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Macca I Kr
M.
ceue.nn iTP. lo', M '
napym˜ldfi BHYTP˜HHN˜
˜CJ˜OBH˜I˜˜




A U ˜ MXJlaAOHOBbIX N aMMMaqHbIX T P Y ˜ O ˜ P O B O A O BOnpeAeJlRlOT n0
˜T˜
Q o p ˜ y n e(16.2). P a c q e ˜ ˜ b CKOPOCTN n p ˜ ˜ e ˜ Be ˜ ab n .
re ˜ 6 l 16.3. Ilpu npoeK-
TMPOBaHNN XJlaAOHOBbIX T P Y ˜ O ˜ P O B O A O B C O H e BHMMaHUe CneAyeT yAe-
OHBO
JIRTb MePOnPMRTMFl M no B03BpaTy MaCJla B KOMnpeCCOp. Ans IIOA-beMa
Tufinuqa 16.3

I
I Pacrrr˜au ˜oparrb
c
Xnana IWHT
˜UHUR
w,˜ / c
YcnonHuA npoxon H a p y m ˜ h l AnnsMvTp B H ˜ T ˜ ˜ H n n a ˜ e ˜ p nnnlildab 110nepell˜nrn
HHA
. M d c c a ! M . hr
.
r c ˜ i e t i n nlTl, 10'. M '
rpyciw d (1,. M M d,,. M M
MM




B ˜ M P K ˜ J I R U M O H H O M ˜ T e M e A B M X e H M e XHAKOCTM
C˜ C IlPOWCXOAMT n O A
A ˜ ˜ ˜ C T B Ua ˜ H O C T M & a ˜ . f l e H k i f i H a r H e T a H M R M B C a C b I B a H M R , ˜ 0 3 ˜ a ˜ a e M 0 f i
p 3M
npM p a 6 o ˜ eH a C O C a . npll 3 T O M X M A K O C T b A B U X e T C R OT T O W K CMCTeMbl C
6 0 n b u n ˜A a B J I e H M e M K T O V K a M C M e H b U I M M .
FIpw A B M x e H u M no c H c T e M e nm6ofi c p e ˜ b l ( ˜ o n a paccon, BOSAYX) npo-
,
UCXOART n O T e p M A a B J l e H M R : H a T p e H M e 0 CTeHKM T P Y ˜ APT,, M B MeCTHblX˜I
ApM ( ˜ o B o ˜ o Ta A B˜ , K U , O T B e T B J e H M R , I l e p e M e H a
3 ˜ UX
COllPOTMBJleHMRX
c e q e H u R T ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ ˜ O R uO np.).BAO
n o ˜ e p un a B n e H u R H a T p e H H e
hp Pw2
A P T P = d I ˜ Rl.
=




k ˜ p y 6 ,3 H a . l e H H H ˜ p y 6UB
LuepOXOBaTOCTb K O T O ˜ O I ˜p N H t i M a l O T :
I jlJlR HOUl,lk I'JlaJlhtlX
-

JI;11YHM N M e A H /l = 0,ool 0.06, a
M M ; n n F l HOBblX C T a J l b H b l X T P Y ˜ i=
/ I l W J I C HeCKOJlbKHX
k = 0.2 k = 0.5
TPY˜
JlCT 3 K C I l J l y B T a l l l l l l M M ; AJlR C T a J b H b l X B PaCCOJlbHblX C N C T e M a X MM.
I I B O ˜ H ˜˜ A˜
I
napa˜erp Bona s˜unenrnu˜onn
vacTI˜ut1C ˜ C I ˜
RO.IIII,III CTBO˜




gM - K O ˜ + + H U H ˜ H T MecTHoro conpoTneneHnn; pw2/2 - nwHaMwsecKoe
me (c˜opoc˜˜oe)
naBneHHe noToKa, n a .
EM
˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H U I IH U B e A e H b I H U X e :
P

BHXOA pe3ep˜yapaB ˜ p y 6 y
˜3
n p n e ˜ ˜ b l KnanaH C C ˜ T K O(l$˜Jlb˜p)
fi ˜˜
0 6 p a ˜ ˜ b lKnanaH
ti
Kone˜o HJIH OTBOn non YrJlOM 9' 0
Kpec˜oen˜a
Ha npoxone
Ha OTBOAe
Tpofi˜n˜
Ha npoxone
n0A YrJrOM 9' B HanpaBJIeHkiH OTBeTBneHHR
0
Kanas ( O T B O ˜ yrnoM 180")
non
3 a n e w x ˜ anapannenbnan
BeHTnnb ( D = 250 t 20 M M )
K O ) K ˜ X O T ˜ ˜ $ I HM H O ˜ O X O ˜ O BHCIlapHTenb
M˜˜ O˜˜
UnH KOHjIeHCaTOp

˜ P O I l p e A e J I e H H U A a B z l e H U R B MeCTHOM
M C O n P O T U B J I e H U U no @ 0 p ˜ y n e
(16.6) B H e e n o n c T a s n R m T s ˜ a q e ˜ u e n o c T y n a t o m e r o n o T o m , ecnu
CKOPOCTU
H e IIpOUCXOAUT U 3 M e H e H U R C e Y e H H R A 0 H lIOCJIe C O n p O T U B J l e H U R . n p U U 3 M e -
OT o A H o r o A u a M e T p a ˜ p y 6 b 1K A p y r o M y unu pas-
HeHuu c e s e H u R (nepexo˜
A e n e ˜ U e˜ O T O K ˜IIOACTaBJIRloT 3 H a M e H U e CKOPOCTU I I O T O K ˜ B H a U M e H b U I e M
)
CeseHuu.
C U C T ˜ P Y ˜ O ˜ P O B O A O BI p e A C T a B J I R e T co6oii C J I O X H y I O r u n p a B n u r e c K y m
TM ˜ I
YY˜CT-
C e T b N 3 YYaCTKOB, COeAUHeHHbIX n O C z l e A O B a T e J I b H 0 UJIU n a p a J I J I e n b H 0 .
KOM H a 3 b I B a m T Y a C T b T ˜ ˜ ˜ o I I ˜ o BCo H e U 3 M e H H b I M P a C X O A O M X U A K O C T U

U & H a M e T p O M ˜py6b1.
˜ o J I H ˜ nR T e p R a a B J l e H H R H a Y Y a C T K e ˜ p y 6 0 n p 0 ˜ 0 A a
O

+ ---- ,
di;vi
AP, = a p T P L p H C . (16.8) d,iY d, ;V,
Ecnu YYaCTKU C O e A U H e H b I
4 Pi
I I O C J ˜ A O B ˜ T ˜ ˜( P U C .O 16.1, a ) ,
˜H
p a c x o A m u A K o c T u qepes B c e 3ne-
MeHTbI OCTaeTCR HeU3MeHHbIM,
a o6mue I I O T e p U A a B J I e H U R P a B H b I
CyMMe IIOTepb AaBJeHUR Ha
yYacTKax:
Ap=ZApi=Z(Rl+Z).
( 16.9) APi
npu n a p a n n e n b H o M BKnmqe-
Pnc. 16.1. n o c n e n o s a ˜ e n b ˜ o e n napannenb˜oe
(PHC.
YqaCTKOB 76)

˜pacxon XHAKOCTH p a B e H
06˜ fi coenHHeHne rnnpasnnsecKHx YsaCTKOB
M3
CyMMe PaCXOnOB H a K a X n O M
J%
,; ;
5 @
a
yliac.rhoB, rHupasnHrecnHe
7n
(u 06-
IlOTepM AaBJIeHHR MeXny
7.
2..
UMMM T O q K a M H P a 3 A e J l e H M R M
CJIMRHMR IIOTOKOB D a B H b I M e X L I V

o n p e n e n ˜ ˜ boTepto
n nasneHaR
TOJIbKO H a OAHOM Y q a C T K e C H a M -
˜ O J I ˜ L U M COIlPOTMBJleHNeM.
M
˜ O T ˜ P AaBJIeHPiR
M Ha OC-




Puc.16.2. P a c s e ˜ ˜ a cxeMa ˜pydonpoeonos pat- Y C T a H a B J I M B a l O T T ˜ ; < M M M He,
HMW
ff
C O J ˜ ˜ HYCTaHOBKH K a K H a YYaCTKe C H ˜ M ˜ o J I ˜ L U M M
O˜˜

COnpOTMBJIeHMeM.
i l p n ˜ e p .n p o s e c ˜ ur u n p a ˜ n u ˜ e c ˜ pacqeT ˜ ˜ K P H T O Hpacconb˜ofi cucTeMbl oxnaxfieHaR
ufi
TpeX KaMep, B KOTOPhIX TelTJlOBaR HarPY3Ka Ha 0 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ uCOCTaBnReT COOTBeTCTBeHHO:
e
Ql = 2.5 KBT; Q = 2,2 KBT; Q = 2,7 KBT. Onpenenu˜b poTepu naaneaue. P a c s e ˜ ˜ a n
I llI
TeMneparypa B KaMepax t, = - 20°C, TeMnepaTypa paccona ( B O ˜ H pacTBop CaC12) t, = ' H˜˜
= - 30°C. B KaqeCTBe npe6opoe OXnaXneHNfl IlPUHRTbl npHCTeHHble o p e 6 p e ˜ ˜ b 1 e ˜ a p e u . 6a
P ˜ C YnpOBOAHM B HeCKOnbKO 3TanOB.
˜T
1. B COOTBeTCTBHU C H ˜ T P Y ˜ K Ha ˜ O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H H ˜pa3MepaMH KaMep n o n 6 u p a e ˜ npu-
O ˜
CTeHHble 6 a ˜ a p e a .
2. P a s ˜ e u a e a ˜ a p e uHa nnasax.

3. C O C T ˜ B ˜ R ˜ MPaCCOnbHblX ˜ p y 6 o n p o ˜ o n o e .
CXeMy TOYHOrO OnpeAeneHHR KOAUYeCT-
Ba nOBOpOTOB U pa3Be˜E3Je˜Ufi BhIYepYHBaIOT aKCOHOMeTPUYeCKYIO CXeMy ˜ p y 6 o n p o ˜ o n O˜ .˜ a -
oa
KlpOeKTaX M O X H O OTpaHMYUTbCR I ˜ ˜ O C KcO e ˜ o f i( ˜ U C16.2).
KO B y ˜ e 6 ˜ h l x x˜ ˜ .
4. Bb16upae˜rnaBHoe ttHpKyJlR4HOHHOe KOJlbUO. 0 6 b 1 4 ˜ 03T0 KOJIbUO BKnWqaeT B ˜ e 6 f f
˜ a u 6 o n e eynaneHHym 6 a ˜ a p e l oAnn KaMepy c ˜as6onbmefinJIH˜0fi ˜ p y 66 a ˜ a p e f i .B HameM
npHMepe YCnOBHO nPHHflT0, YTO 3 T 0 K O J b 9 0 BKJIIoYaeT B ce6n 6 a ˜ a p e e KaMepbi N 3.
9
n o c ˜ o n b ˜By KaMepe M 3 uMeeTcsl 2 6 a ˜ a p e ˜ , BwlIoseuHbre napannejlbHo Memny TOY-
KM A H 6, B UnPKYJlR4UOHHOe KOnbUO BKnIOYaeM TOJlbKO YYaCTOK C 6a˜apeefi C 6onbmefi
aM
n n s ˜ o f iNnaHra, a CnenoBaTenbHo, o6nana1oulefi 6 i ) f l b ˜ ˜ ˜ COnpOTHB3IeHUeM. T ˜ K M0Mp a 3 0 ˜ .
6
rnaBHoe uupKynfluHouHoe Konbuo B HameM npuMepe COCTOUT ˜3 H ˜ ˜ O P H MarucTpana c O˜˜
ucnapuTeneM H s a n o p ˜ o f i a p ˜ a ˜ y p o f(iy s a c ˜ o ˜ 1). ˜ a n o p ˜ o nuHun OT HanopHor0 Kon-
fi
NQ
JIeKTOpa A 0 KaMepbl M 3 ( ˜ Y ˜ C TNO2), O A H O ˜ 6 a ˜ a p e uC nOnBOARUlHMN ˜ p y 6 o n p o ˜ o n a -
OK ˜
MU ( ˜ ' I ˜ c T o K N03), 06paT˜ofi J l H H U N N 3 KaMepbl N 3 ( Y Y ˜ C T O K4 ) , B˜a˜blBaIOulefi
9 Jf9 Ma-
rucTpanu OT MecTa npecoenuHeHuR pacmupaTenbHoro 6 a ˜ a Bcacmaloulero n a T p y 6 ˜ aHa-
no
Coca (YYBCTOK 5 ) . N9
5. B COOTBeTCTBHU C 3aAaHHblMH HaTPY3KaMH Ha KaMepHOe 0 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ nHaXOjlMM PaC- e
xon paccona u nsaMerp ˜ p y 6 o n p o ˜ o n o ua oTnenbHblx ysacTKax rnaBuoro U H ˜ K ˜ J I R U H O H
e
HOrO KOnbUa (CM.PHC. 16.2).
C ˜ a q a n aonpeneJIReM nuaMeTp ˜ p y 6 .coenuamounx 6 a ˜ a p e uc MaracTpanRMu, a s a ˜ - ˜ e
˜ a r u c ˜ p a n e f HaqaHafl c ˜ a u 6 o n e eynaneaaHx KaMep H nocTeneHHo n p u 6 n u ˜ a f f c b Hacocy.
i, K
06'be˜HbIfipacxon paccona sepes KaMepbl:




+ +
0 6 u u f i 0 6 x e ˜ ˜ b 1pacxoa paccona B cucTeMe Z V = 0,356 0.314
fi 0,385 = 1,055 n/c.
P a 3 6 u e a e ˜rnaBHoe ˜UpKy˜RIIHOHHOe O J l b 4 0 Ha YYPCTKH. Ecnu nOABOARulHe ˜py6onpo-
K
BOnbl M eO T a ˜ 0 f iXe AUakleTp, KaK U Tpy6bl 6 a ˜ a p e u .YYaCTKOM CYNTalOT 6a˜ape10BMeCTe
MI T
C nO˜BOnRU(UMH T ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ ˜ O B O ˜ e ˜ MeYYaCTKH Ha CXeMe H npOCTaBjlReM Ha H H X
Hy A py U .˜
nuahce-rp n AnuHy ˜ p y 6 o n p o ˜ o n a , TaKxe pacxon XUAKOCTH qepes yqacToK.
6. O n p e n e n ˜ e ˜ no-repe nasjleHan B rnasHoM uupKvnRusoHHoM Konbue.
n o ˜ e p a˜ n e H u n H a y q a c T K e N I : ˜py6onpoeon o614eA ˜ J I H H O R 8
e conpo-
M; M e c T H u e
nB
- 3 3 a A B H X K H . 8 KOJleH n O A YrJlOM 90°, 1 U C n a p U T e J b .
THBneHHn
H a x o n i i ˜CKOpOCTb J l B U X e H H f l paccona B T ˜ ˜ ˜ O I I ˜ O B O ˜ ˜ :




N? 1
O6uran noTepn n a s n e H m Ha yqacTKe

+ z = 0,15 . 10' + 0.33 . 10' = 0,48 . 10'
A P = npTp na.




".p , 2. (RI
R. L ZI
RI.
P
*
Re '
T
P ˜na
d na/m wna 'Em ˜lla
2
;
c
na M-'
8 0.54 187 1928 1.00 1,5 173 3,27 .4.77
00
.5 187
30.8
10 714 00
.6 1.20 2,5 0,06 0.37
0.20 25.7 0.31
100 890 0.06 18
.8 184 1.
84 25.5 2,49 20.89
0,39 9.
77
30.8
00
.6 1.20
15 0,20 25.7 1928 4,5 0.12 0.58
0.46
1.00 187
2 1928 0.05 2.5 0.47 0.84
0.54 187 0.37




5 16.4. flOA6OP HACOCA AJlR BOAbl NJlN PACCOJlA

Hacoc A n R n e p e K a s u B a H u R x n n ˜ o c ˜ e non6upa1o˜ no nByM O C H O B H ˜ I M
ii
v JIIC) na),
n n o a H o M y n a B f i e H u m P (B
n a p a M e T p a M : nonage ( B M ˜ / C unu
C O 3 A a B a e M O M y HaCOCOM.
n o ˜ a s aHacoca. OH^ o n p e n e n R e T c R K o m i q e c T B o M X M ˜ K O C T Z I , K o T o p o e
H Y X H O n O & a B a T b B T ˜ ˜ J I O O ˜ M ˜ H n I IMp ˜ T b 1 . Ecnu X n A K O C T b I I O n a e T C R
aH a a
O H H U M H a C O C O M , T O P a C Z I e T H y D n O A a Y y H a C O C a I I P U H U M a l o T P ˜ B H O P˜ C - a˜
X O n y X l l f i K O C T M B M a r U C T p a J I U ; e C n U n B y M R H a C O C a M U , B K J I l o s e H H b I M N na-
pannenbeo, TO p a c v e T H y l o nonasy K a x a o r o H a c o c a n p u H u M a l o T p a ˜ ˜ o i i
65 - 75% pacxona X U ˜ K O C T U B M a r u c T p a n u .
Han0p , HaCOCa. ˜ ˜ M M ˜ H U T ˜ JKI ˜ aH O C a M I I O J I H O e A a B J I e H U e I I P U H R T O
H CO
B N p a x a T b sbrco˜oii H ( B M ) c ˜ o n 6 a n e p e ˜ a s u ˜ a e ˜ o U i K O C T M , y p a B -
˜iA

155
coanasae˜oe
HoeemLlwBaloqero
AaBJleHMe. 3 ˜ B e n N q H H y ' ˜ a 3 b l -
y
B a O T HanOpOM HaCOCa:

(16.10)
H=-.
Pg
B P ˜ ˜ O M K H Y T UHPKY- O˜˜
J I H U H O H H O ˜ ˜n c T e M e (PHC. 16.3,˜)
C
n
Hanop Hacoca pacxoAyercH Ha
6 npeonone˜ne o n p o ˜ ˜ a n e ˜ w -˜ ˜pe
a c
HHR H M ˜ C T H H X conpo˜nsne˜nfi, a
16.3. Cxemu u w p w y n ˜ u n o ˜ ˜cscrem:
b˜x
THC.
T a K X e HG n O A ' b e M X H A K O C T H B
a - p a 3 o r ˜ ˜ y ˜ 6 n ; sa˜nqyran
a-
BepTHKaJIbHblX YqaCTKaX.
Ecnn H M X e YPOBHR B C ˜ C ˜ I B ˜ XMfiKOCTM,
˜MO˜˜
HaCOC p a c n O J I O X e H Tpe-
6 y e ˜ b l f iH a n o p




S A e c b Ap,, M Ap, - IlOJIHble IlOTepM A a B n e H M R RO B C a C b l B a l O q e M M
H a r H e T a T e J I b H O M ˜py6onpoaonax.
B 3 a M K H y T o fi U M ˜ K ˜ ˜ R ˜ M O C u c T e M˜e ˜ ( P M C . 16.3,6) h, = h,,,
HHO
n 0 3 T O M Y H a n O p H a C O C a T P a T H T C R H a I7pe0,LlO˜leHHe C O n p O T H B f l e H U R T P e H W R
B CMCTeMe T P Y ˜ O I ˜ ˜ O B O J ˜ O B B MeCTHblX COIlPOTUBJleHHRX. T p e B y e ˜ b t f i
M
Hanop Hacoca
, B ZC l a O M - T P ˜ ˜ O ˜ P O B O ˜ ˜ O M
C t bB I U M
C'IHTaIOT 4aCTb CWCTeMbl MX ' e&
T O ˜ K Op ˜ C O e A H H e H N R paCWUpM-
nH
TeJlbHOrO 6 a ˜ a B a bB I U H
A C C l aO I M
n a ˜ p y 6 ˜Hacoca, a HarHeTa-

TeJlbHblM - MeXAJ' 3 ˜ 0 fT O ˜ K O ˜
N
i
HarHeTaTeJlbHblM ˜ ˜ T ˜ Y ˜ K O M .
Hacoca.
X a p a ˜ ˜ e p n c ˜ n ˜ a I lo-
v
.
˜ a q M ˜ a n o p o n a ˜ o q ˜ o ˜o c o c a
ra V
a n
6
a
B a M O CBR3aHbI. M3-3a CJIOX-
3M H
aaBMcM- PHC. 16.5. Cxeua non6opa Hacoca no xapawepnc-
HoCTM a H a n M T M q e c K O ˜
THKaM:
MOCTM MeXA)' n0Aaz1ea M HanOpOM npn coenanetiun pa6osek Town c nn-
a-
XapaKTepnCTnKH; 6 - npn pacnonoxe-
MX B a M C R b HaXOART OnbITHbIM
3U O B 3 ˜nek
nyTeM M BblpaXaIOT B BNne rph@M- HUH pa6osek T O ˜ K Hu e x n y ˜ H H U R M Bx a p a ˜ -
TepUCTUKH, ! K8/18, 2 - K8/18a. 3 -
Ka XaPaKTePMCTHKH, npMB0- -
A




Y8/ 186
nw˜oiiB KaTanorax. Ha TOT M e
r p a @ M ˜ a H O C R T ˜ ˜ B M C M ˜ O ˜C O T P ˜ ˜ J I R O MO T ˜ M Knn OT nO&aqM
I MU O˜
˜ H CM
H T˜
n p u o n p e n e n e ˜ ˜ o sacToTe B p a u e H u R sana Hacoca. Ha PHC. 16.4 B Ka-
ii
q e C T B e npMMepa npMBeAeHb1 XapaKTepMCTHKM U ˜ H T P O ˜ ˜ H H HaCOCOB TM- ˜IX

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