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Quaker, 3, 5, 9, 18, 36, 120, 161, 271, 322
164, 207, 231, 237, 260, 268, traditional Quakers™ interpretation of,
331 178
reform and, 97, 153, 217, 237“8, Pearson, John, 103
313, 331 Pemberton, Israel, 172, 177, 180, 182,
Paine, Thomas, 229“30, 272 197, 228, 270
Common Sense (1776), 235“8, 254, Pemberton, John, 183, 193, 268
265 Penington, Isaac, 213
Free Quakers, aligned with, 237 on breaking the law, 94
on government, 74, 291 on constitutional amendment, 89, 92,
Pennsylvania constitution (1776), 217“18
in¬‚uence on, 254, 260“1 on ¬rst principles (of government), 92
Pennsylvania Revolutionary on government, ideal form of, 78
Convention and, 254 on government, origins and purpose,
political theory inspired by Quakerism, 142
260 persecution of, 56, 63
376 Index

Penington, Isaac (cont.) on natural rights, 71, 282
on political obligation, 98 oppressor, viewed as, 113, 126, 131,
on politicians, spiritual quali¬cations 136
of, 106 Pennsylvania restored to, 127
on popular sovereignty, 79“80 Pennsylvania, deprived of, 126
Quaker process, advocates, 80, 86, Pennsylvania, misjudgments in, 107“8,
88, 96 113, 115“18, 127, 129, 132
representatives, duties of, 105, 113 Pennsylvania, power nulli¬ed in,
works of, edited by Quakers, 45 131“3
Penn, Thomas, 160, 195, 201 Pennsylvania, power undermined in,
Penn, William, 107“8, 128, 213, 322“3 103“34
on balance in the polity, 304 Pennsylvania™s reputation, concern for,
on breaking the law, 94, 110 115
celebrated as founder of Pennsylvania, persecution of, 56
143, 274 on political engagement, 77, 183
on civil unity, 75“6, 117, 144, 213, political philosophy of, 65
220 on popular sovereignty, 79, 106, 111
on the common law, 90, 93 Quaker politicians, concern for
Concession and Agreements, author of, spiritual welfare of, 114
102 Quaker process, advocates, 96, 115,
considers selling Pennsylvania to the 139, 145, 290
crown, 196 Quakers respect, 111
on constitutional amendment, 89“90, on Ranters, 185
92“3, 105, 110, 217 on revolution, 75, 218
counsels Quakerly behavior in on separation of church and state, 87,
Pennsylvania, 112 125, 141, 147
criticized by political thinkers, 108 on synteresis, 68“72, 80
Declaration of Indulgence, author of, trial of (Bushell™s Case), 90, 294
54 Whigs, in¬‚uence on, 97
depiction of, 51 Pennsylvania constitution (1776),
Dickinson quotes, 200 253“61, 265, 270
displeased with Quaker politicians, Charter of Privileges, compared with,
109, 115, 179 254“5
on diversity of opinion, 75, 213, 306 disputed, 268
encourages resistance in Pennsylvania, as an innovation, 258
126 qualities and provisions of, 254
on ¬rst principles (of government), Pennsylvania Hospital, 152
214 penology, 148“50, 157
on fundamental law, 82 perfection
on government, order and method of, constitutional, 11, 31, 45, 86, 89, 296,
78 297, 310“11, 324
on government, origins and purpose of, human, 29, 31, 43, 66, 74, 89, 91,
27, 72“7, 82, 89, 291, 296 140, 154, 322, 324
on Indians, 151 of reason, 84
law, distinguishes between positive and Quaker, 240
fundamental, 89, 93, 96, 213 persecution, 52
on liberty of conscience, 74“6, 82, 105, combated through unity, 37, 47, 54
126, 130, 132, 144, 147 of Dickinson, 245, 263“5
on the Light within, 70 liberty of conscience prevents, 63, 144
Index 377

in Massachusetts, 54, 117 Powell, John H., 16
Meeting for Sufferings established to Presbyterian(s), 130, 145, 161, 174,
combat, 59, 95, 218 259
of Penn, William, 56 as faction in Pennsylvania government,
Pennsylvania, none of religious 201“2
dissenters in, 145 in the Revolution, 223, 248, 260“1
political, 202 progress, 89
Quaker response to, 2, 45, 53, 56“9, property
95, 100, 216, 271, 287. See also destruction of in Revolution, 208,
civil disobedience; Meeting for 262
Sufferings destruction of not allowed in civil
Quakers accused of in Pennsylvania, disobedience, 7, 211
142, 155 Dickinson on, 208“9, 211, 225
religious the worst form of, 75 Dickinson™s seized, 263“4
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, of¬ceholding, quali¬cation for,
261“73 302
Peters, Richard, 157, 161, 166“9, 179, ownership of, by blacks in
197 Pennsylvania, 151
Philadelphia Friends Meeting, 274 protection of, 57, 82, 131, 162, 196,
Philadelphia Prison, 149 200, 273, 289
Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting, 170 purpose of, for Anglicans, 87
Philadelphia Regiment, First, 234 purpose of, for Puritans, 82
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (PYM) purpose of, for Quakers, 82
its Ancient Testimony (1776), 235“36, Quakers™ destroyed, 270
238 slaves as, 151
campaign for royal government, as voting quali¬cation, 141, 255,
against, 198 266, 302
Pennsylvania government controlled Proprietary Party
by, 124, 140“42, 150, 155, 171 in the campaign for royal government,
politicians active in, 106, 161, 164 195, 201
the Reformation in, 177, 181, 184. See Dickinson and, 201, 203, 242
also “Quaker Reformation” opposes Quaker Party, 170, 173,
Revolution, 223“4, 228, 231“2, 237 179, 187
philosophes, 143, 145, 151, 164 Quaker Party aligned with, 270
Plan of Union (1774), 232 Quakers accuse of popery, 175
Plato, 68, 78 rise of, 160
Pleasants, Robert, 194 Society of Friends and, 182
Pocock, J. G. A., 8 violence used by, 167“8
political obligation proselytization, 2, 50. See also dissent;
civil disobedience, requisite for, 7, 10, Society of Friends, opinions of;
96, 324 Quaker process; testimonies
Dickinson on, 217 civil disobedience as, 47“63
Dymond, Jonathan on, 243, 326 by Dickinson, 194
Quakers and, 11, 52, 63, 78, 83, 162, dissent as, 9, 37“8, 48
181, 325 duty of, 28, 38, 40, 55, 112, 151,
Ranters and, 185 210
popery, 50, 79, 87, 124, 175, 202 economic activity as tool of, 158
popular sovereignty, 41, 81, 85, 92, 200, Fox, George and, 26, 55
288, 298“310, 326 individual initiative in, 54
378 Index

proselytization (cont.) as divine law and order, 27, 91, 108,
institutionalized, 136“75 185
liberty of conscience as tool of, ends and means in, 11“12, 28, 33,
144“8 57, 73, 75, 98, 125, 134, 169,
martyrdom important for, 10 216, 219“20, 224, 288“9, 323“4,
peace testimony affects, 53 326, 330“2
purpose of, 55, 75, 140, 185 federalism and, 41
Quaker meeting established for, 47, and the individual, 10, 27, 28“31, 33
55 King, Martin Luther, Jr. advocates,
radicalism unintended consequence of, 332
184“9, 229“31, 325 as nondeliberative, 34, 70
silence as, 49, 62, 155 nonresisters abandon, 324
testimonies as, 48, 54, 226 as peaceful, 11, 94, 104, 133, 198,
publicity. See Society of Friends, 331
opinions of; proselytization in Pennsylvania government, 64,
Puritan Revolution, 5, 79, 218. See also 104“5, 108“9, 117, 119, 130,
Civil War, English 133“4, 137, 161, 166, 175, 184
Puritan(s), 2, 5, 116 ritual in, 34
Quakers compared with, 8, 11, 67, silence in, 34“5, 58, 63, 78, 108“9,
139, 140, 147, 160, 187, 291 143, 149, 192, 237, 287
Quakers harass, 1, 49 and speaking as obligation, 38
Quakers persecuted by, 54, 262 speech-acts in, 12, 27, 33“7,
Puritanism 48“9
in¬‚uence of, 66, 279 spiritual aristocracy in, 115
Quakerism compared with, 5“6, 18, unity in, 33“9, 47
50, 66, 261 Quaker Reformation, 177, 182“3
Putnam, Israel, 263 “Quakerism Drooping”, 240
Quakerism, political factions of, 177
Quaker Cigar, 319 radical, 177, 184“9, 196, 207, 231“2,
Quaker Oats man, 1, 54, 317 248, 254, 260
Quaker Party. See also Quakerism, traditional, 179, 185, 198“202, 248,
political factions of 260“1, 280
Dickinson leads, 198 withdrawing, 177, 184“5, 207, 221“4,
factionalized, 179“89, 195“202 231“2, 248, 260“1
Pennsylvania dominated by, 155, 160, “Quakers Synod, The,” 50
176 “Quiet Quaker Quashing Quarrelsome
Proprietary Party aligned with, 270 Quidnunc,” 175
Society of Friends and, 181“3, 187“8, quietism, 3, 47, 56, 77, 184, 322
196 myth of in Quakerism, 2“4, 9, 53, 65,
Quaker process, 33“9, 101, 282, 322
289, 297. See also bureaucracy; political, 56
synteresis Quincy, Josiah, Jr., 313
antislavery debate, exempli¬ed by,
39“40 Rakove, Jack N., 251, 280
as collective activity, 30, 33, 287 Ranters Ranterism, 8, 26, 50, 185, 202
consensus in, 30, 33“6, 42, 82, 299, Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Fran§ois,
332 159
dissent and, 104, 125, 135, 138, Red Hot Chili Peppers, 317
164“5, 214, 243, 330 Reed, Joseph, 225, 270, 273“4
Index 379

religious toleration, 76“7, 147. See also separation of church and state, 87“8,
liberty of conscience 140, 146
republicanism, 18, 67, 75, 266, 280“1, Settlement, Act of (1683), 110
290, 315 Sewell, William, 235
Republicans, 256“9, 275 Sheeran, Michael, 243
Reuni¬cation Bill (1701), 130 Shippen, Edward, 168
revelation, 88, 123 sick-poor, 152
immediate, 33, 44, 71, 285 slavery, 39“40, 151“2, 158
immediate versus Scripture, 28, 66, America punished for, 272
123“5, 283“4, 321 American under the British, 241
progressive, 29, 38, 45, 86, 326 damaging to America™s reputation,
reason and, 61“2, 72“6, 86“8, 164, 302
284, 286, 326 Dickinson opposes, 193“4, 258, 274,
revolution, theory of 303, 324
Quakers deny legitimacy of, 11, 96, Garrison, William Lloyd and, 324
97, 218, 235, 324 Paine, Thomas opposes, 236
Whig/Calvinist, 85, 97, 221, 297, Pennsylvania ¬rst state to outlaw, 259
313 Quaker views on important to
Rhode Island, 274 delegates of the Constitutional
Robbins, Caroline, 3, 5 Convention, 279
Robin, Charles C´ sar, 175
e Quakers abolished, 272
Rogers, William, 32 as violence done to man, 39
Roman Church, 70, 75, 300n117, Smith, Adam, 146
308n168 Smith, Robert, 58, 61“2
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 26, 294, Smith, Thomas, 254
307 Smith, William, 170“3, 179
rule of law, 10, 25, 47 Society of Friends, opinions of, 1, 54,
Rush, Benjamin, 259, 263, 273, 137“8, 187, 197. See also
303 proselytizing
Rustin, Bayard, 329, 330“2 Adams, John, 152, 175, 239
Rutledge, Edward, 252“3 Americans, 1, 175, 284, 315“19
Blackwell, John, 119“20
safety, equated with unity and liberty, British, seventeenth century, 50, 52,
37, 75, 78“9, 131, 144, 213, 57“8, 62, 95“6, 115
241, 249, 251, 277, 299, 302, Bugg, Francis, 62, 142, 170
306 Dickinson, John, 190, 237
satyagraha, 330 Dickinson, Mary (Polly) Norris, 190
Savile, George, Marquess de Halifax, 13, Gerry, Elbridge, 239, 268
98“9, 261 James, William, 146
science, 71 Lee, Richard Henry, 269
Scott, Job, 35, 223 Locke, John, 77
Scottish Enlightenment, 18, 281 Paine, Thomas, 235, 237“238
Scripture, 70, 105, 125, 280, 293, 297. Penn, William, 141
See also Bible, The in Pennsylvania, by admirers, 145“6,
constitution compared with, 77 152“5
as a history book, 44, 285 in Pennsylvania, by critics, 138, 141,
immediate revelation and, 28, 42, 66, 147“8, 155, 157, 160, 167, 172,
68, 123“5, 283“4, 321 179, 181, 187“8, 196, 222, 230,
Seneca Falls Convention, 320 240
380 Index

Society of Friends, opinions of (cont.) frugality, 158, 210
philosophes, 142“3, 153, 156, 159, hat, 61“2, 159, 169“70
175 as hedge and Light, 55
Puritans, 185 Indian welfare, 150
Quakers™ concern with, 48“9, 54, inward, 69. See also Light within
115, 119, 160, 167, 173, 182, as law, expression of, 52. See also law
186, 222, 235 nonattendance at Church of England,
Quakers™ own, 103, 115, 142, 175 49
Revolutionaries, 226“32, 261, 266, non-Quakers, imposed on, 145, 157
269 numerical dates, 155, 193
Smith, William, 141, 170“3, 179 openness, 57“8
South Carolina. See Carolina (North and Pennsylvania law, codi¬ed in, 145,
South) 150, 155
South Park, 319 persecution for expressing, 52, 57
Spinoza, Benedictus de, 2 plain dress, 55, 125, 158, 189, 226,
St. Germain, Christopher, 90 288
Stamp Act (1765), 207“11, 216, 219, plain speech, 35, 88, 125, 193, 226“7,
225 269, 288
Townshend Acts compared to, 221, plainness, 58, 287“8
222 of politicians, 106
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 320, 323, politicized, 161, 169, 170
328 as proselytization, 48, 55
state of nature, 26, 73, 92“3, 296“7 Quaker uniqueness, mark of, 54
Storing, Herbert J., 313 reception of, 40, 158
Swarthmore College, 328 reform efforts, as basis for, 53
Sidney, Algernon, 79, 85, 95, 97, as republican virtues, 210
108 simplicity, 82, 189, 287
synteresis, 68“9, 72, 77, 80, 283, too rigid adherence to, 193
295. See also Light within; law, as Truths, 38
discernment of; Quaker process; of women, 50
revelation theater, 49, 156, 193, 309
in civil government, 108“9 theocracy, 140, 147, 161
de¬ned/described, 68“72 theologico-political, de¬ned, 2
theology, Quaker, 28
Tennant, Gilbert, 145 Thomas, George, 160“7, 169, 186
testimonies. See also af¬rmation; oaths; Thomson, Charles
peace testimony Dickinson and, 225, 239, 253, 277
anti-slavery, 39“40, 152, 158 faints at meeting, 225
Articles of Confederation (1776), Quakers, critical of, 222“3, 239
re¬‚ected in, 252 Virginia Exiles and, 270
as challenges to conventional order, 48 Thoreau, Henry David, 8, 327, 329“30
as civic virtues, 154 toasting healths, 156, 159, 227
for civil government, 162“3 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 56, 307, 324
de¬ned, 48 Toleration, Act of (1689), 54
Dickinson™s, 193“4, 273, Tolles, Frederick B., 17, 82
287“8 Tories/Toryism, 18, 65, 67, 261,
as dissent, 50, 170. See also dissent 270“1
expression of 38, 39“40, 44, 125. See Townshend Acts (1767), 207, 211, 214,
also proselytization 216
Index 381

Townshend, Charles, 222 Controversy; Wilkinson-Story
Trenchard, John, 85 Controversy; Free Quakers
trial by jury, 60, 82, 255, 262, 264, 274, universal salvation, 55, 66, 140
286, 294 unprogrammed meeting, 27
trimmer(s)
de¬ned/described, 12“13, 98“9 Valerius, 274
Dickinson as, 202, 233 Valiant Sixty, 26
faction in Glorious Revolution, 98“9, vegetarianism, 158“9
261 vessel, the polity as, 96, 98, 213, 238,
persecuted, 99, 261 241
Quakers as, 98“9, 108, 174, 178, 184, Virginia, 147, 229, 269“70, 276
231, 261, 262 Virginia Exiles, 265“70
Tully, Alan, 137, 138, 187 virtue, 159, 190, 237, 244, 263, 273,
tyranny, 12 289
in the American polity, 308 civic, 148
American sins punished with, 272 Quaker, 190, 193, 222, 237, 262
Barclay denies charges of, 138, Quaker and republican equated, 315
299 reason as a means to, 76
by the British, 214 republican, 143, 189, 210, 301“2, 307,
in a divine right monarchy, 85 325
federalism prevents, 299, 308 spiritual, 106
parliamentary, 225 Voltaire, Francis de, 143
in the Quaker polity, 32, 38, 136, 138, voluntary associations, 152“4
155, 166, 323 voting, 7, 82, 101, 109, 139, 171,
Quakers accuse one another of, 33, 173, 257, 259, 307, 328
123“4, 321 property quali¬cations for, 141, 255,
in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, 271 266, 302
Thomas, George charged with, 167
Tyrrell, James, 85 Walpole, Horace, 231
War of Jenkins™s Ear, 161, 180
Uncle Tom™s Cabin, 315 Warner, Michael, 298
unity/union, 138, 315, 324. See also Washington, George, 193
constitution; safety Washington, Lawrence, 145
American, 232, 246, 251, 268, 277, weapons, spiritual versus carnal, 58, 96,
295“8, 308, 316, 324 214, 322. See also arms
as the constitution of the people, 101 Weber, Max, 12, 25, 30, 47, 328
dissent with, 25, 38, 55, 100, 117, wet Quakers, 159
136, 176“8, 180, 185, 226, Wharton, Thomas, Jr., 229
289“90 Whig(s)
as divinely ordained/sacred, 30, 33, 52, conservatism of, 97
280“1, 294 Dickinson as, 234
government maintains, 31, 43, 46“7, Dickinson obnoxious to, 241
75, 83, 137, 144 government, theory of, 73, 80, 85, 89,
liberty of conscience preserves, 75“6, 291“2, 297
213 legal discernment of, 68“72, 80
in Quaker process, 33“9, 47, 55, 96, moderation of, 97
99, 100, 117, 134 oppositional rhetoric of, 175
of Quakers, 103, 132, 142, 174. See property, protection of, 82
also Hicksite Separation; Keithian Quakers allied with, 202
382 Index

Whig(s) (cont.) Winstanley, Gerrard, 67
Quakers compared with, 68“72, Witte, John, Jr., 252
82“3, 91, 96, 99, 218, 231 Wolcott, Oliver, 266
revolution, theory of, 85, 97, 221, Wolf, Edwin, 2nd, 1, 14
297, 313 Wolin, Sheldon, 16
tradition (Whiggism), 17“18, 65“7, Wood, Gordon S., 230, 298,
313 301
Whipple, William, 265 Woolman, John
Whiskey Rebellion, 313 antislavery testimony of, 39
Whitehead, George, 51 boycotting and, 158
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 316 Dickinson emulates, 210
Wilkinson-Story Controversy, 32“4, 104, Garrison, William Lloyd and, 322,
114, 123, 131 324
William and Mary, 126 proselytizing of, 157
Wilmington (Delaware) Friends Meeting, Quaker process, exemplar of, 39“40,
194 42
Wilson, James, 241 Wyoming Controversy, 275

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