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0n˜0fia
q e 6onbme BnaroconepmaHMe a.!.˜oc@ep˜oro s n y x a ( n p ˜
˜ ˜o
TOG x e ˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ y p e ) ,6onbme napsuanbHoe AasneHue Bonmoro napa.
Te M
npM nOCTUXeHUU MaKCUMaJIbHO B 0 3 M O X H O T O KOJIUqeCTBa BJlaTU, KOTOPOe
BO3AYX MOXeT BOCnPMHRTb B BUAe naps, napUUaJIbHOe naBJIeHHe BOnRHOrO
naps CTaHOBUTCR PaBHbIM AaBJIeHUlO HaCblUeHHOrO BO&RHOrO naps, a OTHO-
CMTeJIbHaR BJlaXHOCTb BO3AyXa - P ˜ B H O100%. ˜˜
Macco˜oeBJIarOCOnepXaHMe M OTHOCHTeJbHaR BJIaXHOCTb ˜ T M O C @ ˜ P H O -
r0 BO3AyXa CBR3aHbl COOTHOUleHMeM



r a s o ˜ a nocToRHHaR cyxoro ˜ o s n y x a [R,, = 287,l A m /( ˜ .rK ) 1 ;
m e R,,, - ynenbHaR ˜
ra30BaR IIOCTORHHaR BOAflHOCO naps [R, = 461,5 A X /( K C. K ) ] .
R, -y nenb˜a˜
˜ J I O T H O C T ˜T M O C @ ˜ ˜ HBO3nyXa 3B C T
aMM COAePXaHMR HM
e
˜ O˜O OT BO-
B
nmoro napa:
K)
B a o p ˜ y n a x(17.5) - (17.7) V u T - o 6 a e ˜ B M ˜ )u ˜ ˜ C O J I I O T T e ˜ ˜ ˜ p a T y p a ( B
( H Mne
˜ T M O C @ ˜ P H O ˜ O 3 n y X a , C Y X O ˜ er0 q a C T U U B O n R H O r O
B O 3 n y X a ; p, PC., p, - IlAOTHOCTU
H BO
napa, K ˜ / M ˜ .
H a n p u ˜ e p ,ecnu ˜ o s n y x npu TeMnepaType 12°C u 6 a p o ˜ e ˜ p u q e c ˜ o ˜
AaBJIeHMkl 760 M M PT. CT. COAePXUT 5 r BOARHOrO naps Ha 1 Kr CyXOrO 803-
AyXa, TO e O nnOTHOCTb
T


T˜˜JIo˜MKocT˜ (np˜ M O C @ ˜ ˜ H ˜03nyxaTaK-
IIOCTORHHOM A ˜ B J I ˜ H H H )T
˜ O˜O
x e ˜ ˜ B U C M T ero BnaroconepxaHm:
OT

+ end, (17.8)
c= ccB

. K ) ] , C,
,
me [c, = 1,01 K
C, Y A e J b H a R TennOeMKOCTb CyXOrO B O 3 n y X a ˜ X (Kr
/ - YneJlb-
-


.
naps [c, = 1.86 K A x / ( K ˜ K ) ]
H a f l T e n n O e M K O C T b BOfiRHOrO

Y ˜ e n b ˜ y l s ˜ ˜ a n b n u lBnaxHoro ˜ o s n y x a , K K u Bnaroconepxaaue,
o o a
OTHOCRT H K o6wefi Macce ˜ o s n y x au B O A ˜ I , a T O J I ˜ K O K Macce cyxofi
e
Za T M,,:
lC M
+
+
.. + ( 1 7.9)
din = C, ,t d (cut r o ) ,
1 = 1,.
KAx/K˜).
me ro - C K p b I T a f l (ro = 2500
Tenno-ra nap006pa30BaHUfl


517.2. M3OEPA)KEHHE IlPOUECCOB OPPAPOTKM B03AYXA
B i - d-AMATPAMME


P a c q e ˜N a ˜ a n u 3npoueccoB 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜˜03nyxanpowe u a a r n ˜ n ˜ e f i
u
nPON3BOANTb ˜ P ˜ @ O ˜ H ˜ J I U T M ' ˜ ˜ CnyTeM C IIOMOUlbK) i - d - ˜ ˜ a r p a ˜ ˜ b ˜
KNM
BJIaXHOrO BO3nyXa, Ha K O T O P O ˜ ˜
rpa@uqec˜u npencTaeneHb1 3aau-
CHMOCTM MeXAy OCHOBHbIMN na-
paMeTpaMu ˜ o s n y x a .C x e ˜ a - i
d-nkiarpa˜˜b˜ BJIaXHOrO BO3AyXa
npencTasneHa H pnc. 17.1. a
Ha nuarpaMMy HaHeceaa ceTKa
BepTUKaJIbHbIX nuaufi d = const
U J I k i ˜ U f ii = const, IIpOBeAeHHbIX
n0n HeKOTOPblM YrJIOM K JIHHNRM
d = const. 0 6 b 1 q ˜ 03TOT yrOJI
IlpUHNMaloT PaBHbIM 135".
J u a u u t = corst H i - d- a
AHarpaMMe npeACTaBJIHlOT co6oii
npRMbIe JM M , HeMHOrO PaCXO-
IHU
ARUlMeCR no Mepe yBeJIUqeHHR
BnaroconepxaHaR. K ˜ o M T˜N X ˜
J I u H N ˜Ha i - d - n k i a r p a ˜ ˜ y Ha-
˜
HeCeHbI J I N H N N I I O C T O R H H O ˜OTHO1-
˜
Pwc.17.3. Onpenenen˜eTeMnepaTypN
no CMOseHHOMy TepMOMeTpy
BO3n)'Xa ti
TeMneparypN T O ˜ K HP O C ˜ Ino i - d - A H -
arpaMMe


H O r O B 0 3 A y X a . J I e r K O n O C T P O U T b no T a 6 n k i q a ˜
CBOWCTB B 0 3 A y X a H a JlUHUH H a C b I -
U e H U F I . ˜ U H U H = O C O B n a A a e T C B e p T U K a n b I o d=O. A n R l I O C T p 0 e H U R J I U H U ˜
q
cp=const B H ˜ H ˜ C ˜ I U I ˜ o 6H O c˜˜˜uM O X H O O T p e 3 K U J I u H u ˜f=const M e X n y
H na ˜
cp=O U cp= 1 p a 3 6 u ˜ b a p a B H b I e I0 q a c T e f i U IIOJTyYeHHble T O q K U COeAUHUTb.
H
Ha PUC. 17.1 y C J l O B H 0 H a H e C e H b I TOJlbKO JIHHUU (P = 0,l; (P = 0,3; (P = 0.5
u cp= 1.
B o 6 n a c ˜ un e p e H a c H m e H H o r o ˜ o s n y x a ,
nexamefi npasee n a H u u cp = 1,
n u H u u i = const n p o n o n x a I o T c R u3 ˜ e ˜ a c ˜ m e 0 6 n ao ˜ u6e3 u 3 ˜ e ˜ e -
˜ ˜ ci i
HUH yrna H a K n O H a , a JlUHHU f = C O ˜ S ˜ JIUHUU cp = 1 IIpeJIOMJlRIoTCR
Ha
UAYT B O ˜ J I ˜ C T n e p e ˜ a c b ˜ m e ˜m uo j i o c T u non n p y r u M Y ˜ J I O M K ropu-
u ˜ nK
W
t
3 0 H T a J I b H 0 f i JIUHUU ( ˜ u c 17.2). ˜ H H U R = 0°C B n e p e H a ˜ b 1 m e H H 0 8o6nac-
.
TU n e P e X O A U T B A B e U 3 0 T e P M b I : f = O°C A J R BOARHOl'O T y M a H a U t = 0°C
n J R J I e n R H O r O T y M a H a . Mexny HUMH J I e X U T O ˜ J I ˜ CCMeUlaHHOI'O (BOAFI-

HOrO U J ' I ˜ ˜ R H o I ' o ) T y M a H a ( ˜ ˜ U I T P H X O B ˜ H H M ˜ T O ˜ ) B H U X H ˜ Ya˜ TH ˜C
C˜K .
A H a r p a M M b I I l p U B e A e H a KPMBaR naPUUaJIbHbIX A ˜ B J ˜ ˜ BOARHHX n a p O B HH˜
p,". ˜ O C K O J ˜ K Y H a q e H U e P, O n H 0 3 H a q H O O n p e n e J I R e T C R COOTBeTCTByIo-
3
UUM B n a r o c o A e p m a H u e M ˜ o s n y x a ,u c K o M o e 3 ˜ a q e ˜ u e M o x H o H ˜ ˜ TB H
p,
T o w e n e p e c e q e H u R 3 a n a ˜ ˜ o 1s o a s e c y ˜ a 3 a ˜ ˜K P i iB O ˜ ˜ .
-˜ ˜u˜ oH
d,
˜ O C K O J I ˜ K Y i N P 3 a B H C R T OT ˜ ˜ P O M ˜ T P H Y ˜ C K a B˜ OH U R , AJlR K a X -
A O Ae
nor0 er0 3 H a 9 e H H R A O J I X H B 6 b I T b CBOR i - d - n l i a r p a ˜ ˜ O.A H ˜ K Oa BJIHRHHe
6 a p o ˜ e ˜ p u q e c K o n a B J e H U R H e CTOJIb BeJIUKO, 1 1 0 3 T 0 M y n J I H 0 6 b I q H b I ˜ P a C -
ro
qeTOB K O H ˜ U q U O H U P O B a H U R nOJIb3YIoTCFI AUarPaMMaMH, ITOCTPOeHHbIMH
n n R naene˜uii B = 0,099 M n a (745 M M PT. CT.) unu B = 0,101 M n a
(760 M M PT. CT.).
C O C T O R H B n˜a x H o r o ˜03nyxa B i - d - m a r p a t m e x a p a ˜ ˜ e p u 3 y e ˜ c
N
TOYKOA, nexaqeii H a n e p e c e r l e H u u c o o T s e T c T B y r o m u x n ˜ y x u ˜ u f i :d = const
n
H i = const nu60 d = const a i = const u T. n. H a H e c R 3 ˜ T O ˜ K MOXHO y ˜,
n p O q H T a T b 3 H a q e H U R O C T a J b H b I X n a p a M e T p O B . Ecnu T O l l K a J l e X U T M e X n y
JIUHUFIMH, 06pa3y1omu˜u c e T K y n u a r p a M M b 1 , 3 ˜ a q e ˜ au a˜ e T p o B H a x o -
npM
ART UHTepIlOJUpOBaHUeM.
Ha HeKOTOPbIX n U a r p a M M a X H a H e C e H b l JIHHBU nOCTORHHbIX 3 H a s e H U f i T e M -
t
n e p a T y p b 1 ˜ 0 3 n y X ano C M O s e H H o M Y T e p -
M o M e T p y t,. ˜ T JTUHUU n p a K T H 4 e C K u COB-
U
t2
n a n a I o T c n u H u s r M u i = const. ˜ O ˜ T O M Y ,
e C J U JINHUU tM H e H a H e C e H b I , AJIR O n p e -
A e J I e H U R tM H Y X H O U 3 3 a n a ˜ ˜ 0 f i TOqKU
c ˜ c T O R H U R B 0 3 A Y X a A B U r a T b C R no f l u H H u , tf
napannenb˜oii = const, no ee nepecese-
i
H U R c n u ˜ u e i i = 1. T e ˜ n e p a ˜ y p a m -
cp Ha
LL(eHHOr0 ˜ o s ˜ y B a o w e n e p e c e q e H u H H
xT
6 y ˜ e TM C K O M O ˜ T ˜ M ˜ ˜ P ˜ T tu P O ˜ ˜
Y (PUC.
˜
17.3).
˜ J I R aXOXneHUR TeMnepaTypbI TOs-
H
-
KU POCM tp H y X H O U 3 3 a ˜ a ˜ ˜ TOgKN 0fi
COCTORHUR B 0 3 A Y X a A B U r a T b C R B e p T U -
K a n b H o BHUB AO nepeceseuun c n u ˜ u e f i
cp = 1. T e ˜ n e p a T y p Z i H a C b l U e H H O r O B 0 3 -
nepeceyeHuR RBnReTcR
'yxa Pkfc.17.4. M ˜ M ˜ H ˜ H H ˜BO3HyXa
COCTOHHHH
u c ˜ o ˜ o˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ y pto i i p.
ii npn OAHOBpeMeHHOM Harpeaannn H Y B -
l l p n H a r p e s a H u u unu oxnaxneauu nameHun
B O 3 n Y X a 6e3 A O ˜ ˜ B J I ˜ H M R U y A a n e -
Un
HUH U 3 H e r 0 KaKOTO - T O KOAHYeCTBa BOARHbIX n a p O B IIPOHCXOAUT TOJlbKO
U 3 M e H e H U e T e M n e p a T y p b I B O 3 A y X a 6e3 U3MeHeHUFI er0 B J I a r O C O n e P X a H U R .
Tenno˜y,n e p e A a H H y I 0 B O 3 A y X y UJIH OTHRTYH) OT H e r o , H a 3 b I B a H ) T R B H O ˜ ˜
( ˜ y x o i i ˜ e n n o ˜ o Q,. T a ˜ o ˜ npoueccb˜H a r p e a a H u R ˜ o s n y x aB B O ˜ A Y -
) fi bl
x o H a r p e a a T e n e , H a r p e e a H u R ˜ o s n y x aB n o M e u e H u u B c n e n c T B u e T e n n o n p u -
TOKOB sepes H a p y x H b I e o r p a x n e H u H , OT c o n ˜ e s ˜ opannauuu, OT p a 6 0 ˜ a m -
fi
u u x s n e ˜ ˜ p o ˜ s u r a ˜ eun T. i i e n.
A o 6 a s n e ˜ u eB B O ˜ A ˜BX a r u ( y s n a x ˜ e ˜ u e s n y x a )unu y n a n e H u e ee
˜o
n
W ( B KT'/C) p a B H 0 3 H a Y H O
113 B 0 3 A Y X a ( O C Y W ˜ H UB O ˜ A Y X ˜ B K O J I H q e C T B e
˜ )
UJIU YAaJIeHHH) C K P ˜ I T O T e˜ n O T b l QcKp B KBT):
AO˜˜BJI˜HUI˜ (
˜n

= Wry
QcKP
me r - TennoTa n a p o o 6 p a 3 o ˜ a ˜(w ˜ 2500
r= K&K/K˜).

C ˜ p b l ˜ o 3 T y T e n n O T y H a 3 b l B a H ) T IIOTOMy, q T O O H a K a K 6b1 3 a n a C e H a B
fi
BOARHOM nape U BbIAeJIReTCR B B O 3 n y X I I p U K O H n e H C a u U H B O n R H b I X I I a p O B
unu s a ˜ p a s u s a e ˜ c ˜ n c n a p e H u u B o n b r B ˜ 0 3 n y x .
npn
˜ O J H OKOJIUseCTBO n o 6 a s n ˜ e ˜ o f i UJlA y ˜ a J I R e ˜ 0 fTie n J I O T b I Q, p a B H 0
˜
C y M M e R B H O ˜U CKPMTOA TenJIOTbI:
˜



n ˜ e ˜Ka ˜ 0 3 n y x y T e n n o T a c s u T a e T c R n o n o x u T e n b -
llpu TOM n o 6 a s
a Y A a n R e M a R - 0 ˜ p U u a ˜ e J I b ˜ o f i 3 H a K O M a-B) .
˜ 0 f i(CO 3 H a K O M a + > ) , (CO
n p u ˜ e n n o e n a x ˜ o c ˜ 0 6 p ia 6 0 ˜ ˜˜ o s n y x a ,H a n p u M e p n o 6 a ˜ n e ˜ u e ˜
˜oi e
R B H O ˜ T e n J O T b I Q , ( B KBT) U BOARHOrO napa W, 3 H T a n b n H R K O T O p O r O
˜
ilor B O ˜ A Y X n e p e j i ˜ e u s COCTORHUR, x a p a ˜ ˜ e p u 3 y e ˜ oTroo K a M u d l , t l ,
˜ s
B COCTORHUe d2, t 2 (PUC. 17.4). Ecnu n p U 3TOM M ˜ C C O B ˜ a C X˜ A o6pa- PI ˜ O
M,, ( B KT/C),
6 a T b I B a e ˜ 0 r 0B 0 3 n Y X a TO




unu
m e il n i2; dl w d˜ - ynenbean s n ˜ a n b n wn BnaroconepmaHwe ˜ o s n y x aB Haqane H K O H U ˜
˜
npouecca 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ n, ; - ynenbeae smanbnnn Bonbr nnn napa, ˜ c n o n b s y e ˜nnsl
˜x
i
YBJlaXHeHkiR BO3nyXa.
B e n u s u ˜ yE ( B K A ; ; < / K ˜ ) H a 3 b I B a I O T T e I I J I O B J I a X H O C T H b I M O T H O U l e H A e M ,
UJIN Y r J O B b I M K O ˜ @ @ M U U ˜ H T O M . b l p a ˜ e ˜(17.14) e C T b Y p a B H e H U e n p R -
B ˜e
˜ 0 f i I U H U U . T ˜ K U 0 6 p a 3 0 ˜ ,n p O q e C C U 3 M e H e H N R I I ˜ ˜ ˜ M ˜ BT 3 A y XB B
M
J O˜ o a
i - d - n u a r p a ˜ ˜ues o 6 p a x a e ˜ c n p ˜ ˜ o n i ˜ n e f i , H a n p a s n e H u e ˜ o ˜ o p o i i
in
˜
X a p a K T e p U 3 y e T C R 3Ha.IeHUeM T e n J O B J I a X H O C T H O r O OTHOUleHUR.
Ans y n o 6 c ˜ ˜I aO C T p O e H U R I I p O U e C C O B U 3 M e H e H U R C O C T O R H U R B 0 3 n y X a
I
+
H a i- d - A u ˜ ˜ P ˜ HaHeCeHbl 3HarIeHNR E OT - W A0
MM˜ B BUAe
W
t
I I y s K a ˜ y s e f i , U C X O A R U U X N 3 H Y J ˜ ˜ B TOYKU A U a r P a M M b I (i = 0, = 0,
O˜˜
d = 0 ) . O ˜ H ˜ K 1 ˜ ,0 6 63 T U J I Y g U H e M e U l a J I U OCHOBHbIM J I H H U R M , H a H O -
˜O 1
C R T T O J I b K O K O H U b I J I y ˜ l e f i H a n O A R H M ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ M M ˜ B b I R ˜ HT T b ˜ a˜n p a B J e -
I . C UO H I
H u e n p O q e C C a C T e n J I O B n a X H O C T H b I M O T H O U l e H U e M E, H Y X H O H a n O n R X
- n n a r p a ˜ ˜ b˜ a f i ˜ u H e u nysa c ˜ T U M ˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H NC ˜ eM u, H u T b ero
i -d l Ko on
t
C U e H T P O M K O O P A N H a T (i = 0, d = 0, = 0 ) N npOBeCTU U 3 TOgKN H a 4 a J b -
H o r o COCTORHMR ˜ 0 3 n y x a l , il JIUHUIO, I i a p a n n e n b H y l o TO MY nysy-npoueccy.
d
˜ U H U U O 3 M O X H O T O U 3 M e H e H H R COCTORHUR B J l a X , H O F O B O 3 A y X a B pe3)'JIb-
B
T a T e p a 3 J H s H b I X B U n O B er0 T ˜ I I ˜ O B ˜ ˜ X H O C T 0 6 p a 6 o ˜ ˜H a H e C e H b I H a
u
HO˜˜
puc. 17.5. n p u H a r p e s a H u u unn o x n a x n e H u u ˜ o s n y x a 6e3 n o n B o n a unu
O T B O n a B J I a r U W = 0, a C J I e A O B a T e J I b H O , U i, = 0. B 3 T O M C J I Y Y a e E = + W .
n p u E = ˜u ( < c y x o e > > H a r p e s a H n e c ˜ O M O U ˜ K )˜ 0 3 n y x o ˜ a r p e ˜ a ˜ e n ˜ )
npo-
A
qecc u A e T no n u H u a d = const m e p x ( ˜ M H U R - I ) . n p u c y x o ˜oxnax-
A e H U U E = - W, T . e. n p O q e C C U n e T B H N 3 n 0 J l N H U U d = C O ˜ S (JIUHUR A -4).
˜
Ecnu B 0 3 A Y X Y B J I a X H R e T C R I I a p O M UJIU ˜0n0fi6e3 O n H O B p e M e H H O r O H a -
r p e B a H u R , TO Q, = 0 u y p a B H e H u e (17.14) n p u H u M a e T B u n




T ˜ K U M paso˜,e c J I n
06 yBna>r<He-
H H e O C y U e C T B A R e T C R H a C b I U e H H b I M HJlU
n e p e r p e ˜ b ˜p˜ M , y n e n b H a R s w a m -
na o
HUH KOTOpOrO P a B H a 2600-2900 K,&K/Kr,
JIUHUR U 3 M e H e H U R COCTORHUR B 0 3 A y X a
J l U L U b H e M H O r O O T K n O H R e T C R O T AMHUM
=
t = const, ˜o˜opofi E
nnR
KAX/K˜.
E 2500 ˜ T U MO T K J I O H e H U e M
npe˜e6pesb u C s n T a T b , TO
MOXHO
IIpU yBJIaXHeHUU B O 3 n y X a n a p O M TeM-
n e p a T y p a B KoHnusuoHupyeMoM noMe-
U e H U N H e U3MeHReTCR, a IlpOqeCC
U3MeHeHUR COCTORHUR B03HYXa B
n p o u c x o n n T no n N -
i -d - n N a r p a M M e
H U N t = const (JINHUR A - 2). Teope-
T U Y e C K U B 0 3 A Y X M O X e T 6 b 1 ˜ bY B J l a X -
H e H A 0 COCTORHUR IIOJIHOrO H a C b I U e -
P N C . 17.5. M ˜ M ˜ HCOCTORHHR˜ BO3nyXa
˜HN
no-
2")
npn pa3nnsnblx Bunax e r o TennoenaxwocT- HUH ( T O ˜ K ˜ 9 O A H ˜ K O 3 ˜ 0 ˜ 0
HOA 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ w . CTUYb O q e H b TPYAHO, II03TOMY n p a K -
+
85% ( T O Y K ˜ 2 ' ) .
TUYeCKU B 0 3 A Y X M O X e T 6 b 1 ˜ b Y B J I a X H e H A 0 (P = 90
n p ˜B J I a X H e H U U p a c n b l J I R e ˜ 0 f i ˜onofi,Y C B O R ˜ M OBO3AYXOM 6e3 O C T a T K a ,
˜˜
Y
E = i, = 4,19tw. ˜ O ˜ T O MnY U y B J I a X H e H U U B O A O ˜ H y J I e ˜ o f i T e M I I e p a T y p b I
˜
p
I I p O U e C C U A e T IIO JIUHUU C & -- 0, T . e. I t 0 JIUHUU i = const. O ˜ H ˜ KO
0 6 6 1 9 ˜ 0 t , = 15 j 2O0C U I I p O q e C C A A e T IIOA H ˜ ˜ o J I ˜ U I U M
YrJIOM K JIUHUU
i = const. C A O C T ˜ T O Y H O ˜ ˜ TOYHOCTblo M O X H O C Y H T a T b , q T O n p U Y B J I a X -
nlo6ofi ˜ a Y a J I b ˜ 0 f T e M n e p a T y p b I
p a ˜ n b l J I R e ˜ 0 f iBOAOA
HeHUU B03AyXa i
n p O U e C C y B J I a X H e H H R H R e T IIO JIUHUU i = const ( J I u H u R A - 3 ) . ˜ ˜ O U ˜ C C
o x n a x a e H u R u y B n a x H e H u R ˜ o s ˜ y x p u i = const H ˜ ˜ ˜ I B ˜ a˜ T a 6 R -
na ˜u C a
TUYeCKUM.
B npeaene C o c T o R H u e ˜ 0 3 ˜ y xnpu a n u a 6 a ˜ u ˜ e co ˜ noa ˜ n e H u u MO-
a x x
JN H a K P U B O ˜ ˜ = 100%. T e ˜ n e p a ˜ y pB O 3 A y X a Ba
(P
X e T AOCTUYb TOYKU
no CMOYeHHOMy T e p M O M e T p y tM.
3 ˜ 0 f i T O Y K e RBJIReTCR ˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ y p ˜ f i
A n u a 6 a ˜ u ˜ e c ˜ o J I a X A e H U e U Y B J I a X H e H U e B O 3 A y X a OCyLUeCTBJIRloTCR H e
OXe
TOJIbKO I I p U Y B J I a X H e H U U p a c I I b l J I e ˜ ˜ 0 f ˜ 0 ˜ 0 6 I O M O W b l o MeCTHbIX AO-
i CI
˜ B J I ˜ X H U T ˜ y C T˜ H a˜ J l U B a e M b 1 X H e n O C p e A C T B e H H O B K O H A U ˜ U O H U P Y e M b I X
J I a˜ B,
n o M e u l e H u R x , HO u npu o p o u r e H u u ˜ o s n y x a ˜onofiB K a M e p a x o p o u r e H u R
UJIU r p a A M p H R X . B P e a J I b H b I X J'CJIOBURX B O 3 A y X H e M O X e T AOCTUYb IIOJIHO-
r0 HaCbILUeHUR, I l 0 3 T O M y K O H e Y H b l e I I a p a M e T p b I B O 3 A y X a X a p a K T e p U 3 y l o T -
C R H e T O Y K O ˜3", a T O Y K O ˜3'.
A -5
J U H U U- O C y I U e H M e B O 3 A y X a I I y T e M O p O I I I e H H R X U A K U M c o p 6 e ˜ -
A
TOM ( ˜ a n p ˜ ˜ BOAHbIM P a C T B O P O M XJIOPUCTOrO J U T U R ) . ˜ ˜ U H M R - 6 -
ep,
O C y U I e H U e B O 3 A y X a I l y T e M er0 I I p O A y B a H U R qepe3 c J I 0 f i T B e p R O r O C O P ˜ ˜ H T ˜
( ˜ a n p u ˜ e c u n u ˜ a r e n.˜ )
p,
Oco6brfi U H T e p e C I I p e A C T a B J I R e T 3aIUTpUXOBaHHaR O ˜ A ˜ C T rpaHUYeH- O˜ ,
HEIR K a C a T e J I b H b I M U , I I p O B e A e H H b I M U U 3 T 0 9 K U A K JIUHUU (P= 100%.
TO - 0 6 n a c ˜ b B 0 3 M O X H O T O U 3 M e H e H U R COCTORHUR B O 3 A y X a I I p U O p O U e -
HUN er0 ˜ 0 ˜ 0 UJIM n p U O X J I a X & e H U U B n O B e p X H O C T H O M B O 3 A y X O O X J I a A U T e -
fi
K˜K = - N npouecc n p o a c x o n u T no natiuu
ne. o T M e Y a n c c b paaee, npa
d = const B H U ˜no H a n p a m e H u l o K n u H u u cp = 100%. 3 ˜ - npoqecc cy- o
xoro o x n a x n e H u R ˜ o s ˜ y x o c y ˜ e c ˜ ˜ n ˜ e a n b a˜ ie i ,, c ˜ O M O U ˜ H ˜ 0 3 -
a, R˜ p M p )
A y X O O X J I a A U T e J I R , I t 0 T P Y ˜ K ˜ K O T O P O r O I I p O T e K a e T B O A a C p a B H M T e J I b H O BbI-
M
C O K O ˜T˜e M n e p a T y p b I . ˜ P O X J I a X A e H U U OT B O 3 A y X a O T H U M a e T C R FIBHaR T e n -
U
J I O T a , er0 3 H T a J I b n U R U T e M n e p a T y p a Y M e H b U I a l o T C R , a O T H O C U T e J I b H a R B J I a X -
nposecc cyxoro o x n a x n e H u h ˜ o s n y x a M O -
H O C T ˜y B e m i 9 u B a e T c R . O A H ˜ K O
, X e T I I p O A O J I X a T b C R TOJIbKO A 0 T e M n e p a T y p b l , n p U K O T O P O ˜ ˜ 0 3 A Y X C T a H e T
B
H a C b I U l e H H b I M ( T O ˜ K ˜ H a JIUHUU (P = 100%). 3 ˜ T e M n e p a T y p a H a 3 b I -
a
B a e T c R ˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ y pTOYKU P O C ˜ I . Aanb˜efiueeo x n a x n e H u e ˜ a c b ˜ q e ˜ ˜
ofi oro
˜ o s n y x anpu o p o u r e H u u ero X O J I O A H O ˜ ˜ O A O ˜ UJIU P a c c o J I o M , T e M n e p a T y p a
B ˜
KOTOPbIX H U X e TOZIKU POCbI O X J I a X A a e M O r O B 0 3 A y X a , ˜ Y A ˜ O I I p O B O X A a T b -
CT
r). np˜

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