<< . .

. 15
( : 20)



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CR B b I n a A e H U e M U 3 H e r 0 B J I a r U ( ˜ ˜ O U ˜4" - CC 3TOM K XJlaAOHO-
CUTeJIW n e p e A a e T C R H e TOJIbKO RBHaFI T e I I J I O T a Q,, O T H U M a e M a R OT B O 3 A Y X a
I I p U I I O H U X e H U U er0 T e M I I e p a T y p b I , HO U C K P b I T a R T e I I J I O T a QCKp, BbIAeJIRIO-
U a R C R I I p U K O H A e H C a U U U BOARHbIX I I a p O B .
TOT Xe I I p O U e C C M O X e T 6 b 1 ˜ b OCYWeCTBJIeH n y T e M O X J l a X A e H U R B O 3 A y -
X a B IIOBePXHOCTHOM B 0 3 A y X O O X J I a A U T e J I e , T e M n e p a T y p a n O B e p X H O C T U KOTO-
poro H u x e TOYKU P O C ˜ I O x a a x A a e M o r o B O ˜ A Y X ˜ECAUnpu TOM T e M n e p a -
.
T y p a n O B e p X H O C T U H U X e H y J I R , TO B b I A e J I R l o u l a R C R U 3 B O 3 A y X a B J I a r a 6y-
A e T O C a X A a T b C R H a 0 ˜ J I a X ˜ a I O l 4 e fIIOBepXHOCTM B B U A e U H e R ( c I $ ˜ ˜ o B ˜ H
i
ruy6a).
˜ P u 3 0 6 p a ˜ e ˜ un P 0 U e C C O B O A H O B P e M e H H O r O O X J I a X A e H U R M O C y I l l e -
u
U
d - n ˜ a r p a ˜( ˜ ˜ K T O 1) BMeCTO n O C J I e A O B a T e J I b H 0
Ce
HUH B 0 3 A y X a B i - ˜
r
IIpOUCXOARLUUX I I p O U e C C O B A - 4" U 4" - IIPOBOAHT J I U H U l o A - V , CO-
e A U H R I O U I y I O T O ˜ K U xapa˜˜epu3ylo1.uue s a n b H o e u K O H e q H O e COCTORHHR B 0 3 -
, Ha
T o Y K a K", H a ˜ o ˜ o p yO p n e H -
nyxa. m
T u p o B a H npoqecc, n e x n T H a nepece-
4 e H U U JWHHW cp = 100% C U3OTep-
M O ˜ , C ˜ O T B ˜ T C T B Y D U ˜p ˜ ˜ ˜Te M -i
˜ ˜e ef
I I e p a T y p e ˜ a p y X ˜ 0 nOBepXHOCTki ( n p ˜
fi
O X J I a X n e H U U B IIOBePXHOCTHOM B 0 3 -
unu B a ˜ a p e ˜ ˜ u ),
nyxooxnannTene
unu T e M n e p a T y p e s b ˜ x o n ˜ u r e f iB o n b r
( n p u O X J I a X A e H H U C IIOMOLLlbH) K a M e p b l
o p o r u e ˜ u.˜ ) A H ˜ K Oe a n b m x anna-
O Bp
p a T a x H e B 0 3 M O X H O AOBeCTU BO3AYX
a0 n O J I H O r 0 H a C b I U e H U R , n 0 3 T O M Y COC-
T O R H H e B O 3 A Y X a H a BbIXOAe H 3 anna-
KI, nexa-
p a T a onpenenReTcR TOYKO˜˜
K"
ueii H a n e p e c e q e H u u n u H u n A -
c ˜ p n ˜ o cp= 80+95% ( B aasucu-
fi
Pnc.17.6. kktobpance˜nenpoqeccoe cueme- M°CTu OT COCTORHuR B03-
A y X a U KOHCTPYKQMM B03AYXOOXJlaAU-
BO3AyXa B i - d - A H ˜ ˜ P ˜ M M ˜
HHR
en^). 3 ˜ T ea n e˜ a T y p y B T o w e K",
M p
M O X H O O I I p e A e n N T b H a Y a J l b H y I o U KOHeYHYIo T e M n e p a T y p b l x J I ˜ A O H O C H T ˜ ˜ R
unu T e M n e p a T y p y K u n e H n R xnanarewa, ˜ e o 6 x o ˜ ˜ nnn l oec y u e c T s n e H u R
˜b
EITO˜-o npouecca.
M ˜ M ˜ H COCTORHHR BO3AYXa B I l p e A e J l a X C e K T O p a If ( O A H O B p e M e H -
˜HH˜
H o e O x n a m n e H u e M y ˜ n a x ˜ e ˜ A oe T n r a e T c R n y T e M O p o w e H n f i ero BOAOR,
u c)
T e M n e p a T y p a t , ˜ o ˜ o p o B b I r u e T e M n e p a T y p b I TOYKU P O C ˜ I B o s A y x a t,, HO
ii
H M X e er0 T e M I I e p a T y p b l no CMOYeHHOMY T e p M O M e T p y t M .
npki t , B b I U l e t,, HO H U X e t, 3 H T a J b n N R B 0 3 A y X a IIOBbIUlaeTCR, a T e M n e -
Ill). n p n o p o w e H u n ˜ o s n y x a ropmefi
p a T y p a ero n o H u x a e T c R ( c e ˜ ˜ o p
B O A O ˜OH O A H O B p e M e H H O H a r p e B a e T C R u Y B n a X H R e T C R ( C ˜ K T O V ) .

˜
Ecnu BO3AYX H e M O X e T 6 6 1 ˜ 6I e p e B e A e H N 3 OAHOrO COCTORHUR B A p y r O e
I
C I I O M O U b K ) OAHOrO I13 y K a 3 a H H b I X IIPOUeCCOB, 3 T 0 M O X H O OCYUleCTBUTb ny-
T e M C O Y e T a H U R HeCKOJbKHX BUAOB 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ u .
O ˜ H UU 3 P a C I I p O C T p a H e H H b I X cnoco6o˜I I e p e B O n a B 0 3 n y X a U 3 OfiHOrO
M
COCTORHMR B A P Y r O e RBJIReTCR C M e U l e H u e nOTOKOB BO3AYXa C Pa3JlHYHbIMU
( ˜ a n p u ˜ e pH,a p y X H O I ' O B O 3 A y X a C ˜ ˜ ˜ U P K Y J I R ˜ M O H H ˜ I M ) .
napaMeTpaMH
n p o ˜ e c cc M e m e H u n ˜ o s n y x aB i - d - ˜ ˜ a r p an ˜ 0˜ p a x a e ˜ c n p ˜ ˜ o f i
3 6e ˜
n n ˜ n e i i ,coenn˜slrouefiTOYKU, x a p a ˜ ˜ e p u 3 y r o r ˜Cuo ec T o m u e C M e m n B a e M b I x
IIOTOKOB. ˜ Y C T ˜ a, I I p N M e p , ˜ a p y X ˜ b 1 f iO 3 n y X B KOJIUYeCTBe MH ( B M ˜ / c )
H B
M,
c n a p a M e T p a M u TOYKH H C M e u I u B a e T c R c ( B M ˜ / c )p e u u p K y n R u u o H H o r o
˜ o s ˜ y x noc-rynamuero c n a p a M e T p a M n T o w n I7 (puc. 17.6). Heo6xonu˜o
a,
H ˜ B T ACOCTORHNe CMeCU ( T O Y K ˜ C).
TOYKU M O X H O BbIYUCnUTb no @ o ˜ M Y J I ˜ M :
n a p a ˜ e ˜ p 3˜0fi
bl
.
MHiH+Mni,
LC =
+ Mn (17.16)
MH
˜ + Mndn
M d˜
d, =
+ Mn
MH (17.17)
I I O C K O J I ˜ K ˜Tows c M e c n n e m u T H a n p a ˜ o f i ,c o e n u ˜ ˜ r o q e TOYKU H
fi
n, n O C T a T O Y H 0 BbIYUCJlMTb O n H H M3 ee n a p a M e T p O B (ic UJIU d c ) .
H
npW CMelrreHUH M O X e T H M e T b MeCTO c J l y Y a G , K O r A a TOYKa, X a p a K T e -
p U 3 Y I O ˜ a R COCTORHWe CMeCH C', O K a X e T C R B 0 6 n a c ˜ u y M a H a . B 3TOM cny-
T
Y a e B O 3 n Y X R B n R e T C R H a C b I U e H H b I M , a er0 COCTORHHe X a p a K T e p k i 3 y e T C R
T O Y K O ˜ , nexauefi H a n e p e c e q e H u u n n ˜ u f i = 1 u ic=const, T. e. TOY-
cp
K 0 i i C".
A k i n J I o M ˜ b l f i n p O e K T CI(B P e K O M e H A y e T C R BblnOJIHRTb B cJIeAyIOL4efi
nOCJIeA0BaTeJIbHOCTH:
1. M ˜ Y ˜ Ma A a H H e H a n p O e K T H p O B a H H e , n 0 ˜ 0 6 p a ˜Jb M T e p a T y p H b I e H
3 T˜ I
C n p a B O 9 H b I e A a H H b I e no Y C T P O ˜ ˜ C T B Y p a C 9 e l . y CKB.
U
2. M 3 y ' l l l ˜ b CTPOUTeJIbHbIe 9 e p T e X H 3 A a H H H HAM IIOMeUleHHR, AJIR KOTO-
p O r 0 I I p O e K T H p y e T C R CUB. n p H OTCYTCTBHM T a K H X 9 e p ˜ e I U e f i H ˜ O ˜ X O A H M O ,
n O J I b 3 y R C b C T P O H T e J I b ˜ M M N Z l e P T e X a M H aHaJIOTH'IHbIX 3 ˜ a ˜ H f COCTaBHTb yn-
i,
p o w e ˜ ˜ bn˜ f i H paspes n p o e K T u p y e M o r o n o M e u e H w i , ˜ b 1 6 p a ˜ b T e p H a J H
naH Ma
T O J I U H H M O r p a X A a I O U H X K O H C T P ˜ K U H R , 3 a A a T b C R 0 p H e ˜ ˜ a ˜ H CTeH 3 A a H H R
efi
no CTOPOHaM r O P U 3 O H T a . n p H ˜ b 1 6 0 p eCTPOHTeJIbHblX K O H C T P Y K U H ˜ H ˜ O ˜ X O -
AHMO YYHTbIBaTb, 9 T O TenJIOM30JIRUHR I I p e A y C M a T p H B a e T C R TOJIbKO AJIH n O M e -
lue˜afic ˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ y p 12°C u H M x e ( ˜ a ˜ ceo p p˜e ˜ a ˜ M P O B n ˜ . n . ) . 3 Cu ˜
oii
3. B b 1 6 p a T b p a C 9 e T H b I e I l a p a M e T p b I H a p y X H O r O U B H Y T P e H H e r O BOSAYXa,
O n p e A e J I H T b T e n J I O - H B J I a r O n P H T O K B KOHAHUHOHMPYeMOe I I O M e U e H H e , a T a K X e
3 H a 9 e H H e T e n J I O B J l a X H O C T H O r O OTHOLUeHHR ( Y M O B O ˜ O K O ˜ @ @ N ˜ N ˜ H T ˜ ) .
4. O n p e ˜ e J I k I ˜n b O H 3 B O A H T e J l b H O C T b CKB n 0 B 0 3 A Y X y H C y 9 e T O M BeJIH-
p
HaTPYBKH, H a 3 H a 4 e H N R CKB, KOJIH'ieCTBa KOHAHUUOHUPYeMMX
9HHbl T ˜ I I J I o B o ˜ ˜
n o ˜ e I l J . e ˜ H f i , B 0 3 M O X H O C T U p a 3 M e U l e H M F I O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H U F I KOHAMUMOHHPYeMOM
B
n O M e U l e H H A UJIH B H e er0 ˜ b 1 6 p a BUA CHCTeMbI KOH,LlH˜UOHHPOBaHHR B 0 3 A y X a
˜b
( M ˜ C T H Y I OHJIU U e H T p a J I b H y I O CKB; ˜ B T O H O M H KOHAHUMOHeP H n H C n p O M e -
˜I˜˜
X y T O Y H b I M XJIaAOHOCHTeJIeM; O A H O K a H a J I b H y l o HJIM A B y X K a H a J I b H y I O CKB;
nPFIMOT09HYIO HJIH C p e U l c p ˜ y J I ˜ ˜ k i B H iY T P e H H e r O B 0 3 A y X a M T.A.).
ef
5. C O C T ˜ B C X eT ˜ 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ O 3 A y X a , IIOCTPOHTb nPOUeCCb1 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ u
M My B˜˜
B O 3 A y X a B i- d - ˜ H a r p a ˜B ˜ I a X H O r O BO3AYXa H O n p e A e J I H T b H a T p y 3 K y
Je
H a OCHOBHbIe 3 J l e M e H T M CKB: B 0 3 A y X O O X J I a A H T e J l b U ˜ a J ' l ˜ p u @ e p 1 ˜ H 11 b
n O A O r p e B a ( ˜ c J I u OHH n p e A y C M O T p e H b 1 C X ˜ M O ˜ ˜ a 6 0 ˜ ˜ u ˜ A Y X ˜ ) .
06p BO
0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜Ba 3 A y X a B KOH&HllHOHepe npOBOAHTCR n y T e M em O X n a X -
O
B e H H R , OCyIIleHHR, Y B n a X H e H H R H H a r p e B a H U R , OCYUleCTBJIReMblX B p a 3 n ˜ q ˜ o f i
n O C n e A 0 B a T e n b H O C T H . B p e 3 y J l b T a T e BO3flyX n p H 0 6 p e ˜ a e a p a M e T p M , C KOTO-

PMMH OH AOJ'lXeH n O A a B a T b C F I B K O H A H ˜ H O H U P Y e M O en O M e U e H H e .
C T P Y K T ˜ P HC˜ IeOy CKB, K O T O P O ˜ ˜ ,B CBOK) O q e p e A b , COOTBeTCTBYeT
XM
n 3 0 6 p a x e ˜ n e p o u e c c o B 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ u s n y x a i - d - n w a r p a ˜ ˜c e c T a s n m o T
˜o o,
n B
AJIR ABYX P a C Y e T H b I X P e X H M O B - J I e T H e r O H 3HMHeTO. Han6onbu1ee B H H M a H U e
YAeJIHIOT C X e M a M J I e T H e r O KOHAHUHOHUpOBaHHR, O n p e A e J I e H H I O H a T P Y 3 K H H a
XOJIOAHJIbHyIO YCTaHOBKy, COCTaBJIeHHHJ CXeMM X O J I O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H H R , nOCKOJIbKy
AJIR C n e U H a J I b H O C T H 0565 r J I a B H b I M O ˜ X ˜ K T O I l P O e K T H P O B a H H R CJIyIUHT XO-
M
JIOAHJIbHaR YCTaHOBKa. B o n p o c ˜ ,C B H 3 a H H b I e C KOHAHUHOHHPOBaHHeM B 0 3 -
A y X a B 3kiMHHfi IIePHOA, n 0 COrJIaCOBaHHIO C PyKOBOAHTE!JIeM AHnJIOMHOrO
I l p O e K T a M O X H O P a C K P M B a T b B MeHbLUeM 06-be˜e.
6. Pacc'lki˜a˜b n o n 0 6 p a ˜ b OCHOBHbIe 3JIeMeHTbI CI(B ( B O ˜ A Y X O O X J I ˜ -
H
A n T e n b unn K a M e p y o p o m e H u R , ˜ a n o p n @ e p bB e,H T a r p e r a T , H a c o c b I , onpene-
˜
JIHTb C e 9 e H H R OCHOBHbIX T P Y ˜ O ˜ P O B O A O H BOSAYXOBOAOB). B
7. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT B ˜ I ˜ P ˜ HCHCTeMbI X O J I O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H HPR B e C T H nO
HO˜˜
IIOJIHMH T ˜ ˜ J I o B o A P a C s e T X O J I O A H J I ˜ H O YCTaHOBKN H n 0 ˜ 0 6 p a ˜AJIR H e e b
˜˜
OCHOBHOe H B C n O M O r a T e J I b H O e 0 6 0 p y ˜ o ˜ a ˜ H e .
8. C O C T ˜ B O KT H q a T e J I b H y I O C X e M y CKB CO C X ˜ M O ˜ J I O ˜ H J I ˜ HYO ˜ a -
H O˜ XO˜ CT ˜
HOBKU H ˜ P H H U N ˜ H ˜ J I ˜CHXO˜ ˜M O ˜ B T O M a T M 9 e C K O r O
˜ a˜ PeryJIHpOBaHHR
( ˜ 1-2
a ˜nc˜a).
M e T P O B H a P y X H O T O B O 3 A y X a IIPMHUMaIOT:
n n R n e T H e r o nepuona - T e M n e p a T y p y ˜ o s n y x a , 6onee B b I c o K o e s ˜ a q e ˜ u e
K O T O P O ˜B A a H H O M I I y H K T e C T p O U T e A b C T B a H ˜ ˜ J I D A ˜ ˜ 200 R B r 0 A y U M e H e e ,
˜ TC q
M TaKYIO 3 H T a A b n U I O B O s A y X a , 6onee BbICOKOe 3 H a q e H U e K O T O P O ˜ ˜ ˜a6n10na-
e T c R 200 s B rony M M e H e e ;
3 u ˜ ˜ e 1 -nepuona - C p e A H m t o T e M n e p a T y p y ˜ a u 6 o n e e x o n o ˜ ˜ o f i
o
nRTMAHeBKM M 3 H T a J l b n M I O B O 3 A y X a , C O O T B e T C T B y I O U y I O 3˜0fiT e M I I e p a T y p e
.
U c ˜ e n ˜ e O i H O C U T ˜ J I ˜ H B J˜ a X H O C T U C a M O r O XOJIOLIHOI'O M e C R U a B 13 9.
fT O I˜
.
3TMX P a C q e T H b I X n a p a M e T p O B , I I p U B e A e H H b I X B C H U ˜
COIIOCT˜BJI˜HU˜
2.04.05 - 86, C P a C Y e T H b I M N I I a P a M e T P a M U H a P Y X H O r O B 0 3 A y X a AJIR n p 0 e K -
T M p O B a H U R XOJIOAHJIbHbIX YCTaHOBOK I I O K a 3 b I B a e T , q T O OHU p a 3 J l N Y a l O T C R
M e X A y co6oii. O A H ˜ K T O p a 3 J I M q U e ˜ e 6 0 n b ˜ o e 0 3 T O M y AJlR Y Y ˜ ˜ H ˜ I X
3O n,
I I p O e K T O B AOllyCTUMO n p U H U M a T b p a C . l e T H b I e I I a p a M e T p b I H a p y X H O r O B O 3 A y X a
no n p u n o x e H u m 1.
non B o 3A y x a
pacqeTHbIMu napaMeTpaMM B H y T p e H H e r o nom-
M a D T T a K U e 3 H a q e H M R T e M n e p a T y p b I , O T H O C H T ˜ ˜ I ˜ H J l a X H O C T U M CKOPOCTU
BO ˜ ˜
A B M X e H M H B 0 3 n Y X a , KOTOPbIe A O J I X H b I I I O A A e P X M B a T b C F I B KOHAHUUOHUPy-
e M b I X I I O M e U e H M R X nu60 no TeXHOJlOrUqeCKMM T ˜ ˜ ˜ O B ˜ H U˜H M , M 36coo6pa- ˜ 0
X ˜ H MK O M @ O P T ˜ .
;
Ta6nuya 18.1
P a c r e ˜ napameTpta
˜˜e
BHyTpeHHerO BO3RyXa
nomeue˜nn
OTH˜CUT˜˜˜H˜
Teunepa˜ypa, C
" BnaXHOCTb, %

70 - 75
Uexn M R C H H X n o n v @ a b p n ˜ a ˜ ˜a npennpnn˜nnx 0 6 m e c ˜ s e ˜ -
o˜ 12
..
H r nHTaHHfl
OO
U ˜ XM˜˜GOK˜M˜˜˜H˜TOB.
H 12
ybon cKoTa n pasnenKn Tym, uex n o n y ˜ a b p n ˜ a r o s M ˜ ˜ ˜ H H H R
,
3an n unpuuoaoqnoe oTnenenne, cyunnbHMe Kauepta ˜ o n b a c
2-8
Kamepa ˜ o s n y ˜ ˜ l ˜ o r o
oxnamnennn ˜ a p e ˜ t a x
˜0n6aC
lIomeme˜nnnnn xpaHennn
aape˜tax˜ o n 6 a c 0- 8
12 - 15
BapeHO-KOn9eHHX K0nbaC
10 - 12
O˜nene˜ne nocona cblpos
8- 4
Kameobl co3oeaa˜nnC M D O B ( B ˜ ˜ B ˜ C ˜ MOT nx T n n a )
O C ˜˜




B n p a K T U K e IIpOeKTUpOBaHMH BCe n a p a M e T p b I B H Y T P e H H e r O B 0 3 A Y X a n p U -
HFITO C q U T a T b H a Y p O B H e ˜pa6ozrefi 3 0 H b I B - B B 0 3 n Y U I H O M I I p O C T p a H C T B e
a b 1 ˜ 0 ˜ 0 2 i - 2,2 M H a n IIOJIOM U J U l I J l ˜ U l . a ˜ ˜ ˜ H ia, KOTOPbIX HaXOARTCR pa-
f f
6osue M e C T a . P a c q e ˜ ˜ b lI Iea p a M e T p b I B H Y T P e H H e r O B 0 3 n y X a AJlH TeXHOJIOTU-
q e C K O r 0 K O H n M U A O H U P O B a H U R B 3aBUCUMOCTU OT H a 3 H a q e H M R I I O M e U e H U R
n p U B e n e H b I B ˜ a 6 5 1 . 18.1.
C ˜ o p o s ˜ b M X e H U R B 0 3 n y X a A J R BCeX I I o ˜ e U l e ˜ U f ie 6onee 0,4 M / C .
AB H
nM ˜ P O ˜ K T M P O B ˜YCTaHOBOK KOM@OPTHOTO K O H A U ˜ U O H U P O B a H U RB 0 3 -
p HM˜
A Y X a B X U J l b I X U O ˜ U ˜ ˜ C T B ˜ H 3H a HIM R X ( 3 a J I b 1 KMHOTeaTPOB, T e a T p O B , M a -
A˜ X
T a 3 U H O B , 0 6 e n e ˜ ˜ b 3 a J I b I n p e n n p ˜ ˜ ˜˜H˜ f˜ iH U R ) K a q e C T B e C l J l ˜ l t ˜ a J b ˜ ˜ f i
T
Ie B
˜ ˜ C W T H O T e M n e p a T y p b I BHYTPeHHerO B03AYXa A J R TenJlOrO n e p U O n a r O n a
A
0 cpen˜efi IlOJIOCe CCCP I I p U H M M a D T 22 - 25"C, a A J R ' I O X H ˜ I Xp a f i 0 ˜ 0 ˜ -
B ˜ I C O K e˜M˜n e p a T y p y , HO H e sbrrue 28°C. fin^ x o n o n H o r o n e p u o n a *
donee T
r O A a o ˜ T M M ˜ J I ˜ ˜ eo˜ n e p a ˜ y pBo f iT P e H H e r O B 0 3 A y X a CzIUTaWT 20 - 22OC.
H ˜˜ HY
B K a q e C T B e p a c q e ˜ ˜ o OiT H O C U T ˜ J I ˜ H O J˜I ˜ X H O C T U AJIR BCeX I I e p N O A O B ro-
f Ba
& a n p U H U M a l o T COOTBeTCTBeHHO 60 - 30%, I I p U 3TOM 6 0 J I b ˜ e f i p a c z I e ˜ ˜ 0 f i
T e M n e p a T y p e & O J I X H a C O O T B e T C T B O B a T b MeHbLLlaR OTHOCMTeJIbHaR B J I a X H O C T b .
C K O P O C T U Y ( e H U R B O 3 A y X a A O J I X H a 6 b r ˜ b e 6onee 0,25 M / C .
AB ˜ H


T n a ˜ a 19 .
PACqET TEflJIO- M BJIAFOIIPMTOKOB
M OllPEAEJIEHME KOJIMqECTBA IIOAABAEMOFO B 0 3 A Y X A
8 19.1. TEilJlOBJlA)KHOCTHbltl6AJlAHC KOH&HqHOHHPYEMOTO C I O ˜ E ˜ E H H ˜ ˜
P a c z I e ˜ ˜ b a pea M e T p b r ˜ o s n y x a K o H n u u u o H u p y e M b I x n o M e u e H u R x , T a K
n˜ B
Xe K a K U B K a M e P a X XOJIOAMJIbHUKOB, y C T a H a B J I U B a l o T C R UCXOAR W 3 p e 3 y J I b -
T a T O B n p M T O K a U OTBOJla T e n J I O T b I U B J I a r M U 3 3TMX n 0 ˜ e u e ˜ U f i .
OAH˜KO eCJIU n p U I I p O e K T M p O B a H U U XOJIOflMJIbHMKOB Y q M T b I B a J I U C b TOJIb-
, KO T e n J I O n P U T O K U , TO I I P U n P O e K T U P O B a H U M CKB O T n e J I b H O O n p e A e J I R l o T
TenJIOnpUTOKU (UJIU T ˜ ˜ J I o ˜ o T ˜B˜ u ) KOHAMUMOHUPYeMbIe I I O M e U e H U R U
O T A e J I b H O - B J I a r O n p U T O K U ( ˜ J I a r o n o ˜ e p U ) TO O ˜ % H C H R ˜ T CTH M , q T O B K a -
. e
M e p a x XOJIOnUJIbHUKa I I O j I A e p X U B a l o T B 3 a A a H H b I X n p e A e J I a X TOJlbKO T e M -
n e p a T y p y B H Y T P e H H e r O B O 3 A y X a , a OTHOCUTeJIbHaR B J I a X H O C T b C a M O y C T a -
H a s n M s a e T c R B npenenax 80 - 90% B p e 3 y n b ˜ a ˜6ea J I a ˜ c a B n a r o n o T e p b
u ˜naronoc˜ynne˜ufi.
B CKB aBTOMaTUzIeCKM IIOAqepXUBaloT B 3aAaHHbIX IIpeAeJIaX KaK TeM-
I I e p a T y p y , T a K M O T H O C U T e J l b H y l o B J I a X H O C T b , B C B R 3 U C q e M T P ˜ ˜ Y D T C S60-
I
J I e e T O q H b I e CBeAeHUR 0 COCTaBJIHloUMX BJlaXHOCTHOrO 6 a J I a ˜ c a .
K o J I M ˜ ˜ c T B o T e n J I O T b I , n0c˜ynaloUefi B KOHAUUUOHMPYeMOe n O M e U e H M e
( C O 3 H a K O M <<+>>)MJIU Y X O A R U l e e U 3 H e r 0 ( C O 3 H a K O M <<->>), ITOACqUTbI-
B a m T no @ o p ˜ y n e

z Q = QI + Q 2 + + (19.1)
Q3 Q4,
+ Q l c - T e n n o n p u T o K a qepes orpaxnatowue KOHCTPYKUHA, B ˜ I ˜ B ˜ Hpas- I ˜
rne Q I = Q I T H˜
H O C T b M T e M I I e p a T y p H a P Y X H O r O U B H Y T p e H H e r O B O a n y X a , H OT A ˜ ˜ ˜ C T B C O J I H ˜ Y H O ˜ ˜ H a -
NR Pan
UHH; Q 2 - TeIIJlOIIpHTOKH OT 0 6 p a 6 a ˜ b l ˜ a e ˜ b l ax e p H a J l O B ( O C T M B ˜ ˜ ˜ U H ˜ o n 6 a c ,Cbl-
MT X
POB, I I U U H H T. A , ) ; 4 3 - TeIIJlOIIpHTOKH C H P P Y X H b l M B O J n Y X O M , I I P O H H K a t o U U M B K O H n U -
4epe3 we-
U H O H H P Y e M O e I I O M e U e H H e C BeHTHJlRUHOHHblM BO3nYXOM HJlH OT H ˜ @ H J l b ˜ p a U k i k i
Q4 - 3 K C I I J l y t l T a U M O H H b l e T e n J l O n p H T O K N (OT Jllo-
JlH B O T P a X A a M U H X KOHCTPYKUHRX;
nefi, T e X H O J l O r H q e C K O r O O ˜ O ˜ ˜ ˜ O B ˜O C BHTR T, e J l b H b l X n p u d o p o ˜H T . II.).
HeH

06uee KOJIUzIeCTBO B J I a r U , I I O C T y n a l o U e e B B O 3 A y X KOHHUUUOHUPYeMO-
r0 I I O M e U e H U R (CO 3 H a K O M <<f >>) MJIU n O r J I O U a e M O e U 3 B 0 3 A y X a H a X O A R -
UUMMCFI B n O M e U e H U N M a T e p U a J I a M U (CO 3 H a K O M <<->>), I I O A C q U T b I B a e T C R
no @ o p ˜ y n e
+ ( 19.2)
f
ZW= W2 W3 W4,
me W 2 - B J l a r O I I p H T O K OT M a T e p H a J l O B ; W 3 - B J l a r O I I p H T O K C H a P Y X H b l M B 0 3 n Y X O M ; W 4 -
3 K C n J l y a T a U H O H H b l e B J l a r O I I p H T O K H (OT JllOnCll, T‚¬!XHOJlOrH˜eCKOrO O ˜ O ˜ ˜ ˜ O B ˜C HOTKPbl- HR,
TblX BOAHbIX I I O B ˜ ˜ X H O CH T . ˜ 4.). T˜ ˜




T e h n o n p ˜ ˜ orepes
˜n o r p a x n a l o u e e KOHCTPYK˜UH. O r p a x ˜ a l o u ˜ e KOH-
CTPYKUUM KOHAUUUOHMPyeMbIX n 0 ˜ e U e ˜ U XMJIbIX U O ˜ U ˜ C T B ˜ f i a H ˜i I X 3 H ˜Uf
fi
OTJIMzIaloTCFI OT 0 r p a X A e ˜ U f iXOJIOAAJIbHUKOB T e M , q T O OHM H e U M e l o T T e n J I O -
-
b
a
Puc.19.1. C x e ˜ a d ˜ e p aHapyxHHx o r p a x n e ˜ s i inps TennoTexHusecKux pacserax:
o
a - paspea ananmu, 6 - nnan. H C - Hapyxtian crena. 0 - O K O H H Y ˜ ˜n p 0 6 ˜ ; I l l - non, IIr - noronoa,

.
I - non Ha rpysse; 2 - non Ha narax. 9 - non nan nonnonaeu

M3OJlRUMM A I I O A P a 3 A e J I R -
TaBnuqa 19 I
IOTCR H a MaCCMBHyIO A C B e -
TOnpO3paqHyIO (CB˜TOB˜I˜
n p o e ˜ b ˜a c T u .
q)
O r p a x n e ˜ u en o ˜ e u e -
Bnrpnna
HMR, B KOTOPMX IIpeAYCMZiT-
c onnnapHblM
oc˜e˜nesne˜ 6,70
1
PuBamTcR ˜ e x ˜ o n o r ˜ ˜ e c ˜
-


co cnapeHeblu
CKB ( H a n p M ˜ e p , K a M e p b l
OcreKnenHeM 2 70 - 100 2,68
O C T b I B a H M R K O J I ˜ ˜ CC O 3 p e -
,
c ABO˜HHM
pasnenb˜bl˜
BaHMR C ˜ I P O B ) , K a K I I p a -
2 450 - 600 2.45
OCT˜K˜˜HH˜M
BMJIO, H e OTJIMqaIOTCR OT
C˜e˜nona˜e˜ c
A H O ˜ ˜ H WOC-
M
O ˜ P ˜ X A ˜ H M ˜ xonon˜nb-
?
TeKJeHHeM 2 2,30
10
HMKOB.
To x e 2 15 2.70
2 20 2,74
T P ˜ H C M W C C MTOnH H ˜ I
e-
C r e ˜ n o n a ˜ e rrpoR
c
˜ O ˜ P U T O K M % a c q e ˜pas-
(
HMM OCTeKneHHeM 3 15-20 19
.
HOCTU ˜ e ˜ n e p a ˜ yqepe3 p)
OKH˜
C OnHH8pHbIM
- MaCCMBHble YqaCTKM CTeH,
3,3
OeTeKneHHeM I
neperopon˜a, n o n b 1 , nepe-
co c n a p e ˜ n u ˜
OCTeKJeHHeM 2 30 - 60 2.0
KPbITMR M IlOKPbITMR O n p e -

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