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C UBORH˜˜M
˜ ˜ J I R I ˜ K a,K M AJIR XOJIO-
T
1.9
AUJIbHMKOB ( C M . ˜ J I . 8) :




Tennonepenaqu o r p a i n e ˜ u F ;- pacqeTHafl nnoluanb
rne k, -- n e R c ˜ e s ˜ e n b ˜ ˜ 8 @ s u a e s ˜
˜o˜@ ˜
nOBepXHOCTU OrpaXneHHfl (C OKpyCJleHUeM no 0,1 M'); J I u H ˜ ˜ ˜ pa3Mepbl (C OKpyrJleHHeM
HM˜
no 0 , l M ) npuHuMam C O ˜ J I ˜ C H puc.19.1; tH A fB- pacqeTHMeveMnepaTypb1 HapyxHoro
O
U BHYTPeHHerO BO3nyXa.

˜ P OMP e A e J I e H M U k AJIR X M J I b l X M O ˜ U ˜ C T B ˜ H 3 ˜ ˜ X C J I˜ A2 e T n O J I b -
H˜ 23˜ e y
n
3 0 B a T b C R CTPOMTeJIbHbIMM r l e p T e X a M M 3TMX ˜ A ˜ H u W ,IIOCKOJIbKy ˜ b 1 6 0 p a T e - M
P U a J I O B 0 r p a x ˜ e H M f i MX TOJILUMHbl AJIR T a K M X 3 ˜ a H M f i P O U 3 B O A M T C R H e T a K ,
M n
K a K AJIR XOJIOAMJIbHHKOB ( B O ˜ ˜ O CP˜ C q e T a O r p a X n a I O U M X K O H C T ˜ ˜ K U M ˜ ˜
aI
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H˜IX K˜O
U3
.
M B˜HTUJIRUUM)
T ˜ ˜ H C M U C C H O H H ˜ I ˜ Yepe3 CBeTOnp03paqHbIe OrpaXAeHUR
TenJIOnpUTOKM
O n p e n e n R f O T no ˜ 0 f i x e @ o p ˜ y J I e ( 19.3). T ˜ X H M ˜ X a p a K T e ˜MR T M K a
˜CKp C
˜M˜pa>t<efi M CTeKJIOnaKeTOB I l p U B e A e H a B ˜ a 6 n .
19.1.
n p y r u ˜ u 3anOJIHUTeJIRMM TnBnuya 19 2
CBeTOBbIX IIpOeMOB C O B p e M e H -
radapnrnue pasmepM KO˜@@HUU˜HT
HbIX 3AaHMfi RBJIRIOTCR n y C T 0 - (nnnna X wnpnna X
6no˜ ˜ennonepenaw,
BT/(M' . K )
X TOJUUH˜)
T e J I b I e CTeKJIRHHbIe BJIOKU C
no-
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˜e 194 X 194 X 60 7,2
x
u x
P ˜ K T ˜ P M C T M K M r a 6 a p ˜ ˜ ˜ b. t e 3,7
294 294 98
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pa3Mepbl nPMBeAeHb1 nBYXKaMepHuA
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n n KOHAUUUOHMPYeMbIX ˜ O M ˜ L L L ˜ HQy:cc˜ P a C C q M T b I B a e M T a K Xe, K a K N
˜ A˜
AJIR XOJIOAMJIbHMKOB [ C M . @ O ˜ M Y J I Y(9.7) 1. H u x e p a C C M a T p M B a e T C R MeTOAMKa
o n p e n e n e H u R T e n n o n p u T o K a OT p a A u a u u u T O J I ˜ K O q e p e s c B e T o s b r e n p o e ˜ b ˜
3 n a H M f i . B e n u q u ˜ y T O r 0 T e n J I O n p I l T O K a QTYT ( B BT) IIOACqMTbIBaIOT OTAeJIbHO
3
n.m. ra˜6ypi-OM.
CTOPOHbI TOPM30HTa n 0 MeTOAY, IIPeAJIOXeHHOMy
AJIR K ˜ X A O ˜ ˜




˜ ˜ T ˜ H R I O I ˜ ˜ O˜ ˜ C T MOrYT 3 H a q M T e J I b H O YMeHbLLIMTb KOJIUqeCTBO
YCTU B˜
TenJIOTbI, I I o c ˜ y n a I O I 4 e f i B KOHAMQMOHMPyeMOe n O M e U e H U e U3-323 C O J I H ˜ ˜ H O ˜ ˜
P a A M a u M U , B p e 3 y J I b T a T e q e r 0 CHMXaIOTCR K a n U T a J I b H b I e 3 a T p a T b I H a yc˜pofi-
CTBO CUCTeMbI K O H A M ˜ M O H U P O B a H U RB 0 3 A y X a M PaCXOAbI no ee 3 K C n J I y a T a U U U .
3 H a s e H u R QoKA a H b I B ˜ a 6 ˜ 1 . 1 9 . 3 .
T ˜ ˜ J I O ˜ ˜ M T OT K con˜eqaofi panuauuu n o n c q u T b 1 s a t o - r
O U Kaxnoro
K O H A U ˜ U O H U P Y e M O r O I I O M e u I e H H R M CBOART B T ˜ ˜ J I I I U Y @ O P M ˜ K O T O P O ˜ ˜
,
n p u B e n e H a H a CTP. 176.
3 a P a C q e T H y I O BeJIMlrMHy nPMHUMaIOT M ˜ K c u M ˜ J I ˜TenJIOnpMTOK B H˜I˜˜
K n O J I y q e H H O M y P a C q e T O M QC, " A O ˜ ˜ B J I H I O KOJIUqeCT-
"
AaHHOM IIOMeLLLeHUM. T
BO T e n n o T b l , noc˜ynamuefi sepes 0 6 J I y q a e ˜ b l e M ˜ C C U B H ˜oIr ˜ a x n e H u R , p
M H a X O n R T OKOHrIaTeJIbHyIO BeJIUgMHy T e n J O I I p M T O K O B O T C O J I H ˜ ˜ H a A˜ ˜ u U M . P O Ua
noro˜
rennoru o r conHeqHofi pannaunw ( s B T / M ˜no nepnonaM rona n cropoHaM r o p n 3 o ˜ r a
)
reorpa@nqec- n e ˜ a 6 p b( x o n o n ˜ u i lnepnon rona)
M w ˜ b(rennblfi nepnon rona)
KaR wnpora
1 I
I 1
1
C IO
CB. C 3 B. 3 IOB, 103 IO B.3 IOB, I03




n p n M e s a H u n I I I p n s e n e ˜ ˜ b B e ra6nnue BennrnHbr cnenyer ˜ M H O X ˜ Ha ˜ nonpasoq˜bth ˜ o s @ @ n -
˜ T
UUeHT nJlR OKOH C PBOAHMM OCTeKJIeHUeM H ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ B R H H paMaMU - 0.62, nnn OKOH C A B O A H ˜ M OCTeKJeHReM Ii
˜IMU
s n r p n ˜B MerannnqecKnx nepennerax - 0 . 7 , nnn o ˜ o n onnHapnb1˜ ocreKneHne˜ n s n r p n ˜B MerannnqecKnx ne-
c
pennerax - 1.25 2 Tennonpnroyn qepes ocreKaeHHue nosepxnocrn, opneHrtipoeaHHble na cesep. B ˜ypcoeblxnpoeK-
Tax MOXHO He YqHTblBaTb
9opaa 4
Cropo˜bl IInol˜lanbcsero- T e n n o n p n r o ˜ KOB@@RUH˜HT
Tun
N!
Q;E.
BT
B O ˜ OnpoeMa ,M' (no ra6n 19 3 ) s a r e n e ˜ n nr
ropn3o˜˜a oCreKneHn8
noMeqeHun




T ˜ ˜ J ˜ O ˜ ˜ OT T0O p aWa ˜ b l e a e ˜MaTepwaaos. n p ˜ a c s e T a x T e x -
N 6K 6 ˜x p
HOJIOrMqeCKMX CKB T e n J I O n p M T O K QZn no KOJIMYeCTBy n 0 J I H 0 f i T e n J I O T b I
( ˜ . e .no ˜ ˜ ˜ H O C 3T a Y e H M f i y n e J I b H 0 f i 3 H T a A b n M M I I ˜ O A ˜ K T O B ) O n p e n e -
HM
JIRIOT no @ o ˜ M ˜ J I 5 M ˜ 9.2.
E c n ˜Xe n p M p a C . l e T a X Y q M T b I B a I O T T O A b K O R B H Y D T e n J I O T y , T e n J I O -
IIPMTOK O T M a T e p M a J l O B M O X H O O n p e A e J I M T b no @ 0 p ˜ y A e




Ha.laJIbHaR T e M n e p a T y p a M R C a 3 a B M C N T O T TOTO, B K a K O M BMAe O H 0
n o c T y n a e T B uex H a n e p e p a 6 o ˜ ˜(oxnaxne˜Hbe napaoe). 0 x n a x n e ˜ -
y
H o e M R C O n p M n e p e p a 6 o ˜ ˜H a r p e B a e T c R OT 4 no 12"C, c n e n o B a T e n b a o ,
e
O H 0 B O C n p M H M M a e T q a C T b B ˜ I A ˜ J I ˜ HBH IIOMeLLleHMM T e n J I O T b I . B 3 T O M C J I y Y a e
o˜˜
Q2 BXOAMT B y p a B H e H u e T e n n o B o r o 6 a J I a H c a co ˜ H ˜ K O M M H Y C . n a p ˜ o e
M
MRCO O X J I a X A a e T C R C 36 A 0 12°C M, C J I e n O B a T e J I b H O , B b I n e J I R e T T e n A O T y
B npouecce ero 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ K M .B TOM c A y q a e s ˜ a q e Q2˜ ey ˜ nojloxmenb- ˜6 e˜
HbIM.
AJIR I l p e ˜ n p M R ˜ O ˜ iU ˜ C T B ˜ H H OM TO H M R 0 6 ' b e K ˜ a ˜ 0 6 p a 6 0 ˜ ˜ R B J I R -
11
n˜a
˜f M
D T C R r O P R q M e ˜ J I D A ˜B,b I n e Y e H H b I e M3AeJIMR B KOHAMTePCKZIX U e X a X , OCTb1-
B a I O U l a R n U U a B O ˜ ˜ A ˜ H H3 a J I a X , a T a K X e MRCOIIPOAYKTbI, 06pa6a˜b1-
˜
B a e M b I e B X o n o n H b I x uexax. T e n n o ˜ b ˜ ˜ e n e ˜ m˜ b r ˜ a ˜ u lneM u M M O X H O
OT o c fi
I l P M H R T b Q2 = 17 f 25 BT H a O A H O r O I I O C e T M T e J I R .
T e n n o n p e ˜ o ˜ w HP X M B 3 Y O . H a p y x ˜ b l f i B 0 3 A y X n O C T y n a e T
C aY H M OA X M
B KOHAMUMOHMPyeMOe I l O M e u l e H M e ˜ ˜ O6 O T A ˜ J I ˜ H O ˜ H T A J I R U R O H H O ˜ ˜
0
T B˜
YCTaHOBKM, ˜ ˜ n P6 l k0H @ M J I b ˜ p a u M I l ( I ˜ ˜ O H H K H O B ˜ HapJ'XHOrO B O 3 A y X a
I i HH˜
B H y T P b 3 A a H M R qepe3 H e n J I O T H O C T M B H a P Y X H b I X O T P a X A e H M R X M qepe3
LLLeJIM B O K H a X , a T a K X e n p M O T K P b l B a H M M ˜ ˜ e p e f iECJIM K O H A M u M O H M P Y e -
). B
M b I e I l O M e U e H M R I I O A a D T B 0 3 A Y X a 6 0 J I b m e , .leM Y n a J I R D T M3 HMX, T O B
n o M e u e H m x c o 3 ˜ a e ˜ c˜˜ ˜ ˜ I T O a˜B A e H M˜ (nonnop) , n p e n R T c T B y m m e e
M A HOe
IlPOHMKHOBeHAD B 0 3 A y X a C M˜@M.JIb˜pauMefi. B 3TOM C J I y q a e TenJIOnpMTOK
O T M H @ u J I ˜ T P ˜ ˜ ˜ X H O n P M H M M a T b P a B H b l M H y J I D . ECJIM KOHAMUMOHM-
B
MO˜ M
˜ ˜ O U ˜ B O ˜ C T B ˜ H3 K O ˜ IH˜ 4 0 ˜ a p e f i 40
6e3 H H
80
60JlbHPi˜lbl


Ecnu K O H A U U M O H U p y e M O e I I O M e l I l e H M e 0 6 o p y ˜ o a a ˜ o C T ˜ M OB˜˜˜I T H X H O ˜ ˜
CM
BeHTMJIRUMU, TO n J I R CO3AaHMR H ˜ O ˜ X O A M M OI ˜O A I I O p a KOJIUrIeCTBO n O A a B a -
lO
e M O r 0 H a P y X H O r O B O 3 n y X a A O J I X H O 6 b 1 T b ˜ O J I ˜ L L b I˜ R X K M H a B e J I U q U H Y ,
BI T
n p M s e n e H H y m H M x e ( B q-I):




H a O A H y CTOPOHY
" nse CTOPOHM
" T P U UJIU q e T b I p e C T O P O H b l
˜ec˜A6loib
Ta6nuqp I 9 4

B qHcnHTene - n m u e rennosunenennn Qq, (a B T ) .
.
s ˜ a m e ˜ a ˜ e n BnaroBuneneHnn W4, lo6 (a ˜ r / c )
-e
B

Pon p a 6 o ˜ u
TemnepaTypu ˜ 0 3 n y x aa KoHnnunonHpyemux nomeqennnx, ' C
Pacqe˜˜ue



ner˜an
pa6ora cnnn


- -
---
nerwan @ n s ˜ q e c ˜ a n
pa6ora (wac- 147 47 6
- 60
16 95 70
98 -
-
cnpu, nocernTenn cTonosblx, ma-
41,6 55,5
36.0
32,2
21,4 22.2
11.1 13,9
Ta3HHOB H np.)

P a 6 o ˜ a c p e n ˜ e f i Taxecru (npo- 157 130 140 112 80 70 47 6
---- -
- - -
naBUU MaTa3HHOB. O @ H U U ˜ H T H .
20,8
32.0 34.7 39.0 51,5 55.5 69.5 79,O
y60p1unuu H T n )
Tnwenan pa6ora ( n e p c o ˜ a nropa-
˜ H U˜XOB, ˜ X O H ˜ ,
K pa6oswe o6sa- 198 158 163 130 89 64 35 8
X
6.
45 9.
05 9.
45
52,7 8,
05
3,
70
noqnux, pa3py60qnux H x ˜ n o a o q -
HUX ornene˜ufi)




I I p H M e H R e M O r O cnoco6a
O ˜ O ˜ ˜ J J O B ˜ H 3 a ˜ U C,H T OT u e J I O r 0 P R A a IlPMqMH:
U BM
o6orpesa (ra3 MJIM ˜ J I ˜ K T ˜ U Y ˜ C T BOCHaLLleHHOCTU A a H H O r O
O), npennpURTUR
o 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ a ep˜e ,x a M a p a 6 o ˜ b 1n p e n n p m T a R , a T a K x e OT MOUHOCTM M
,
p e X H M a p a 6 0 ˜ b 1 a X ˜ 0 f ieAMHML(b1 T e X H O J l O ˜ U ˜ e C K O O O O P ˜ A O B ˜ H M R .
˜˜
K
f l n ˜ ˜ O P ˜ A O B ˜ H M R ,o r p e ˜ a e ˜ o r o u p o n H b r M r a s o ˜ ,n o n c q e T T e n n o -
06
O np
nPMTOKOB O C J I O X H R e T C R T e M , 9 T O H e BCR T e n J I O T a , n O J I y 9 e H H a R I l p U C r O p a H M U
ra3a, B b I A e A R e T C R B IlOMeLLleHMe. q a c ˜ bee COCTaBJIRIoT n O T e p U T e n J I O T b I
c ˜ X O A R L U U M Mr a 3 a ˜ u :

me QTon K o j l u s e c T B o T e n n o T b l , s b r n e n ˜ e ˜ o B i T o m e npu cropaHuu rasa, K B T ; Qnom - K O J I U -
- f
YeCTBO TenJIOTbl, B b l n e J I f l e M ˜ f iO ˜ O ˜ ˜ ˜ O B IlOMeILteHUM (COCTOUT U3 n o ˜ e s ˜ o TenJIOTM,
B˜ H U ˜ M fi
p a c x o n y e ˜ o f iH e n o c p e n c T s e H H o Ha n p u r o r o s n e H u e n u u u , u us n o T e p b T e n n o r b r H a p y x H M M u
orpaxneHumu 0 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ u f lKBT; Qyx - n o T e p f l T e n n m b l c y x o n f l r u u M u r a s a ˜ u ,KBT.
),




me Q,, = BQ; - K o n u q e c r s o T e n n o r b r , s b r n e n ˜ e ˜ o npu cropaauu rasa, KBT; B - 0 6 b e ˜ ˜ b 1 f i
fi
P a C X O n r a 3 a n p U HOPMaJIbHblX YCJIOBHflX, M ˜ / c ; Q: - TenJIOTBOpHafl C ˜ O C O ˜ H O C 1 ˜M˜ T
r a 3 a , n p U HOPMaJIbHblX YCJIOBHFIX, P a B H a f l 35600 K a 2 K / M 3 ; K- K O ˜ @ @ U U U ˜ H T Y'IHTbl-
,
U Qyx (K = 0.8); KO
BaIOIUUfi COOTHOUleHUe M e X A y Q, , - K O ˜ @ @ U U H ˜ H T ,˜ H T ˜ I B ˜ ˜ o I U H
Y
(nJlFI
CTOJIOBMX KO
OnHOBpeMeHHOCTb p a b o r b r OnHOTUnHOrO 0 6 0 p y n o a a ˜ u ˜ 1 = 0,8, AJlH
KO= 0 , 6 ) ; Kn - K O S @ @ U U H ˜ H T HCnOJlb30BaHHfl 0 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ u f l
PeCTOpaHOB U Ka4e
( B b l p a x a e T ITpOnOJIXUTeJIbHOCTb H e n p e p b l B H o f i p a 6 0 T b l 06opynosa˜uflB T e q e H u e CMeHM
1 p a 6 o s u f i q a c ) ; 3 ˜ a q e ˜ u f ˜ T O ˜ K O ˜ $ I ˜ U U U ˜ H nTp u B e n e H M
nepecqeTe Ha l ˜
O
B
Huxe.

K H ˜ ˜ ˜ T u J I ˜ H N K A ,B ˜ ˜ Knesu UlalIlJIbl'4Hble,
KO@˜ U,
3JIeKTpIYTepMOCTaTbl




T e n n o ˜ b r ˜ e n e OTu ˜A u H u u b I O ˜ O P ˜ A O B ˜ H M 0 6 o r p e ˜ a e ˜ o r napoiv,
˜e o
R,
M O X H O n P M H M M a T b , 80 A a H H b I M A. A. ˜ O ˜ O J I M HP˜ B H b l M M 1,3 KBT H a 1 M˜
a,
H a p y X Z H O f i H ˜ ˜ O J I M ˜ O B ˜ HO B e p X H O C T U , 0,49 KBT- I I O J I U P O B ˜ H H O ˜A
nHO˜˜ ˜
0,33 KBT- AJIR IlOBePXHOCTU,. ˜ O K P ˜ I TM 3 0 J ˜R ˜ M e f i .
O˜I
(19.13)
=
Qsn n s Nsn.neKwKo,
r

- CyMMapHaR
EN,, MOWHoCTb BCeX 3 J l e K T p 0 ˜ ˜ e r a ˜ e J I eMexaHHWCKOrO O ˜ O P Y & O B ˜ H H R ,
fi KBT.
rAe

K,
˜ H ˜ Z I ˜ H U RAJIR n p e n I I p M R ˜ u f i I I N T a H H R I I p M B e A e H b I BbILUe. H n R nepe-
K, = 0 , 6 5 AJIR 060-
p a 6 a ˜ b l ˜ a 1 0 ˜ u UeXOB M R C O K O M ˜ H H ˜ T O I I P U H U M a I O T
B
x
K, = 0 , 2 5 AJIR o6opy-
P y A O B a H U R M a m U H H b I X 3 a J I O B (BOAZIKU, K Y T T ˜ P ˜ IM )
AOBaHMR L U ˜ P U Q O B O Z I H O ˜ ˜ .
I I p e f i n p ˜ F l ˜ M fIil U T a H U R , OCHaLQeHHblX TOJIbKO 3 J l e K T P H q e C K U M T e n J I O -
BbIM O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H U ˜ MH a Z I e H M e QoaMer M O X H O n P U H U M a T b P a B H b l M 10%
3,
.
Qo6 Ten
KBT) O n p e A e J I R I O T
(B
T e n Y I o n p u ˜ o ˜OT 3JIeKTpUZIeCKOrO O C B e U e H U R QocB
u




˜PU JIIoMUHeCQeHTHOM 0CBeUI.eHUM CBeTNJIbHNKU r I a C T O y C T a H a B J I U B a I O T
B n n o c K o c T u n o A B e c H o r o n o T o n K a . B TOM C A y r I a e B n o M e u e H u e n o c T y n a e T
T e n J I O T a B K O J l U q e C T B e 60% TeIIJIOTM, ˜ O A C Z I U T ˜ H H no ˜@ o p ˜ y J I e (20.14).

Onpenenenue cymmap˜oii ˜ e n a o e o i i ˜arpyswn. on pen en^^ C y M M a p H y r o
T e n J I O B y I O H a r P Y 3 K y H a C U C T e M y KOHAUQUOHUPOBaHWR B 0 3 A Y X a , H ˜ O ˜ X O A U M O
YrIMTbIBaTb, O A H O B P e M e H H O JIU A ˜ ˜ ˜ C T B Y I O e n J l O ˜ P U T O K U OT Pa3JIUZIHbIX UC-
TT
TOZIHUKOB. T ˜ K T e I l J I O ˜ p H T O K U OT C O J I H ˜ ˜ I HP a ˜ U a U U U B A H e B H O e B p e M R
, On˜
M O r Y T H e C O B n a A a T b no B p e M e H U C T e n J I O n p U T O K O M OT O C B e U e H M R BeZIepOM.
B TOM cnyqae o n p e n e n m o T B W H ˜ U H o6eux ˜ a r p y s o ˜ , B p a c s e T npu- HO
˜
H U M a I o T TOJIbKO O A H y M3 HUX - 6 6 ˜ b ˜ y 1 0 . ˜ O C K O J I ˜ K Y A e J I b H b l e COCTaBJIR-
OT
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r0 I l O M e U e H U R COCTaBJIRIOT K a K AJIR J I e T H e r e , T a K U AJIR 3 U M H W O n e P U O A O B
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B J ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ ˜ H T MaTepUaJlOB. Ha
OT O K U npeAnpURTMRX n U T a H U R OCHOB-
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T b I e IlOBepXHOCTU K a C T p I o J I b U T . n.
KOJIUZI˜CTBO BJIarOnpNTOKoB
Ta6nuya 19 5
OT n M U N M O X H O O P U e H T U P O -

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w 2= - B M ˜ C T H M Onnouxanb Jeprana culnqecrso ncna RwlueRcn
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= 20 1 0 - 6 Kr/c Ha oAHo
125 0.29 2.77
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19.5.
BeneHbI B ˜ a 6 n .
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no i e
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f AJIR I I O M e U e -
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e ˜ r ( /M ˜ c ) ,

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