<< . .

. 12
( : 12)



York), p. 410.


Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 74, No. 1, January 2002
192 Gisin et al.: Quantum cryptography


Clauser, J. F., and A. Shimony, 1978, ˜˜Bell™s theorem: experi- Franson, J. D., 1992, ˜˜Nonlocal cancellation of dispersion,™™
mental tests and implications,™™ Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1881“ Phys. Rev. A 45, 3126“3132.
1927. Franson, J. D., and B. C. Jacobs, 1995, ˜˜Operational system for
Cova, S., M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, quantum cryptography,™™ Electron. Lett. 31, 232“234.
1996, ˜˜Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for Freedmann, S. J., and J. F. Clauser, 1972, ˜˜Experimental test of
single-photon detection,™™ Appl. Opt. 35, 1956“1976. local hidden variable theories,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 938“941.
Cova, S., A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, 1989, Fry, E. S., and R. C. Thompson, 1976, ˜˜Experimental test of
˜˜High-accuracy picosecond characterization of gain-switched local hidden variable theories,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 465“468.
laser diodes,™™ Opt. Lett. 14, 1341“1343. Fuchs, C. A., N. Gisin, R. B. Grif¬ths, C.-S. Niu, and A. Peres,
´ ¨
Csiszar, I., and J. Korner, 1978, ˜˜Broadcast channels with con- 1997, ˜˜Optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. I:
¬dential messages,™™ IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-24, 339“348. Information bound and optimal strategy,™™ Phys. Rev. A 56,
De Martini, F., V. Mussi, and F. Bovino, 2000, ˜˜Schroedinger 1163“1172.
cat states and optimum universal quantum cloning by en- Fuchs, C. A., and A. Peres, 1996, ˜˜Quantum state disturbance
tangled parametric ampli¬cation,™™ Opt. Commun. 179, 581“ vs. information gain: uncertainty relations for quantum infor-
589. mation,™™ Phys. Rev. A 53, 2038“2045.
´
Desurvire, E., 1994, ˜˜The golden age of optical ¬ber ampli¬- Gerard, J.-M., and B. Gayral, 1999, ˜˜Strong Purcell effect for
ers,™™ Phys. Today 47 (1), 20“27. InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state micro-
Deutsch, D., 1985, ˜˜Quantum theory, the Church-Turing prin- cavities,™™ J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2089“2095.
´
ciple and the universal quantum computer,™™ Proc. R. Soc. Gerard, J.-M., B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard,
London, Ser. A 400, 97“105. and V. Thierry-Mieg, 1998, ˜˜Enhanced spontaneous emission
Deutsch, D., A. Ekert, R. Jozsa, C. Macchiavello, S. Popescu, by quantum boxes in a monolithic optical microcavity,™™ Phys.
and A. Sanpera, 1996, ˜˜Quantum privacy ampli¬cation and Rev. Lett. 81, 1110“1113.
the security of quantum cryptography over noisy channels,™™ Gilbert, G., and M. Hamrick, 2000, ˜˜Practical quantum cryp-
Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2818“2821; 80, 2022(E) (1996). tography: a comprehensive analysis (part one),™™ internal re-
Dieks, D., 1982, ˜˜Communication by EPR devices,™™ Phys. port (MITRE, McLean, USA), preprint quant-ph/0009027.
Lett. 92A, 271“272. Gisin, B., and N. Gisin, 1999, ˜˜A local hidden variable model
Dif¬e, W., and M. E. Hellman, 1976, ˜˜New directions in cryp- of quantum correlation exploiting the detection loophole,™™
tography,™™ IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-22, 644“654. Phys. Lett. A 260, 323“327.
Dur, W., H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, 1999, ˜˜Quan- Gisin, N., 1998, ˜˜Quantum cloning without signaling,™™ Phys.
tum repeaters based on entanglement puri¬cation,™™ Phys. Lett. A 242, 1“3.
Rev. A 59, 169“181; 60, 725(E). Gisin, N., et al., 1995, ˜˜De¬nition of polarization mode disper-
¨
Dusek, M., M. Jahma, and N. Lutkenhaus, 2000, ˜˜Unambigu- sion and ¬rst results of the COST 241 round-robin measure-
ous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak ments,™™ Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 511“522.
coherent states,™™ Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306. Gisin, N., and S. Massar, 1997, ˜˜Optimal quantum cloning ma-
Einstein, A., B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, 1935, ˜˜Can quantum- chines,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2153“2156.
mechanical description of physical reality be considered com- Gisin, N., R. Renner, and S. Wolf, 2000, Proceedings of the
plete?,™™ Phys. Rev. 47, 777“780. Third European Congress of Mathematics, Barcelona
¨
Ekert, A. K., 1991, ˜˜Quantum cryptography based on Bell™s (Birkhauser, Basel) (in press).
theorem,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661“663. Gisin, N., and S. Wolf, 1999, ˜˜Quantum cryptography on noisy
Ekert, A. K., 2000, ˜˜Coded secrets cracked open,™™ Phys. World channels: quantum versus classical key-agreement protocols,™™
13 (2), 39“40. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4200“4203.
Ekert, A. K., and B. Huttner, 1994, ˜˜Eavesdropping tech- Gisin, N., and S. Wolf, 2000, Advances in Cryptology”
niques in quantum cryptosystems,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2455“ Proceedings of Crypto 2000, Lecture Notes in Computer Sci-
2466. ence, Vol. 1880, edited by M. Bellare (Springer, New York),
Ekert, A. K., J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, pp. 482“500.
1992, ˜˜Practical quantum cryptography based on two-photon Gisin, N., and H. Zbinden, 1999, ˜˜Bell inequality and the lo-
interferometry,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293“1296. cality loophole: active versus passive switches,™™ Phys. Lett. A
Elamari, A., H. Zbinden, B. Perny, and C. Zimmer, 1998, ˜˜Sta- 264, 103“107.
tistical prediction and experimental veri¬cation of concatena- Goldenberg, L., and L. Vaidman, 1995, ˜˜Quantum cryptogra-
tions of ¬ber optic components with polarization dependent phy based on orthogonal states,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1239“
loss,™™ J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 332“339. 1243.
Enzer, D., P. Hadley, R. Hughes, G. Peterson, and P. Kwiat, Gorman, P. M., P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, 2001, ˜˜Secure
2001, private communication. free-space key exchange to 1.9 km and beyond,™™ J. Mod. Opt.
Felix, S., A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 2001, ˜˜Faint 48, 1887“1901.
laser quantum key distribution: Eavesdropping exploiting Haecker, W., O. Groezinger, and M. H. Pilkuhn, 1971, ˜˜Infra-
multiphoton pulses,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2009“2021. red photon counting by Ge avalanche diodes,™™ Appl. Phys.
Fleury, L., J.-M. Segura, G. Zumofen, B. Hecht, and U. P. Lett. 19, 113“115.
Wild, 2000, ˜˜Nonclassical photon statistics in single-molecule Hall, M. J. W., 1995, ˜˜Information exclusion principle for
¬‚uorescence at room temperature,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, complementary observables,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3307“3310.
1148“1151. Hariharan, P., M. Roy, P. A. Robinson, and J. W. O™Byrne,
Franson, J. D., 1989, ˜˜Bell inequality for position and time,™™ 1993, ˜˜The geometric phase observation at the single photon
Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205“2208. level,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 40, 871“877.


Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 74, No. 1, January 2002
193
Gisin et al.: Quantum cryptography


Hart, A. C., R. G. Huff, and K. L. Walker, 1994, ˜˜Method of Kempe, J., C. Simon, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, 2000, ˜˜Op-
making a ¬ber having low polarization mode dispersion due timal photon cloning,™™ Phys. Rev. A 62, 032302.
to a permanent spin,™™ U.S. Patent No. 5,298,047. Kim, J., O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, 1999, ˜˜A
Hildebrand, E., 2001, Ph.D. thesis (Johann Wolfgang Goethe- single-photon turnstile device,™™ Nature (London) 397, 500“
¨
Universitat, Frankfurt am Main). 503.
Hillery, M., V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, 1999, ˜˜Quantum Kimble, H. J., M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, 1977, ˜˜Photon
secret sharing,™™ Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829“1834. antibunching in resonance ¬‚uorescence,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,
Hiskett, P. A., G. S. Buller, A. Y. Loudon, J. M. Smith, I. Gon- 691“694.
tijo, A. C. Walker, P. D. Townsend, and M. J. Robertson, Kitson, S. C., P. Jonsson, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, 1998,
2000, ˜˜Performance and design of InGaAs/InP photodiodes ˜˜Intensity ¬‚uctuation spectroscopy of small numbers of dye
for single-photon counting at 1.55 m,™™ Appl. Opt. 39, 6818“ molecules in a microcavity,™™ Phys. Rev. A 58, 620“627.
6829. Kolmogorov, A. N., 1956, Foundations of the Theory of Prob-
Hong, C. K., and L. Mandel, 1985, ˜˜Theory of parametric fre- ability (Chelsea, New York).
Kurtsiefer, C., S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, 2000,
quency down conversion of light,™™ Phys. Rev. A 31, 2409“
˜˜Stable solid-state source of single photons,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett.
2418.
85, 290“293.
Hong, C. K., and L. Mandel, 1986, ˜˜Experimental realization
Kurtsiefer, C., P. Zarda, S. Mayer, and H. Weinfurter, 2001,
of a localized one-photon state,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58“60.
˜˜The breakdown ¬‚ash of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes”
Horodecki, M., R. Horodecki, and P. Horodecki, 1996, ˜˜Sepa-
backdoor for eavesdropper attacks?,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2039“
rability of mixed states: necessary and suf¬cient conditions,™™
2047.
Phys. Lett. A 223, 1“8.
Kwiat, P. G., A. M. Steinberg, R. Y. Chiao, P. H. Eberhard, and
Hughes, R., W. Buttler, P. Kwiat, S. Lamoreaux, G. Morgan, J.
M. D. Petroff, 1993, ˜˜High-ef¬ciency single-photon detec-
Nordhold, and G. Peterson, 2000, ˜˜Free-space quantum key
tors,™™ Phys. Rev. A 48, R867“870.
distribution in daylight,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 47, 549“562.
Kwiat, P. G., E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H.
Hughes, R., G. G. Luther, G. L. Morgan, and C. Simmons,
Eberhard, 1999, ˜˜Ultrabright source of polarization-
1996, in Advances in Cryptology”CRYPTO ™96 Proceedings,
entangled photons,™™ Phys. Rev. A 60, R773“776.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1109, edited by N. Lacaita, A., P. A. Francese, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, 1994,
Koblitz (Springer, New York), pp. 329“342. ˜˜Single-photon detection beyond 1 m: performance of com-
Hughes, R., G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, 2000, ˜˜Quantum key mercially available germanium photodiodes,™™ Appl. Opt. 33,
distribution over a 48-km optical ¬ber network,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 6902“6918.
47, 533“547. Lacaita, A., F. Zappa, S. Cova, and P. Lovati, 1996, ˜˜Single-
Huttner, B., J. D. Gautier, A. Muller, H. Zbinden, and N. Gi- photon detection beyond 1 m: performance of commercially
sin, 1996, ˜˜Unambiguous quantum measurement of non- available InGaAs/InP detectors,™™ Appl. Opt. 35, 2986“2996.
orthogonal states,™™ Phys. Rev. A 54, 3783“3789. Larchuk, T. S., M. V. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, 1995, ˜˜Nonlo-
Huttner, B., N. Imoto, and S. M. Barnett, 1996, ˜˜Short distance cal cancellation of dispersive broadening in Mach-Zehnder
applications of quantum cryptography,™™ J. Nonlinear Opt. interferometers,™™ Phys. Rev. A 52, 4145“4154.
Phys. Mater. 5, 823“832. Levine, B. F., C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, 1985, ˜˜Room-
Huttner, B., N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, 1995, ˜˜Quantum temperature 1.3- m optical time domain re¬‚ectometer using
cryptography with coherent states,™™ Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863“ a photon counting InGaAs/InP avalanche detector,™™ Appl.
1869. Phys. Lett. 45, 333“335.
Imamoglu, A., and Y. Yamamoto, 1994, ˜˜Turnstile device for Li, M. J., and D. A. Nolan, 1998, ˜˜Fiber spin-pro¬le designs for
heralded single photons: Coulomb blockade of electron and producing ¬bers with low PMD,™™ Opt. Lett. 23, 1659“1661.
hole tunneling in quantum con¬ned p-i-n heterojunctions,™™ Lo, H.-K., and H. F. Chau, 1998, ˜˜Why quantum bit commit-
Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 210“213. ment and ideal quantum coin tossing are impossible,™™ Physica
Inamori, H., L. Rallan, and V. Vedral, 2000, ˜˜Security of EPR- D 120, 177“187.
based quantum cryptography against incoherent symmetric Lo, H.-K., and H. F. Chau, 1999, ˜˜Unconditional security of
attacks,™™ preprint quant-ph/0103058. quantum key distribution over arbitrary long distances,™™ Sci-
Ingerson, T. E., R. J. Kearney, and R. L. Coulter, 1983, ˜˜Pho- ence 283, 2050“2056.
¨
ton counting with photodiodes,™™ Appl. Opt. 22, 2013“2018. Lutkenhaus, N., 1996, ˜˜Security against eavesdropping in
Ivanovic, I. D., 1987, ˜˜How to differentiate between non- quantum cryptography,™™ Phys. Rev. A 54, 97“111.
¨
orthogonal states,™™ Phys. Lett. A 123, 257“259. Lutkenhaus, N., 2000, ˜˜Security against individual attacks for
Jacobs, B., and J. Franson, 1996, ˜˜Quantum cryptography in realistic quantum key distribution,™™ Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304.
free space,™™ Opt. Lett. 21, 1854“1856. Marand, C., and P. D. Townsend, 1995, ˜˜Quantum key distri-
Jennewein, T., U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. bution over distances as long as 30 km,™™ Opt. Lett. 20, 1695“
Zeilinger, 2000, ˜˜A fast and compact quantum random num- 1697.
ber generator,™™ Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1675“1680. Martinelli, M., 1989, ˜˜A universal compensator for polariza-
Jennewein, T., C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. tion changes induced by birefringence on a retracing beam,™™
Zeilinger, 2000, ˜˜Quantum cryptography with entangled pho- Opt. Commun. 72, 341“344.
tons,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729“4732. Martinelli, M., 1992, ˜˜Time reversal for the polarization state
Karlsson, A., M. Bourennane, G. Ribordy, H. Zbinden, J. in optical systems,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 39, 451“455.
Brendel, J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, 1999, ˜˜A single-photon Maurer, U. M., 1993, ˜˜Secret key agreement by public discus-
counter for long-haul telecom,™™ IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. sion from common information,™™ IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 39,
15, 34“40. 733“742.


Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 74, No. 1, January 2002
194 Gisin et al.: Quantum cryptography


Maurer, U. M., and S. Wolf, 1999, ˜˜Unconditionally secure key Peres, A., 1997, Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods (Klu-
agreement and intrinsic information,™™ IEEE Trans. Inf. wer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands).
Theory 45, 499“514. Phoenix, S. J. D., S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J.
Mayers, D., 1996a, ˜˜The trouble with quantum bit commit- Blow, 1995, ˜˜Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical
ment,™™ quant-ph/9603015. networks,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 6, 1155“1163.
´
Mayers, D., 1996b, Advances in Cryptology”Proceedings of Piron, C., 1990, Mecanique quantique, bases et applications
Crypto™96, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1109, (Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, Lau-
edited by N. Koblitz (Springer, New York), pp. 343“357. sanne, Switzerland).
Mayers, D., 1997, ˜˜Unconditionally secure Q bit commitment Pitowsky, I., 1989, Ed. Quantum Probability”Quantum Logic,
is impossible,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3414“3417. Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 321 (Springer, Berlin).
Mayers, D., 1998, ˜˜Unconditional security in quantum cryptog- Rarity, J. G., P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, 1994, ˜˜Quan-
raphy,™™ J. Assn. Comput. Mac. (in press). tum random-number generation and key sharing,™™ J. Mod.
Mayers, D., and A. Yao, 1998, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Opt. 41, 2435“2444.
Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Rarity, J. G., and P. R. Tapster, 1988, in Photons and Quantum
Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California), p. 503. Fluctuations, edited by E. R. Pike and H. Walther (Hilger,
Mazurenko, Y., R. Giust, and J. P. Goedgebuer, 1997, ˜˜Spectral Bristol, England), pp. 122“150.
coding for secure optical communications using refractive in- Rarity, J. G., T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P.
dex dispersion,™™ Opt. Commun. 133, 87“92. R. Tapster, 2000, ˜˜Single-photon counting for the 1300“
´
Merolla, J-M., Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. 1600-nm range by use of Peltier-cooled and passively
Rhodes, 1999, ˜˜Single-photon interference in sidebands of quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,™™ Appl. Opt. 39,
phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,™™ Phys. 6746“6753.
Rev. Lett. 82, 1656“1659. Ribordy, G., J. Brendel, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbin-
Michler, P., A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M.
den, 2001, ˜˜Long distance entanglement based quantum key
Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, 2000, ˜˜A quan-
distribution,™™ Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309.
tum dot single photon turnstile device,™™ Science 290, 2282“
Ribordy, G., J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H.
2285.
Zbinden, 2000, ˜˜Fast and user-friendly quantum key distribu-
Milonni, P. W., and M. L. Hardies, 1982, ˜˜Photons cannot al-
tion,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517“531.
ways be replicated,™™ Phys. Lett. A 92, 321“322.
Ribordy, G., J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 1998,
Molotkov, S. N., 1998, ˜˜Quantum cryptography based on pho-
˜˜Performance of InGaAsInP avalanche photodiodes as
ton ˜frequency™ states: example of a possible realization,™™ Sov.
gated-mode photon counters,™™ Appl. Opt. 37, 2272“2277.
Phys. JETP 87, 288“293.
Rivest, R. L., A. Shamir, and L. M. Adleman, 1978, ˜˜A method
Muller, A., J. Breguet, and N. Gisin, 1993, ˜˜Experimental dem-
of obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,™™
onstration of quantum cryptography using polarized photons
Commun. ACM 21, 120“126.
in optical ¬ber over more than 1 km,™™ Europhys. Lett. 23,
Santori, C., M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yama-
383“388.
Muller, A., T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and moto, 2000, ˜˜Triggered single photons from a quantum dot,™™
N. Gisin, 1997, ˜˜ ˜Plug and play™ systems for quantum cryp- Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502“1505.
tography,™™ Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793“795. Shannon, C. E., 1949, ˜˜Communication theory of secrecy sys-
Muller, A., H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 1995, ˜˜Underwater tems,™™ Bell Syst. Tech. J. 28, 656“715.
quantum coding,™™ Nature (London) 378, 449“449. Shih, Y. H., and C. O. Alley, 1988, ˜˜New type of Einstein-
Muller, A., H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 1996, ˜˜Quantum cryp- Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta
tography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom ¬bre,™™ produced by optical parametric down conversion,™™ Phys. Rev.
Europhys. Lett. 33, 335“339. Lett. 61, 2921“2924.
Naik, D., C. Peterson, A. White, A. Berglund, and P. Kwiat, Shor, P. W., 1994, Proceedings of the 35th Symposium on Foun-
2000, ˜˜Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdrop- dations of Computer Science, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE
ping on the Ekert protocol,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733“4736. Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California), pp. 124“134.
Neumann, E.-G., 1988, Single-Mode Fibers: Fundamentals, Shor, P. W., and J. Preskill, 2000, ˜˜Simple proof of security of
Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 57 (Springer, Berlin). the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,™™ Phys. Rev.
Niu, C. S., and R. B. Grif¬ths, 1999, ˜˜Two-qubit copying ma- Lett. 85, 441“444.
chine for economical quantum eavesdropping,™™ Phys. Rev. A Simon, C., G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, 1999, ˜˜Quantum clon-
60, 2764“2776. ing and signaling,™™ Acta Phys. Slov. 49, 755“760.
Nogues, G., A. Rauschenbeutel, S. Osnaghi, M. Brune, J. M. Simon, C., G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, 2000, ˜˜Optimum quan-
Raimond, and S. Haroche, 1999, ˜˜Seeing a single photon tum cloning via stimulated emission,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 84,
without destroying it,™™ Nature (London) 400, 239“242. 2993“2996.
Owens, P. C. M., J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, D. Knight, and P. Singh, S., 1999, The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from
D. Townsend, 1994, ˜˜Photon counting with passively Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography (Fourth Estate,
quenched germanium avalanche,™™ Appl. Opt. 33, 6895“6901. London).
Penrose, R., 1994, Shadows of the Mind (Oxford University, Snyder, A. W., and J. D. Love, 1983, Optical Waveguide Theory
Oxford, England). (Chapman & Hall, London).
Peres, A., 1988, ˜˜How to differentiate between two non- Spinelli, A., L. M. Davis, and H. Dauted, 1996, ˜˜Actively
orthogonal states,™™ Phys. Lett. A 128, 19. quenched single-photon avalanche diode for high repetition
Peres, A., 1996, ˜˜Separability criteria for density matrices,™™ rate time-gated photon counting,™™ Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1413“1415. 55“61.


Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 74, No. 1, January 2002
195
Gisin et al.: Quantum cryptography


Townsend, P., 1998b, ˜˜Quantum cryptography on optical ¬ber
Stallings, W., 1999, Cryptography and Network Security: Prin-
ciples and Practices (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New networks,™™ Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 4, 345“
Jersey). 370.
Stefanov, A., O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, and N. Townsend, P. D., S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Bar-
Gisin, 2000, ˜˜Optical quantum random number generator,™™ J. nett, 1994, ˜˜Design of QC systems for passive optical net-
Mod. Opt. 47, 595“598. works,™™ Electron. Lett. 30, 1875“1876.
Steinberg, A. M., P. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, 1992a, ˜˜Disper- Townsend, P., J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, 1993a, ˜˜Single
sion cancellation and high-resolution time measurements in a photon interference in a 10 km long optical ¬ber interferom-
fourth-order optical interferometer,™™ Phys. Rev. A 45, 6659“ eter,™™ Electron. Lett. 29, 634“639.
6665. Townsend, P., J. Rarity, and P. Tapster, 1993b, ˜˜Enhanced
Steinberg, A. M., P. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, 1992b, ˜˜Disper-
single photon fringe visibility in a 10 km-long prototype
sion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon
quantum cryptography channel,™™ Electron. Lett. 29, 1291“
propagation velocity in glass,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2421“2424.
1293.
Stucki, D., G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. Rarity, and
Vernam, G., 1926, ˜˜Cipher printing telegraph systems for se-
T. Wall, 2001, ˜˜Photon counting for quantum key distribution
cret wire and radio telegraphic communications,™™ J. Am. Inst.
with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APD™s,™™ J. Mod. Opt. 48,
Electr. Eng. 45, 109“115.
1967“1981.
Vinegoni, C., M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, 2000, ˜˜Determina-
Sun, P. C., Y. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, 1995, ˜˜Long-
tion of nonlinear coef¬cient n 2 /A eff using a self-aligned inter-
distance frequency-division interferometer for communica-
ferometer and a Faraday mirror,™™ Electron. Lett. 36, 886“888.
tion and quantum cryptography,™™ Opt. Lett. 20, 1062“1063.
Vinegoni, C., M. Wegmuller, B. Huttner, and N. Gisin, 2000,
Tanzilli, S., H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi,
˜˜Measurement of nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly
M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, 2001, ˜˜Highly
birefringent optical ¬ber using a Faraday mirror,™™ J. Opt. A,
ef¬cient photon-pair source using a periodically poled lithium
Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 314“318.
niobate waveguide,™™ Electron. Lett. 37, 26“28.
Walls, D. F., and G. J. Milburn, 1995, Eds., Quantum Optics
Tapster, P. R., J. G. Rarity, and P. C. M. Owens, 1994, ˜˜Viola-
(Springer, Berlin).
tion of Bell™s inequality over 4 km of optical ¬ber,™™ Phys. Rev.
Weihs, G., T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A.
Lett. 73, 1923“1926.
Zeilinger, 1998, ˜˜Violation of Bell™s inequality under strict
Thomas, G. A., B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen,
Einstein locality conditions,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039“5043.
2000, ˜˜Towards the clarity limit in optical ¬ber,™™ Nature
Wiesner, S., 1983, ˜˜Conjugate coding,™™ SIGACT News 15, 78“
(London) 404, 262“264.
88.
Tittel, W., J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 1998, ˜˜Viola-
Wigner, E. P., 1961, The Logic of Personal Knowledge: Essays
tion of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,™™
Presented to Michael Polanyi on his Seventieth Birthday, 11
Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563“3566.
March 1961 (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London), pp. 231“
Tittel, W., J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 1999, ˜˜Long-
238.
distance Bell-type tests using energy-time entangled pho-
Wootters, W. K., and W. H. Zurek, 1982, ˜˜A single quantum
tons,™™ Phys. Rev. A 59, 4150“4163.
cannot be cloned,™™ Nature (London) 299, 802“803.
Tittel, W., J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 2000, ˜˜Quan-
Yuen, H. P., 1997, ˜˜Quantum ampli¬ers, quantum duplicators
tum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time
and quantum cryptography,™™ Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8,
bell states,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737“4740.
939.
Tittel, W., H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, 2001, ˜˜Experimental
Zappa, F., A. Lacaita, S. Cova, and P. Webb, 1994, ˜˜Nanosec-
demonstration of quantum secret sharing,™™ Phys. Rev. A 63,
ond single-photon timing with InGaAs/InP photodiodes,™™
042301.
Opt. Lett. 19, 846“848.
Tomita, A., and R. Y. Chiao, 1986, ˜˜Observation of Berry™s
Zbinden, H., J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller,
topological phase by use of an optical ¬ber,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett.
and W. Tittel, 1997, ˜˜Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for
57, 937“940.
quantum cryptography,™™ Electron. Lett. 33, 586“588.
Townsend, P., 1994, ˜˜Secure key distribution system based on
Zeilinger, A., 1999, ˜˜Experiment and the foundations of quan-
quantum cryptography,™™ Electron. Lett. 30, 809“811.
tum physics,™™ Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S288“S297.
Townsend, P., 1997a, ˜˜Simultaneous quantum cryptographic
Zissis, G., and A. Larocca, 1978, in Handbook of Optics, ed-
key distribution and conventional data transmission over in-
ited by W. G. Driscoll (McGraw-Hill, New York), Sec. 3.
stalled ¬bre using WDM,™™ Electron. Lett. 33, 188“190.
™ ukowski, M., A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. Ekert, 1993,
Z
Townsend, P., 1997b, ˜˜Quantum cryptography on multiuser op-
˜˜ ˜Event-ready-detectors™ Bell experiment via entanglement
tical ¬ber networks,™™ Nature (London) 385, 47“49.
swapping,™™ Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287“4290.
Townsend, P., 1998a, ˜˜Experimental investigation of the per-
™ ukowski, M., A. Zeilinger, M. Horne, and H. Weinfurter,
Z
formance limits for ¬rst telecommunications-window quan-
1998, ˜˜Quest for GHZ states,™™ Acta Phys. Pol. A 93,
tum cryptography systems,™™ IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
187“195.
10, 1048“1050.




Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 74, No. 1, January 2002

<< . .

. 12
( : 12)