стр. 51 |

Finger Lakes, 181 failure of for the advection GlenвЂ™s Flow Law

drumlin п¬Ѓeld, 182 equation, 90 1D proп¬Ѓle modeling of ice body

introduction to, 23 introduction to, 57 subject to, 128

model for formation of, stability criterion for, 59 introduction to, 22

157--158 why use it?, 59 Great Lakes

model of ice п¬‚ow over, 144 Fourier п¬Ѓltering method as outliers in the frequency-size

observations of, 159 code for 1D generation of distribution of

п¬Ѓrn, 20 fractional noises, 274 glacially-carved lakes, 25

п¬‚exure code for 1D implementation to model for, 154

coherence method solve п¬‚exure equation, 256 role of п¬‚exure in controlling, 154

use of to map elastic thickness, code for 2D generation of Greenland ice sheet

111 fractional noises, 275 model reconstruction of, 137

elastic thickness code for 2D implementation to use in code implementing the

deп¬Ѓnition of, 111 solve п¬‚exure equation, 258 sandpile model, 265

equation use of for solving the п¬‚exure Greenland ice sheet (LIS)

introduction to, 111 equation, 112--116 introduction to, 19

forebulge use of to generate fractional groundwater п¬‚ow

deп¬Ѓnition of, 112 noises, 190 as a type example of an

integral method for, 113 Fourier series method advection-diffusion process,

introduction to, 109 for solving the diffusion equation, 32

series solutions, 112--116 35

solution methods in 1D, 111--113 use of for linear equations only, Hanaupah Canyon

solution methods in 2D, 113--116 36 application of ADI method to

wavelength fractal scaling modeling evolution of, 63

comparison of values for rock of drainage networks, 196 example of terrace evolution in,

vs. ice loading, 112 of dust accumulation, 195 38

role in controlling glacial of landslide distributions, 205--210 type example of a п¬‚uvial system,

erosion, 152 of soil moisture п¬Ѓelds, 207 1--12

typical range, 109 of topographic transects, 207 use of for illustrating

п¬‚ood-envelope curve fractional noises multiple-direction

role of in contaminant dispersion geoscience applications of, 190 п¬‚ow-routing methods, 68

model, 78 how to construct, 190 hanging valleys, 26

п¬‚ow routing methods introduction to, 190 hillslope processes

ПЃ8, 67 bioturbation, 33

Dв€ћ, 68 Gaussian plume creep, 33

D8, 66 deп¬Ѓnition of, 15 mass movements, 33

DEMON, 68 glacial buzzsaw hypothesis, 28 model for hillslope evolution

introduction to, 66 glacial erosion with, 60, 61

multiple п¬‚ow direction (MFD) HalletвЂ™s model for, 21, 151 models for, 205--210

routing method, see Multiple introduction to, 21 model for tephra transport at

Flow Direction (MFD) routing modeling п¬‚exural response to Yucca Mountain, 75

method unloading, 120--123 rain splash, 33

range of applications for, 66 glacially-carved lakes rilling, 33

what is best?, 69 frequency-size distribution of, 24 slope wash, 33

п¬‚ux-conservative equations, 88 introduction to, 24 model for hillslope evolution

foreland basins model for, 153 with, 33, 59

modeling of, 116--120 near ice margins, 157 those that are diffusive, 33

Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) glaciers HortonвЂ™s Laws

method 1D proп¬Ѓle modeling of introduction to, 196

code for 1D implementation of uniformly-sloping bed, 127 statistical inevitability of, 197

nonlinear diffusion model, wavy bed, 127 hummocky moraine, 178

227 difference from ice sheets, 25 Hurst phenomenon, 189

code for 2D implementation of introduction to, 20 hydrologically-corrected DEM

diffusion equation, 225 role in sediment production, 12 code for implementation, 235

INDEX 293

ice sheets lava п¬‚ow moraines

basal shear stress 2D radially-symmetric model application of the diffusion

observations of, 132 code for implementation, equation to, 40--42

cold vs. warm-based, 21 263 mortality

ice-albedo feedback, 214 modeling of role of particulate matter in

role of in controlling bistability of temperature-dependent causing, 14

the climate system, 215 viscous behavior of, 130-- Multiple Flow Direction (MFD)

implicit method 132 routing method

computational advantage of, rheology of, 22, 125 code for implementation, 236

62 LIDAR, 67, 71 code for implementation in п¬‚ood

introduction to, 62 linear stability analysis, 165 hazard analysis, 239

stability of, 62 application to channel introduction to, 67

isostasy meandering, 164 mathematical deп¬Ѓnition of, 67

Airy limit, 113 introduction to, 161 use of for improving USGS DEMs,

in the evolution of the Sierra of oscillating alluvial channels, 71

Nevada, 97 171 use of in contaminant dispersal

introduction to, 109 lithology model, 78

role in ice sheets role in controlling bedrock use of in estimating п¬‚ood hazards,

introduction to, 23 channel erosion, 5, 103 72--74

model of, 127, 139 load-accumulation feedback, 216, 218

role in prolonging the mountain load-advance feedback, 217 New York State drumlin п¬Ѓeld, 181

belt denudation, 109 longitudinal proп¬Ѓle Newton iteration, 130

role in relief production, 28 analytic model for coupled non-Newtonian п¬‚uids

role in shaping Basin and Range bedrock-alluvial channels, analytic solutions for, 126--129

topography, 1 103 introduction to, 22

role in the formation of Great code implementing 1D coupled numerical solutions for, 129--132

Lakes, 25 bedrock-alluvial model, 242 rheology of, 22

role of in 2D bedrock drainage inп¬‚uence on glacial erosion, 21 nonlinear advection equations, 90

network modeling, 94 model for steady-state bedrock nonlinear transport on hillslopes

time-dependent response of, channel, 5 introduction to, 3

111 Lorentzian spectrum, 212 Numerical Recipes

use with codes in this book,

Kardar--Parisi--Zhang (KPZ) equation, Mars 222

207 application of п¬‚ow routing

kei(r) methods to, 69 palimpsests, 25

series expansions for, 257 eolian dunes on, 168 perfectly plastic model

use as a basis function for series п¬‚uvial activity on, 12 application to climate modeling,

solutions to the п¬‚exure spiral troughs 216

equation, 114 code for 1D model application to ice sheets and

Kelvin functions, see kei(r) implementation, 271 glaciers, 22

knickpoints model of, 183--187 application to thrust sheet

introduction to, 6 method of characteristics, see mechanics, 147

modeling of using advection advection equations generalization of to

equation, 90 Microsoft threshold-sliding behavior,

Excel, 223 127

Langevin equations, 191 Visual C++, 222 introduction to, 22

Lathrop Wells cone, see Amargosa Mohr--Coulomb criterion, 207 limitations of, 22

Valley moisture use of in modeling 1D ice sheet

Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) role in controlling particle proп¬Ѓles, 125

impact on global climate, 215 entrainment persistent mountain belt paradox

introduction to, 23 introduction to, 14 introduction to, 101

model of, 138 role of in triggering mass role of piedmont deposition in,

lava channels movements, 205 101--103

meandering of, 164 Monte Carlo methods, 188 piedmont, see alluvial fan

294 INDEX

playa Rogen moraine, 179 Taylor expansion

introduction to, 12 root-п¬Ѓnding techniques, 50 use of in discretization, 57

role of hydrology in dust terraces

production salt domes dust deposition on

introduction to, 13 as an example of the introduction to, 13

sand-dominated, 17 Raleigh--Taylor instability, implementation of 2D diffusion

Pleistocene--Holocene transition 162 model, 226

role in triggering terrace saltation introduction to, 9

formation, 10 characteristic distance of, 167 mechanisms for formation, 10

pluvial shorelines introduction to, 13 morphological age dating of, 39

application of the diffusion sandpile method on Mars, 12

equation to, 42--45 code for implementation, 264 relative age indicators of, 10

introduction to, 12 use of in 2D perfectly plastic role in controlling п¬‚ood risk,

polar coordinates model, 135 10

use of for solving diffusive secondary п¬‚ow, 164 transient response to base level fall

evolution of cinder cones, Shreve magnitude, 197 use of diffusion equation to

49 Sierra Nevada model, 38--40, 61--62

positive feedback knickpoint propagation thermal erosion, 166

between channel width and slope introduction to, 6 thermochronology, 29

in alluvial channels, 161 modeling of, 93--101 threshold of critical power, 171

between glaciers, climate, and non-equilibrium landscape of, Tibet

topography, 28 93 archeological ruins of, 45

elevation-accumulation feedback similarity method till fabric, 182

in ice sheets, 20 application to solving diffusion time series analysis

ice-albedo feedback, 213 equations autocorrelation function, 189

in hillslope evolution, 4 introduction to, 36 introduction to, 188

role of in geomorphic instabilities, use in modeling deltaic power spectrum, 189

161 sedimentation, 53 of Pleistocene climate, 212

precision, single vs. double, 222 use of in modeling terrace proп¬Ѓle Tokunaga side branching, 197

evolution, 40 topographic inversion, 131

radiation balance sine function topographic steady state

role of in climate models, 213 as functional form of late-stage convergence of stream-power and

radionuclides terraces following base level sediment п¬‚ux driven models

atmospheric nuclear testing as a fall, 40 in, 8

man-made source, 46 sine-generated curve, 166 in hillslopes, 3

dispersion in soils soil moisture in ice sheet modeling, 129

diffusion equation model for, variations in space and time model for hillslope proп¬Ѓle during

45--49 modeling of, 206 transient approach to, 37

processes of, 48 observations of, 206 model for hillslope proп¬Ѓle in,

random walk solitary waves, 173 34

application to dust accumulation spring sapping slope vs. area curve, 5

on alluvial fan terraces, role of in drainage network use of in foreland basin modeling,

194--196 evolution, 198 117

bounded, 195 Stefan--Boltzmann Law, 212 topologically distinct channel

introduction to, 193 StokesвЂ™ Law, 175 networks (TDCNs), 197

Rayleigh--Taylor instability, 162--164 Strahler ordering, 196 transport capacity

analogy to drumlin formation, stratigraphic completeness, 196 role in controlling bedrock vs.

178 stream function alluvial channel types, 4, 8

recirculation zones use of in п¬‚uid mechanics tridiagonal matrix

role in controlling eolian problems, 162, 175 use of in implicit numerical

deposition, 18, 167 sublimation methods, 62

relief production in glaciated terrain role of in forming spiral troughs, Tule Valley

introduction to, 28 184 shoreline scarps in, 42

RiverTools, 223 surп¬Ѓcial geologic mapping, 10 two-step Lax--Wendroff, 173

INDEX 295

U-shaped valleys, 26 fossil record of in packrat power spectrum of, 220

US Geological Survey middens, 11

DEMs inп¬‚uence on weathering, 3, weathering front

problems with, 70 10 role in hillslope evolution, 3

Uinta Mountains Vialov solution, 128 Wind River Range

glacial erosion in, 27 visualization, 223 glacial erosion in, 26

UNIX cc compiler, 222 Vostok ice core, 214, 219 Wisconsin drumlin п¬Ѓeld, 180

Ural Mountains, 101 comparison with coherence

resonance model of ice ages, Yucca Mountain

V-shaped valley, 26 220 volcanic hazard associated with,

vegetation histogram of, 220 75

стр. 51 |