, 242 287“88
moderation of, 193, 202“3, 207, 216, traditional Quaker faction, leader of,
225, 289“90, 313 179, 198, 224, 260
and national peaceful protest traditional Quakerism, exemplar of, 6,
movement, leader of, 225, 233, 246, 178, 203, 211, 224, 230, 232“3,
312 236, 241, 244
Olive Branch Petition (1775), 14, as trimmer, principled, 202, 233
233“4 and Virginia Exiles, 272
opposes slavery, 274 withdrawing Quakers, criticizes,
paci¬sm of, 178, 217, 233, 313 222
patriotism of, 220, 284 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris (wife of
as “Penman of the Revolution”, John), 189, 190, 239
14“15, 245, 264 Dickinson, Mary Cadwalader (mother of
Pennsylvania constitution (1776), John), 189, 239
protests, 255“9 Dickinson, Philemon (brother of John),
Pennsylvania, president of, 14, 273“7 263
persecution of, 245, 263“5 Dickinson, Samuel (father of John), 189
as political martyr, 202, 241, 245 Digger(s), 67
on popular sovereignty, 299“310 Discipline, The (Quaker ecclesiastical
prepares for war, 233, 235, 241 constitution, Canons and
his Proclamation Against Vice and Institutions, 1668“69), 46, 123
Immorality (1783), 274 creation of, 43“7
on property, 222 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris
Quaker in¬‚uence, acknowledges, 239, transgresses, 190
242 Pennsylvania laws based on, 145“57
Quaker process, advocates, 218“20, provisions of, 44, 102, 124, 190
237“8, 281, 290 Scripture, compared to, 77
Quakerism of, 16“17, 189“95, 202, U.S. Constitution, creation of
273, 279“80, 284 compared with, 310
religious af¬liation of, 16, 178, 191, dissent, 7, 25“51, 76, 77, 83, 99, 100,
233, 248 101, 130, 287. See also civil
his Reply to a Piece called The speech disobedience; proselytization;
of Joseph Galloway (1764), 203 Quaker process; testimonies
reputation of, 211, 225“6, 234, 238, constitutional, 88, 101
241, 264, 313 duty of, 37“8, 158, 201, 212, 216,
Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress 219, 224, 237, 243, 266, 289“90,
(1765), 14 295, 332
on revelation and reason, 283“7 ethic of disseminated, 184“9, 197, 224,
on revolution, 219, 312 230, 236
scholarship on, 13“17, 201, 246, 277, institutionalized, 160“76
280 limits of, 11“12, 42, 184, 210, 214,
slavery, opposes, 193“4, 302“3, 323 216“21, 243, 289“90
on speaking as obligation, 212, 219, silence as, 62, 328
241, 303 Truth, as a means to, 38, 57
his Speech Delivered in the House of unity and, 25, 38, 55, 100, 117, 136,
Assembly of the Province of 176“8, 180, 226
Pennsylvania (1764), 198“9 District of Columbia, 277
Index 371

divine competence (to rule), 78, 81, 139, on government, order and method of,
297 102, 116, 260
Duane, James, 227 on government, origins and purpose of,
Duplessis-Mornay, Phillip, 95 31“3
Dyer, Eliphalet, 234 oppressor, viewed as, 32, 131
Dyer, Mary, 52 peace testimony and, 36, 52
Dymond, Jonathan, 243“4, 325“7, 330, proselytization and, 26, 55
332 Quakerism, founder of, 26
Society of Friends, president of, 44
egalitarianism, 34, 49, 66, 123, 154, 236, Frame of Government of Pennsylvania
257, 300, 302 (1681), 73, 78, 93, 105, 107“10
ekkl¯ sia, 145, 280“1. See also
e (1683), 110“21, 127“8, 131“2
government(civil and ecclesiastical), (1696), 126“9, 132
civil as ecclesiastical writ large France, 126, 143, 189
Elazar, Daniel J., 154 Franklin, Benjamin, 273
Ellwood, Thomas, 57 in the campaign for royal government,
Enlightenment, 71, 138, 143, 284 197, 200, 230
Evangelicals, 153, 279 cartoon of, 172
Evans, Joshua, 158, 159 Pennsylvania Assembly, loses seat in,
Executive Council (Pennsylvania), 201
268“70, 275 Pennsylvania Convention, president of,
experience 254
Dickinson on, 285, 286 Quakers and, 188“9, 197, 229“30
as a guide, 74, 80, 150, 280, 283, 285, radical Quaker faction, leader of, 178,
308, 326, 331 183, 188, 197, 254
as history, 285 Free Quakers, 122, 228“32, 237
policy derived from, 309 French and Indian War, 170, 180, 187
reasonable, as foundation of common Fundamentall Constitutions
law, 286 (Pennsylvania, c. 1681), 82, 96,
revelation as, 286 106“8, 110, 170
spiritual, 34, 285 Furly, Benjamin, 93, 108
worldly, 286
Galloway, Joseph, 203
Fabius, 290 in the campaign for royal government,
federalism, 40“1, 245, 251, 277, 189, 197, 199“200
298“310 as a Loyalist, 232, 244
Federalist Papers (1789), 46, 288, 307, Pennsylvania Assembly, leader of,
310 222
Fighting Quakers. See Free Quakers his Plan of Union (1774), 232, 244
First Great Awakening, 260, 284 in radical Quaker faction, 178
¬rst principles (of government), 91“3, and rioting in Philadelphia, 211
96, 213“14, 218 and traditional Quaker faction, 178
Fisher, Sarah, 267 Gandhi, Mohandas, 7, 12, 312,
Five Mile Act (1665), 58 329“31
Fletcher, Benjamin, 126“7, 132, 149 Garrison, William Lloyd, 320“4
Flower, Milton E., 14, 16 George II, 182
Fothergill, Samuel, 182, 197 Germans, 161, 171“2, 174, 188
Fox, George, 59, 124, 146, 322 Gerry, Elbridge, 239, 268
on government, authority of, 323 Gervais, John Lewis, 269
372 Index

Glorious Revolution, 86, 98, 126. Hoadly, Benjamin, 95
government (civil and ecclesiastical). See Hobbes, Thomas, 26, 71, 73, 89
also ekkl¯ sia
e Holme, Thomas, 114
civil as ecclesiastical writ large, 26, 53, Hooper, William, 263
56, 64, 101, 106, 108“9, 119, 125, Howell, David, 274
137“8, 212, 279“80 humanitarianism, 154
contract theory of, 85, 89, 200, 291“3, Hutcheson, Francis, 97
297
creation myth of, 26, 281 Indians, 150“1, 172, 187“8
de¬ned, 70, 72 innovation(s), legal
as divinely ordained, 33, 46, 52, 56, British government a collection of, 310
73, 78, 84, 280, 291, 323 as dangerous, 44, 83, 87, 209
limits of, 63, 72, 96, 213, 215, 218 inspired by false guides, 213
locus of authority in, 31“2, 34, 36, less dangerous in a Quaker
121, 124, 127, 131, 136, 138, constitution, 91
257 of Parliament, 213
as man-made, 31“2, 46 in Pennsylvania constitution (1776),
order and method of, 33“40, 56, 260, 275
78“83, 108, 116, 260, 295“6, precedent, compared with, 209
299“310 royal government in Pennsylvania as,
origins and purpose of, 30“3, 40“7, 199
290“5
trust theory of, 200, 290“4, 297“8, Jacobson, David L., 15
302 James II, 54, 87, 99, 126, 202
Greene, Nathanael, 229 James, William, 146
Gregg, Richard, 329“30 Jay, John, 233, 275
gubernaculum, 63, 218. See also Jefferson, Thomas, 194, 234, 282, 291,
government (civil and ecclesiastical), 293“4, 314
limits of Jones, John, 232, 262
Jones, Rufus M., 329
habeas corpus, 262, 269, 274 judicial review, 94, 97
Hamilton, Andrew, 168, 180, 195 Junius (New York) Friends Meeting,
Hamm, Thomas D., 322 320
Harrington, James, 67, 85 jurisdictio, 63, 218. See also government
Heinrichs, Johann, 229“30 (civil and ecclesiastical), limits of
Henry, Patrick, 194, 269
Hewes, Joseph, 228, 231 Keith, George. See Keithian Controversy
Hicks, Elias, 321 Keith, William, 169
Hicksite Separation, 28, 46, 319 Keithian Controversy, 121“7, 130, 324
Hill, Christopher, 3 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 6“8, 12, 57,
history 312
apostolic, 287 on civil disobedience, 332“3
as custom, 91, 282, 285 Quaker in¬‚uences on, 329“32
Dickinson™s use of, 218 Kinsey, John, 161“8, 169“70, 177, 179,
as experience, 117, 167, 285 180“1, 197
as a guide, 28, 44, 79, 80, 84, 91, 124, Knollenberg, Bernhard, 16
237, 284, 308
Quakers critical of, 91 Lambert, Frank, 146
sacred, 285 Lamb™s War, 31, 53, 54
Index 373

Laurens, Henry, 269 modern, Quakerism mistaken for, 146,
law. See also amendment (of laws or 148, 154
constitution); common law; liberty of conscience, 18, 63, 144, 172,
constitution; custom; Light within 244, 262, 287
discernment of, 26“7, 30“2, 44“5, Charter of Privileges, guaranteed in,
55“6, 62, 68“72, 77, 78“81, 83, 132, 134
86“91, 96, 101, 108“11, 124, 134, civil unity preserved by, 75“6, 213
185, 215, 283“90, 297, 302. See defended not with carnal weapons,
also Light within; synteresis 52
distinction between positive and as fundamental law, 62, 75, 82, 145,
fundamental, 57, 61“2, 85, 87, 89, 147
93, 96, 98, 106, 209, 215“18, 311, inhibited by human law and
325 conventions, 48
divine/fundamental (constitutional), 9, Massachusetts laws inconsistent with,
27“9, 32, 36, 45“6, 48, 56“7, 61, 228
64, 67, 70, 72“4, 78, 82, 90, 92, as a negative liberty, 144, 146, 148,
102, 121, 199, 282“3, 298, 313 154
liberty of conscience as fundamental, non-Quakers in Pennsylvania troubled
75, 148 by, 147
living spirit of, opposed to dead letter, in Pennsylvania, 104, 130, 132“3, 137,
27, 45, 49, 213, 287 142, 147, 255
of nature (reason), 62, 68“72, 84, 86, philosophes admire, 147
88, 283, 326 as a positive liberty, 146
Pennsylvania based on Quaker purpose of, 145
Discipline, 145“57 Quaker process and, 26, 28, 53, 59,
positive (human), 10, 42, 48“9, 56, 57, 94, 96
72“3, 75, 92, 134, 169, 215, 295, Quaker views on important to
298, 333 delegates of Constitutional
against Quakers, 58, 267 Convention, 279
Quakers challenge, 56, 87“88, 90, speech-acts advocate, 49
100, 216, 269. See also civil as tool of proselytization, 144“8
disobedience West Jersey Concessions and
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, Agreements, 82
253“62, 270, 274“5 Light within, 32, 55, 68, 103, 149, 287.
Roman, 309 See also revelation; testimonies
speech-acts publicize the divine, 49 civil disobedience arises from, 62, 95
statute, 70, 84, 87“8, 214, 218 described, 28, 30, 35, 47, 49, 80
testimonies as expression of the divine, Dickinson and, 192, 283
48, 57, 58, 94 law, 31, 44, 48, 62, 124. See also
unwritten, 72, 84 law
virtual repeal of, 62, 96, 98, 225 obedience to, 57, 139, 157, 215,
written, 44“5, 60, 72, 77, 89“90, 288, 235
298 as Pope within, 50
Lay, Benjamin, 39, 40, 158 as positive and negative liberty, 31, 47,
Lee, Arthur, 222 185“6, 299, 323
Lee, Richard Henry, 263, 268“9 reason and, 61“2, 86, 91, 285, 321,
Levellers, 26, 93, 185 326
liberalism Scripture and, 28
classical, 18, 67, 281 unequal distribution of, 34, 109, 301
374 Index

Light within (cont.) Meeting for Sufferings
as universal, 34, 55, 74, 80, 140, 192, London, 59, 130, 181, 198, 218
301“2, 330“1 Philadelphia, 224, 266, 267
varying interpretations of, 31, 34, 42, Meredith, Samuel, 229
123“5, 185, 283“4, 320“1, 323 Mif¬‚in, Thomas, 225, 229
Lincoln, Abraham, 224 Mif¬‚in, Warner, 158, 194
Little Quaker Wax Beans, 317 Miller, Samuel, 191
Little Women, 315 Milton, John, 67
Lloyd, David, 93, 127“9, 132“3, Moby Dick, 315
134 moderation 13, 98. See also balance;
Lloyd, Thomas, 106, 112, 118, 125, trimmer(s)
159 Dickinson advocates, 313
Locke, John, 26, 70, 73, 85“6, 95, 97, Dickinson and, 193, 202“3, 207, 216,
282, 307 225, 289“90, 313
contract theory of, 89, 297 Pennsylvania Convention, lacking in,
Penn™s in¬‚uence on, 97 253
on religious toleration, 76“7 persecution for, 99, 262
Logan, James, 132“4, 164 Quakers and, 6, 11, 98“9, 119, 134,
London Yearly Meeting, 33, 46, 125, 261, 321
179, 182, 300 of Whigs, 97
Loyalism, 5, 223, 244, 271, 315 Molesworth, John, 85
Ludlow, Edmund, 85 Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, 143
Lunardini, Christine A., 328 Montgomery, John, 273
moral jiu jitsu, 330
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 76, 92, 214 Morris, Samuel, Jr., 229
`
Madison, James, 302, 305“7 Mott, James, 321
Magna Carta, 63, 77, 84, 220 Mott, Lucretia, 36, 320“4
Marietta, Jack D., 181 Munster, 50
¨
Markham, William, 113, 115“16, 118, Mutiny of 1783, 276“7
127“8
Marshall, Christopher, 229 National American Woman Suffrage
martyrdom, 10, 59, 202, 212, 216, 241, Association, 328
245, 329 Navigation Acts (1660), 126
Marx, Karl, 331 neutrality, Quaker, 236, 245, 248, 261,
Maryland, 15, 120“1, 229 271“2
Massachusetts, 26, 114, 140, 156, Neville, Henry, 85
242 New Jersey, 121, 253
as city on a hill, 139 Congress in, 277
established church in, 147 Dickinson joins battalion in, 242, 262
persecution of Quakers in, 1, 117, 148, Paul, Alice from, 328
262 Quaker constitution of, 67, 81
punishment in, 149 Quaker polity, 100“3, 110, 199
religious liberty in, 184, 227 Spanktown Friends Meeting, 268
Matlack, Timothy, 229 New Quaker Bonnet, The, 315“16
McDonald, Ellen Shapiro, 17 New York, 126, 128, 156, 208, 214,
McDonald, Forrest, 16, 279 232, 235, 277, 320
McIlwain, Charles, 63 Newton, Isaac, 71, 86
McKean, Thomas, 269 Non-Associators, 267
Mead, William, 90, 294 nonresistance, 321“2, 324
Index 375

Norman Yoke, 93 Quaker heritage of, 236
Norris, Isaac, Jr. patriotism
in the campaign for royal government, of Dickinson, 220, 245, 264, 284
197 Dickinson on the Quakers™, 221“2
Dickinson™s father-in-law, 190 paci¬sm and, 313
on political engagement, 183 in the Revolution, 220, 228, 248“9
Quaker Reformation and, 182 Paul, Alice, 328“29
resists Pennsylvania proprietors, 168, Paxton Riot, 185, 187
173“6, 179“80 peace testimony, 42, 66. See also
testimonies of, 169, 181, 192 paci¬sm
traditional Quakerism of, 178 advent of, 36
Norris, Isaac, Sr., 133, 141, 186 balances unity and dissent, 180
North Carolina.See Carolina (North and as basis for factions 177. See also
South) Quakers, political factions of
disownment for transgression of,
oaths. See also af¬rmation 224
Dickinson on, 252 dissent shaped by, 52
Quakers refuse to administer, 126, 157 evasion of military service and, 271
Quakers refuse to swear, 57“8, 126, nonresisters and, 322
266, 269“70, 272, 288 Pennsylvania Assembly abandons,
Revolutionary Pennsylvania, 259, 262, 184
266 and Pennsylvania defense, 137,
oligarchy, 41, 125, 142, 309 162“5, 180“1, 228. See also Free
Quakers
paci¬sm. See also peace testimony persecution lessened by, 63
in America, 8, 313 preserves order, 39
civil disobedience and, 11 as primary testimony, 36
of Dickinson, 178, 217, 233 proselytization, effect on, 53
Franklin, Benjamin, not advocated by, Quaker historiography and, 56
189 Quakerism before, 178
of King, Martin Luther, Jr., 331 radicals disregard, 231, 261, 271
of nonresisters, 322 reinvented as political tool, 162“5
patriotism and, 313 scope of, 37, 94, 115, 184, 192, 248,

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