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Aggregation, 57“66, 223, 227, 262 Buzas, M. A., 163
Allometry, 94, 108
Andrews, P., 238 Cain, C. R., 275
Archaeofauna, 17 Cannon, M. D., 158, 200“201
Assemblage Casteel, R. W., 3, 50“52, 94, 96“99, 300, 302,
de¬ned, 16 305
fossil, 68 Cathlapotle, 18“20, 52, 53, 61 , 73, 85, 87, 89,
identi¬ed, 23, 141 90, 135, 146“148, 150, 175, 180, 186“187,
Atmar, W., 168“169 189, 192, 195
Chaplin, R. E., 40, 94“95, 96, 99, 121 “124,
Badgley, C., 4 129, 217
Barrett, J. H., 101 , 102 Clason, A. T., 83
Bayham, F. E., 205 Cleland, C. E., 179
Behrensmeyer, A. K., 267, 270“271 Closed array, 14
Bergmann™s rule, 109 Cochran™s test for linear trends, 201 , 204,
Betts, M. W., 92“93 205, 211
Binford, L. R., 92, 99, 104, 217, 218, 230, Community, 163, 173, 178, 201 , 210
233“238, 280 de¬ned, 22
Biocoenose, 22“25, 127, 173 distal, 242, 244, 248
Biodiversity, 179 proximal, 241 , 244, 248

345
index
346


Cook, S. F., 94 Guilday, J. E., 113, 282
Corrected number of specimens per Gust, S. M., 92
individual (CSI), 242, 244 Guthrie, R. D., 85“87, 88, 89, 93, 108
Cruz-Uribe, K., 11 , 51 “52, 218, 250, 302,
303 Hayek, L.-A., 163
Herbert, G. G., 31 “32
Dean, R. M., 118 Hesse, B., 11 , 51 , 52, 305
Diversity, 174 Heterogeneity, 176, 177, 201 , 202
de¬ned, 173, 175, 209 as an ordinal scale measure, 201 “202
kinds of, 173 de¬ned, 176
Dom´nguez-Rodrigo, M., 296
± Holland, S., 166
Ducos, P., 50 Holtzman, R. C., 134
Dunnell, R. C., 179 Homestead Cave, 181 , 207
Howard, H., 1 , 11 , 21 , 38, 39, 68, 119
Efremov, I. A., 7, 264 Hudson, J., 54
Egeland, C. P., 289
Emerson, T. E., 111 , 138 Identi¬able specimens
Emeryville Shellmound, 205 de¬ned, 6
Enloe, J. G., 256 Interdependence, 17, 22, 47, 273
Estimate Interdependence of identi¬ed specimens, 30,
de¬ned, 8 37“39, 44, 54, 57, 71 , 73, 77, 109, 112,
Evenness, 177, 192, 194“198, 201 , 202 173, 222
as an ordinal scale measure, 201 “202 interaggregate, 58, 69
de¬ned, 175
Jaccard index, 186, 187, 189
Fagerstrom, J. A., 68 Jackson, H. E., 99
Faunule, 22, 68 Jones, E. L., 202
Fidelity studies, 24, 211 , 298
Fieller, N. R. J., 126“128 Kim, S. Y., 255
Flannery, K. V., 179 Kintigh, K. W., 162, 163, 171 , 185
FLK Zinjanthropus, 220, 269 Klein, R. G., 11 , 43, 44, 51 “52, 218, 250, 302,
Ford, J. A., 68 303
Fragmentation Kobeh Cave, 255
extent of, 251 Konigsberg, L. W., 127, 130
intensity of, 43, 252 Kowalewski, M., 32, 296“297
Frey, C. J., 224, 255 Krantz, G. S., 129
Kroll, E. M., 219, 280
Gautier, A., 37
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. P., 281 , 282 Landon, D. B., 74
Gilbert, B. M., 282 Le Flageolet I, 183
Grayson, D. K., 3, 4, 11 , 25, 29, 49, 50, Leonard, R. D., 143, 171
51 , 52, 54, 57“58, 64, 65, 67, 71 “77, Lincoln/Petersen index, 84, 123, 124“129, 133,
80, 81 , 128, 139, 140, 155, 162, 199, 139
208, 224, 243, 255, 299, 300, 302, Local fauna, 68
305 Lupo, K. D., 296
index 347


Maltby, J. M., 282 de¬ned, 27
Marean, C. W., 11 , 219, 221 , 255, 277 relationship to MNI, 49
Marshall, F., 43, 253, 258, 300 Number of specimens (NSP), 266
Maximum likelihood, analysis of bone as a fundamental measurement, 266
counts by (ABCML), 136 de¬ned, 27
Measurement Number of taxa (NTAXA). See also
de¬ned, 8 Richness, 143
derived, 12 Number of unidenti¬ed specimens (NUSP),
fundamental, 12, 13 266
Meat weight, 41 , 84, 89“94, 96, 99, 102, 106,
108, 113, 139 O™Connell, J. F., 296
as a ratio scale measure, 92 Olduvai Gorge, 268
as an ordinal scale measure, 108 Olsen, S. L., 282
Meier site, 17“20, 52, 53, 87, 144“148, 150, 151 , Olszewski, T., 178
165, 166, 175, 180, 186, 187, 189, 192, 195, Orchard, T. J., 137, 138
224“227, 248 Overlap, anatomical, 39, 214, 215, 219, 220,
Milo, R. G., 285 221
Minimum animal units (MAU), 234, 245
Minimum number of elements (MNE), 214, Patterson, B. D., 168“169
217, 218 Payne, S., 67, 152, 153, 154
as a derived measurement, 218, 263 Perkins, D., Jr., 21 , 37
as a ratio scale measure, 228 Pilgram, T., 43, 253, 258, 300
as an ordinal scale measure, 222“227, Plug, C., 47
258“259, 263 Pobiner, B. L., 287, 292
de¬ned, 215, 218, 220 Potts, R., 220, 270
Minimum number of individuals (MNI) Prolom II Cave, 256
as a derived measurement, 12, 46, 79, 214 Purdue, J. R., 111
as a ratio scale measure, 48, 72, 78
as an ordinal scale measure, 48, 72, 78 Quitmyer, I. R., 105
de¬ned, 38
relationship to NISP, 49 Rancho La Brea, 1 , 2, 8, 13, 21 , 24, 25, 29, 38,
Mollhagen, T. R., 42 175, 215
Morrison, D. A., 74 Rarefaction, 160, 165, 166, 167, 170, 180,
189“191
Nagaoka, L., 202 Reed, C. A., 94
Needs-Howarth, S., 106, 108 Reitz, E. J., 68, 103“105, 244, 299
Nestedness, 167“170, 191 Reliability, 12
Ngamuriak, 259 Rhode, D., 162
Nichol, R. K., 132 Richness, 159, 174, 177, 179“185, 201 , 202
Number of identi¬ed specimens (NISP) as a ratio scale measure, 179
as a fundamental measurement, 28, 79, as an ordinal scale measure, 201 “202
263 de¬ned, 175
as a ratio scale measure, 72, 78 Richness, taxonomic. See Number of taxa
as an ordinal scale measure,36, 72, 79, 173, (NTAXA)
190 Ringrose, T. J., 44, 67, 127, 261 , 300, 301
index
348


Rogers, A. R., 136“137 Taphocoenose, 23“24, 127
Rose, J., 281 Taphonomic signature, 264
Taphonomy, 264
Sanders, H. L., 162 de¬ned, 7
Scale of measurement Thanatocoenose, 22“24, 127, 173
interval, 10 Thomas, D. H., 154“155, 158, 244, 248
nominal, 9, 77 Time averaging, 211 , 212
ordinal, 9, 77, 205 Tipper, J. C., 160
ratio, 10, 190, 205 Todd, L. C., 129
Schulz, P. D., 92 Treganza, A. E., 94
Shannon index of evenness, 195, 246, Turner, A., 22, 25, 126“128
248
Shannon-Wiener index, 192, 195 Ubiquity, 84, 114“119, 140
Shipman, P., 281 , 282 Uerpmann, H. P., 65, 102, 108
Shotwell, J. A., 4, 30“32, 68, 134“136, 210,
241 “248 Valensi, P., 69
Sibudu Cave, 275 Validity, 12, 13, 128, 140, 276, 277, 289
Simpson™s index Van Valen, L., 31 , 32
reciprocal of, 196“197 Variable
Skeletal element continuous, 9
de¬ned, 5 discontinuous, 9
Skeletal part, 5 measured, 11 , 24
Skeletal portion, 5 target, 11 , 24
Smith, B. D., 89, 90, 91 Vermeij, G. J., 31 “32
Sorenson index, 186, 187, 189 Voorhies, M. R., 4, 216“217, 230
Sorenson™s quantitative index, 189 Voorhies™ Groups, 217
Sparks, B. W., 152
Species“area relationship, 180 Wapnish, P., 11
Specimen Watson, J. P. N., 152, 286
de¬ned, 5 Weighted abundance of elements (WAE),
Spencer, L. M., 219 134“136
Stahl, P. W., 91 White, T. E., 39, 41 , 43, 46, 85, 89“93, 94, 95,
Stewart, F. L., 91 102, 108, 119“120, 121 , 140, 217, 229“232,
Stock, C., 1 “2, 8, 11 , 13, 21 , 24, 25, 27, 29, 38, 235, 261 , 300
39, 41 , 42, 68, 119, 175, 215, 217 Wild, C. J., 132
Styles, B. W., 114 Winder, N. P., 128
Surface area solution, 277 Wing, E. S., 68, 244, 299
Survivorship, 238 Wolff, R. G., 144, 184

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