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. 19
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nnoluanb rennonepenamuek
; l o s e p x ˜ o c rsosnyxooxnannrenn.
˜ M'




Macca. Kr




X o n o n o n p o ˜ ˜ s o n n ˜ e n b ˜npH ˜reMneparype sosnyxa H axon?
a
oc b
s sosnyxooxnannrenb 12°C. KBT 20,O 32.0 50.0

˜ p o n 3 n o n n ˜ e n b ˜ o c ˜sosnyxy npH nonHoM Hanope 080 lla.
no b
M3/c (M3/q) 1.94 (7000) 3,6 (13000) 4.4 (16000)




nnouanb nosepxHocrH ˜ e n n o o 6 ˜ e ˜ a .
M'
sosnyxooxnanurenn
˜anop˜$epa




Macca, wr
arperaTa
so3nyxoo6pa6a˜blsalo˜uero
uura ynpaeneHnn
T ˜ Xe
K K a K M aBTOHOMHbIe,
TeXHOJIOrMLieCKMe KOHAMUMOHepbI
y C T a H a B J l M B a l O T na60 H e n O C p e n -
C T s e H H o B K a M e p e , nw60 B cocen-
H e M nOMeUleHMM. B ITOCJIeAHeM
C J l y q a e B C T e H e KOHAMUMOHMPYe- -
MOrO IIOMeUleHHR I I p e A y C M a T p M -
B a m T n p o e M , sepes K O T O P ˜ Ip˜e ˜ -
˜ M P K Y J I R ˜ M O H H ˜ I ˜ ˜ ˜˜ X C T ˜ -
BO ˜A O
n a e T HenOCpeACTBeHHO B ( P M n b ˜ p ,
a I I p M ˜ O q ˜ b l f BO3AYX n O A a e T C R
i
B KaMePY n O BO3AyXOBOny.
UMT aBTOHOMHOrO Y n p a B J l e -
HMR MOHTMPYIOT PRAOM C KOHAM-
UMOHePOM J I M ˜ O A P Y r O M yno6-
B
HOM M e c T e . X O J I O A H ˜ I ˜ ˜ M n a
paccon
X N A K M ˜ ˜ a K , K a K IIpaBMJIO,
aMMM
n o c T y n a e T OT u e ˜ ˜ p a n b ˜ xono- oii
nMJlb˜0fi YCTaHOBKM AaHHOrO
n p e n n p u ˜ ˜ m . A H ˜ K O˜ y p c o -
O B
B ˜ I XM A M n n o M H b I x npoemax qe-
nec006pa.3˜0 C n p O e K T M p O B a T b
AJIR 3TMX I l e J I e f i M H A M B M A y a J I b H y D
XOJlOnMJIbHyIo Y C T a H O B K y . B K a -
qeCTBe TeIIJIOHOCkiTeJIR npMMe-
nepe-
H R ˜ Tr o p ˜ q y m BOAY M J M
r p e ˜ b l f i n a p OT 06uefi CUCTeMbI
npennpumm.




C 6 0 p ˜ b l eU e H T p a ˜ ' I b H b 1 e KOHAMUMOHepbl c o 6 u p a m ˜113 Y H M ˜ M U M ˜ O B ˜ H H O ˜
O ˜ O ˜ ˜ A O B ˜ HnH H ,n ˜ a 3 ˜ a s e ˜ A no r H a r p e B a H m , O x n a x n e H u R , y B n a x a e -
pe ˜R o
HMR, OCYLUeHMR, CMeLIJeHMR, OZlMCTKM KOHAMUMOHMPYeMOrO B O 3 n Y X a B COOTBeT-
CTBMM C ˜ ˜ A ˜ H HT O G H O J I O ˜ M ˜ ˜ C K O ˜O˜Y C T ˜ H ˜ B J M B ˜ I O T B O T n e J I b H O M
˜X CX˜M ˜. MX
MaLIJMHHOM OTAeJleHMM, KOTOPOe M O X e T 6 b 1 ˜ b n a J t e H O OT ItOHAMUMOHMpyeMbIX
y
˜ I o M ˜ u ˜ H a ˜ H a q M T e J b H O e P a C C T O R H M e . ˜ o ˜ T o M Y ˜ B ˜ H T A J I R T O P ,O A H U ˜ M ˜ ˜
BX
Hu 3 ˜
B KOMnJIeKT U e H T P a J l b H O r O KOHAMUMOHePa, A O J I X e H 0 6 ˜ 1 a ˜ aA ˜ C T a T O 4 H O Ob
6 o n b r u e ˜H a n O p O M . ˜ ˜ C T O B TOM XZe M a l U H H H O M O T A e J l e H H H P a C n O J l a r a l O T
M XJIaAOHOBYIO XOJlOAMJlbHYIO YCTaHOBKY.
O ˜ O ˜ ˜ A O B X O n R U lM ˜ ,C O C T a B U e H T p a J b H O r O KOHAMUMOHePa, n O A -
B ˜ H ee B
p a 3 A e n R e T C R H a OCHOBHOe ( I l O f l O r p e ˜ a ˜ e J I M ,I I O B e p X H O C T H b I e B O 3 n y X O O X J l a -
AMTeAM, O p O C A T e J I b H b I e K a M e p b l , ( P H J I ˜ T P ˜BeHTMJIRTOPHble a r p e r a T b I M B 0 3 -
I,
A y l U H b l e K J l a I I a ˜ b 1 ) M B C I l O M O r a T e J I b H O e ( ˜ a ˜ e p b l C J I Y X M B ˜ H M R ,K a M e p b I

B b l p a B H M B a H M R , IlpMCOeAMHMTeJlbHble A n e p e X O A H b l e CeKUHH M Ilp.).
. B 3aBMCMMOCTM OT cnoc06a C ˜ O P K M P a 3 j l M q a H ) T KOHAMUMOHePbl:
O T A e J l b H O Y C T a H a B n M B a e M b I e M B C T P O e H H b l e B C T P O M T e J l b H b I e KOHCTPYKUMM.

194
Te˜neparypa."C
I-ny6˜na Ornoc˜renbnan
I

BJlaWHOCTb. q(, ,
I-opon
pacre+nan pacqernan
JIeTHRR 3HMHRR




- - 25
Anma Ara 44 95 8.7 34 35 68
,- 32
Apxanrenbc˜ 64 165 0.8 27 63 88
- - 22
Acrpaxa˜b 48 90 9.4 34 37 79
- I1
-
Amxaba˜ 36 16.3 49 21 65
-4
-
6a˜y 40 14.4 34 46 72
,.. . 44.
--_-- - - -- &9.,
1.1
Eap˜ayn 52 210 81 67
T-
- '-
B˜T˜MH 40 14,4 29 71 68
-I
- 20
Bpecr 52 80 74 25 55 82
- 24
BPRHCK 52 100 $:9 30 53 84
- 23
BH˜˜HIOC 56 85 6.2 28 58 84
- 25
-
Bnanuaoc˜o˜ 44 4 ,0 23 75 90
- 27
BnanH˜Hp 56 135 3.4 29 57 85
- 31
Bonorna 60 150 2.2 28 61 84
- 22
Bonrorpan 48 115 7,6 35 33 83
- 25
Boponem 52 1r 0 5.4 33 47 83
- 25
Bopom˜nosrpan 48 80 7.0 33 81
39
- 30
I-OPLKHR 56 155 3.1 29 56 84
-
I-POIHUR 44 10.1 34 - 16 47 84
n˜enponerposc˜ 48 90 8.5 33 - 24 43 83
- - 14
nywan6e 40 142 24 56
g; - I9
Epesan 40 11.6 32 66
-
3anopombe 48 85 9.0 34 - 23 42 82
Hea˜osa 56 130 2.7 30 - 28 56 84
- 1 ,I
(MPKYTCK 52 BMr 78
r
.31
- -
1
:
:
Kasanb 56 165 2.8 83
Knea 52 170 7.2 - 21 52 82
- 15
-
KH˜˜˜HH˜B 48 9.4 32 45 76
Kpacnohap 44 10.8 34 - 19 46 79
-
Kpacnoapc˜ 56 BMI- 0.5 30 - 40 56 69
- 27
KyR6blmes 52 160 3.8 32 48 84
- 24
52 115 5.4 30 53 86
KYPCK
- 25
fle˜˜nrpaa 60 120 4.3 27 59 85
- - 19
flbeos 48 6.7 29 58 80
MHHCK 5,4 28 - 25 56 85
52 90
Moc˜sa 4.8
56 140 30 - 25 54 83
MYPM˜HCK 0.0
68 BMI- 25 - 28 63 85
-
Hosopocc˜Rc˜ 44 12,7 33 -3 53 72
- 0,I
Hosocu6˜pc˜ 56 220 30 - 39 56 77
- 18
Onecca 48 9.9 81
32 55
-

- 37
OMCK 0.0 31 52
S6 215 80
- -4 61
OP!˜XOHHKHA˜˜ 44 7.9 30 74
- 29
Open6ypr 52 160 3,9 34 40 78
- 34
nep˜b 56 190 1,5 29 57 83
nonraaa 48 80 7.0 31 - 22 48 85
P˜ra 56 90 5,6 27 - 20 63 83
- 22
Pocron-ma L l o ˜ y 48 90 8.7 33 41 84
- - 13
Ca˜rrpaann 40 12.9 37 25 61
- 25
Caparos 52 145 5.3 33 41 83
Csepnnoac˜ 56 190 1.2 30 -31 54 77
C˜onenc˜ 56 l I0 4.4 28 - 26 60 88
-5
-
COUH 44 13 4 32 70 68
.
-
Tann˜˜ 60 95 5.0- 26 - 21 71 85
Tam600 53 130 4,8 32 - 27 49 83
- -5
Tarn˜enr 40 13.3 37 24 62
-
T6unncu 40 12,7 34 -7 40 59
- 0.6 - 40
TQMCK 56 210 29 59 78
T*˜enb 1.3 31 - 35 58 78
56 BMI-
- 29
i 80
Ga 56 2.8 32 53 82
Qpynae 44 85 93 35 - 23 31 63 ,
- 32
Xa6apoec˜ 48 100 1.4 32 67 71
- 23
Xapb˜00 52 100 6.9 32 47 81
- 18
Xepcon 48 9.8 33 41 83
-
- 35
L1en˜t˜orpan 52 180 1.4 33 42 80
Temneparypa. "C O˜˜ocHlenb˜an
.
hy6nna

˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜ Bna˜HOCTb. %
r e o r tunpara e c ˜ a n
pa@sq
ropon
cpenne- pacrernan pacrernan
CYrnHHHCTwX
PaC'feTHan PaC9eTHaR
rononan .nerHnn 3HMHIIR
rpyuros, c m JleTHRR 3HMHRR




n I. n p n rnydnne npohep3annn rpyHra Menee 80 cm n c o o ˜ s e ˜ c ˜ s y m ˜ u ˜ e i inposepa.
Ip w
l ra
Me rpa@
HH
2. BMr - 3ona sesHomep3nux rpynroe.


P
˜ P F A O X H1llB
lB
Texnwsec˜ncnorasaTcnn cpencrs nexsnnasqnw nPTC-pa6or




91nn Innn




Ilpunoxe˜ue3
Tenno@wswrecrae csoAcrsa narepwanon




T e n n o n 3 o n a u n o n ˜ u em a r e p n a n w
n n n r u u l nrnonnacra nonncrnponb 40 0.05 n n n rennonsonnl˜nn ˜ a p y m n u x c r e ˜ .
45. l neperopouolc, ˜ ˜ K ˜ M T H nonos ˜a
R,
noro I I C 8 - C ( r o n ˜ ˜ k n ˜ ˜ o 50,
100 urn) rpynTe, K O ˜ O H H
n n n r ˜ us e e ˜ o n n a c r d n o n v l l u ˜ u n 100 0.052 To me
H el lee
xnopnnlloro Ilk3 I
Xecr˜nR nenononnyperail
n n y 3c 0.04 I
60
PL˜˜I˜P 40 0,025 - 0.03
n n u t w r e n n o n s o n n ˜ ˜ u o n t ns e
˜ ˜ mnne 300 0.09
p a l l b ˜ o hBart4 Ha ˜ H T ˜ M H OLen- 100 0,07
M
3YK)LllCM ( ˜ ˜ J l l l lOT 50˜Lt0i 100 M M
˜˜ f
c nurepeanom 10 M M )
M ˜ u e n u n j nrencroro G e r o ˜ a( r o n
n 400 0.15 n n n ycrponcrsa n e p e l o p o n o ˜n npo-
ULHHOR 80 - 240 M M c nn˜epnanom r n s o n o m a p ˜ u xnoncos
20 M M )
6no˜n ne˜ocre˜na 400 0.14 n n n TennonJonnunn n o ˜ p ˜ r n i nonos
ni
HJ
300 0,12 Ha IpyHTe
200 0.09
˜ J I U T M llcpnn˜oeble ( TO˜LUUHO˜
40. 600 0.23 TelI˜OHJ˜JlnllHH > p e ˜ p b l ˜H˜ R
n
50. 60 M M ) ycrpoRcre n p o ˜ n s o n o m a p ˜ i noncos
˜x
IIJIHTI,I e p ˜ n K y n n r o e u e
ac6ec˜o˜ 300 0 11 To me
(TO˜IIIHHOR 40. 50. 80. 100 M M )
rpdnnn ˜ e p d m ˜ n r o s u R 600 0.20 n n n r e n n o n s o n n ˜ i ˜nonoe ea ˜ p y u r a x
n
300 0.13 n yc˜poRcrsa e l ˜ p a e ˜ ˜ n o a l o l u ecnon
ro
Ulr6cn1, UJ ˜ Q M C H I I O I ˜ WnaKa 400 0.16 To me
r u n p o n 3 o n n u n o u u ˜ em a r e p n a n ˜
lle@rlllMe 1000 0 17 nl
& HaKJleHKU P J H M
yO H X
l IIapOrHApO
˜HTYMM
U30JlRIlHOHHblX H TenJlO˜30Jl˜llUOHHMX
marepl˜anon
Ann s ˜ n o n ˜ e n n IldpOU3On˜llHOHIII˜Ix
600 800 0.14 - 0,18 n
-

cnoen
600 - 800 0,25 - 0.35 T o me
700 - 900 0,25 - 0,35 n.7˜ u t ˜ r ˜ o n ˜ e w n a p o n 3 o n n q s o ˜ ˜ b 1 ˜
nn
cnoes n H ˜ X H U Y cnoes Kposenh
600 - 800 0.25 - 0.35 A n n s w n o n ˜ e ˜ n n p x ˜ e r ocnon c ˜ a ˜
se
HldX KPOBCJh
!




6eronbl Ha I.paBUn nJlH m e 6 ˜ e npn-
n3
pOBHOr0 KaMHR
Xenr306eron
ne˜306el.o˜


r a s o - n n e ˜ o 6 e r o H ,r a l o - n l n e ˜ o c i l ˜
nuKaT
K ˜ ˜ ˜ M ˜ U T O ˜ KepaM3UTOBOM nee-
Ha C T O H
Ke M K ˜ P ˜ M ˜ H T C J ˜ ˜ H O ˜ ˜ T O H

K n a n ˜ aKUpnHqHaB Ha NCMCHTHOM
pacrsope
O˜JUUOBK˜ llpUpOAHtdM KaMHeM
u m e c rnnK
TY@
MpaMOp
A C ˜ O U C M P H T H ˜ I ˜ n nJlnTt4
nllCTbl
P˜CTBOPM
UeMeHTHO - fleCqaHblfi
c n o m n b l l ( n e c o ˜ nssecrb, l i e ˜ e n ˜ )
,
H3BeCTKOBO - neCqaHb18
˜ P Y H T ac˜urenbnb˜ii
p
neco˜




P e s n ˜ anopncTan
J l e n ( n p n 0°C)
C˜er
csemes˜nasmnii
ynnor˜ek˜bll
B narlaJle r a n i i n n
!AH
-quer˜osndoJ (dasn˜ad)
wanealrseu v o u (neg) u d ˜ o 3

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