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. 5
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HMX M a T e p u a n o B . B n o M e w e H m x , T e M n e p a T y p a B K O T O P ˜ I X B b t L u e -20°C,
A O I I Y C K a e T C R n P N M e H e H H e T e I I J O H 3 0 n R L ( U A H 3 3 a C M I I H b I X H e O p r a H H ' 4 e C K H X MaTf$-
puanoa.
runpo- u n a p 0 ˜ 3 0 n ˜ ˜ K O H C T ˜ ˜ K U 0 6˜o˜r p e s a e ˜ b l x nonoa n e n a m ˜u3
nm U
M a T e p n a n o B n o ˜ ˜ r u e ˜ s n af o c ˜ o i i ˜ o c ˜ n
˜ o ri nnee-
(uson, ˜ O J I H ˜ T H ˜ ˜ H O B ˜ R
K a H AP.), Y K J I a A M B a e M M X H W X e ˜ ˜ T O H HI IO A r O T O B K H C 3 J I e K T P O H a r p e B a -
O˜˜
KOHCT˜˜KUHN
TeJIRMU. 0 6 0 r p e B a e ˜ b I I I O n O B XOJlOAHJlbHUKOB I I P H B e A e H M
˜
H a puc. 6.7.
P n c . 6 . 7 . KOHCTPYKNWR
IlOJIOB XOJlOAWJlbHHKOB:
a - n p n r e M n e p a r y p e KaMepbl t , = -IO0C; 6, e - n p n TeMnepaType t = -20°C; a - n p n t = -30°C;
1 - MOHOnHTHOe ˜ ˜ T O H H llOKPblTHe M 3 0 0 - 4 0 ˜ 5 0 MM; 2 - ˜ O L I C T H J ˜ ˜ O U H ˜
d - n p l l 1, = 0-4°C; CnOH
. O˜
( ˜ ˜ T o H a p m ˜ p o e a n ˜ b 6 ie r o n nnH x e n e 3 0 6 e r o ˜- 8 0 - 1 0 0 MM); 3 - c n o k n e p r a m u n a H a c y x o c n p o ˜ a 3 a o h
, l
- TenIOH30IRUHR H3 ˜ @ @ & T H B H O ˜ O
CnOR ˜ O I H4˜ T H ˜ ˜ H O
WBOB ˜ H T Y M H O M ˜ C T H K O H I˜ 1-2 ˜H IlneHKU;
˜
y r e n n H T e n n (nC6-C, m e c r a n e MHHepanoearHble n n n r b l H T. n.) - 100-150 MM; 5 - u e m e ˜ r ˜ o - n e c r a ˜ b ak r s o p
pl c
M I 0 0 - 2 5 MU;. 6 - y n n o r n e ˜ ˜ b l necoK s n a x s o c r b o 10% - 2 5 0 MM; 7 - 6 e r o n ˜ a nn o n r o r o e a a HnH n n H r a
ii
' M 2 0 0 c 3 n e ˜ r p o ˜ a r p e s a r e n d ˜ n 0 0 MM; 8 - c n o A ˜ H T Y M H OMacTnKH, n o c u n a ˜ ˜ o i i
necaom; 9 - 2 c n o R r u n P o -
-1 ˜
MaCTUKe; 10 - ˜ ˜ T O H H ˜ R
H0l
3Ja Ha r o p ˜ r e f ˜ H T Y M H O A
i nOArOTOBKa M l O O - 1 0 0 MM ( C BblpaBHHBaHHeM IlOBepXHOC-
TH nOA THAPOH30ARUHY); 11 - rPYHT OCHOBBHHR: 12 - 3 a ˜ b l n H 0 f i T ˜ ˜ MaTepHan (H ˜ o˜˜ I o K˜P˜Y˜HTOB!A˜
r p a s ˜ i H r.n.); 13 - neeocseano; 14 - ˜ e p a ˜ s n r o 6 e r o ˜ r˜na a a ; 15 - HacblnHoa r p y n T
l c xn


Aeepn XOnOAHJbHblX KaMep. Asepu XOJIOAUJIbHbIX K a M e p 6 b 1 ˜ a l Onpu- ˜
CJIOHHbIMU U OTKaTHbIMU. O T K B T H ˜ e P˜ 6onee Y A O ˜ H ˜ IT, a K K a K n p U
AB I U
O T K P b l B a H H U OHU H e ' I l P e n R T C T B Y l O T A B U X e H U l O n O T p y 3 0 z l H O - P a , 3 T P Y 3 0 z l H b I X
U T P a H C n O P T H b I X CPeACTB. A B e p U HMeIOT TenJIOH3OJIRQUIo T O J I U I H H O ˜ 150 MM
KO˜@@HUH˜HT U˜OJIRUUOHHOR A B e p U
U3 neHOnJIaCTOB. TeIlJIOnepeAaYU
K) . I l p n ˜ e n n o ˜ e x d n z l e c ˜p a cxz l e T a x p a s ˜ e p s e p H o r o npoe-
0.4 BT/ (M'. n A
M a M O X H O n P U H H M a T b P a B H M M 2 x 3 M.




9 7.1. COCTABJIEHNE IlJIAHNPOBKN XOJIOANJibHHKA
HA nPEAnPNRTHRX TOPrOBJIH H 0 6 U E C T B E H H O r O nHTAHHR

Ha I I ˜ ˜ A ˜ ˜ U H T T O˜p rROX J I U H O ˜ I I J . ˜ C T B ˜ H H n U˜ OH U H XOJIOAHJIbHUK
O Ta
U B
I I p e A C T a B J I R e T co6oR 6 n o ˜ 3 HeCKOJIbKUX XOJIOAUJIbHbIX K a M e p , P a C n O J I O -
U
X e H H b I X B rpynne CKJIaACKHX n 0 ˜ e U e H U f i no6˜1n30c˜u T O p r O B O r O 3 a J I a
OT
M a r a 3 H H a UJIU K y X O H H O r O 6 n o ˜ a . O J I O A H J I ˜ H H K I I p e A H a 3 H a z l e H AJIR K P a T K O -
X
C p O Y H O r O (2 - 3 CYT) X p a H e H U R 3 a n a C a C a M b l X p a 3 ˜ 0 0 6 p a 3 H b 1 ˜ IIPOAYKTOB.
C o c ˜ a s n n o u a A b C m a A c K u x n o ˜ e u t e ˜ n ia r a 3 u ˜B ,TOM z l n c n e oxnax-
˜ a
H
A a e M b I X K a M e p , 3 a B H C R T O T T u n a ˜ a r a 3 H H a , a C C O p T U M e H T a U UHTeHCHB-
HOCTU T O B a P O n O T O K O B U T. n.
B IIpOAOBOJIbCTBeHHbIX M a r a 3 U H a X c ˜ M o o ˜ c J I ˜ X U B ˜ H H6onbruoe KOJIH- R
YeCTBO ITPOAyKTOB X p a H U T C R T a K X e B OTKPbITOM T O p r O B O M XOJOAUJIbHOM
06opv˜o˜asuu, YCTaHOBJIeHHOM B T O P r O B O M 3 a J I e ( ˜ u c 7.1.). X O J I O A H J I ˜ H ˜ I ˜
.
arp( l a T b 1 3 T 0 r 0 O ˜ O P ˜ A O B ˜ H U aR I l O J I a r a l O T B o 6 r u e ˜MaIlIUHHOM OTAeJIe-
PC
H U I I , sasac˜yro B M e c T e c x o n o A u n b H M M u a r p e r a T a M n , 0 6 c n y ˜ n ˜ a l o ˜ u ˜
KLIMePbI. ˜ O ˜ T O M n p U BbInOJIHeHUH n p O e K T a Q e J I e ˜ 0 0 6 p a 3 ˜ 0C O C T a B J I R T b
Y
l I J I a H U p O B K y B C e r O M a r a 3 U H a C ˜ ˜ C C T ˜ H O B XOJIOAUJIbHOrO O ˜ O ˜ ˜ A O B ˜ H U H
KO˜
B T O p r O B O M 3 a J I e U OTAeJIbHO ( 9 6 0 J I b ˜ e ˜˜ c U I T ˜- n J I)a H U P O B K Y 6 n o ˜ a
M ˜˜
XOJIOAHJIbHbIX K a M e p .
C O C T ˜ BCTPOUTeJIbHYlO I I J I O U a A b ˜ O M ˜ U ˜ MHa r H s H H a , H ˜ O ˜ X O A U M ˜

U
AJIR COCTaBJIeHHR er0 n J I a H U p O B K U , n p H H H M i 3 l o T no ˜ a 6 n .7.1, COCTaBJIeH-
HOG H a OCHOBaHHU A ˜ ˜ ˜ C T B Y ˜ O U H˜X M ˜ T H B OP ˜ K O M ˜ H A IY H p M -˜ I ˜
HP B. nJ aH ˜ OB
KU nPOAOBOJIbCTBeHHbIX M a r a 3 U H O B I I P U B e A e H b I H a PHC. 7.1 H 7.2.
T p U B a l o T n O A a Y y B O 3 A y X a B B e P X H l o I O . UJlU pa6osy10, 3 0 H Y M a l l l U H H b l X .U
a n n a p a T H b l X 0 ˜ ˜ e J I e H k i f B;M T F I X K a O C Y Q e C T B J l R e T C R H 3 F 5 e p x H e f i 3 0 H b 1 , IIPOTU-
i
B O ˜ I O J I O X H O ˜ IIPHTOKY. BO˜AYX, a J I R e ˜ b l f U 3 I I o M e l L l e H U f i , A O n y C K a e T C R
y˜ i
˜ b l 6 ˜ a ˜ b B ˜ ˜ dT ˜ bO C @ ˜ Y eY e 3 B M ˜ P O C H Y I O ˜ p y 6 yB M C O T O ˜ ˜ ,H e M e H e e
l M ˜p
Y e M H a 1,5 M n p e B b 1 L U a l o ˜ e f i BbICOTY 3 A a H U R . A ˜ a p U f i ˜ a R e H T U J l R U U R B
A O J I X H a H M e T b l I y C K O B b I e n p u c n o c o 6 n e ˜ u ˜ ,C T a H O B J I e H H b l e K a K B C a M O M
Y
I l O M e Q e H U U , T a K U B H e e T O . G ˜ A nYA˜ T T p H B a T b ˜ J I O K U ˜ O B n y C K 0 - K˜
pe yCMa
c ra3
BHX ˜ C T P O ˜ ˜ C T B a p s f i a o f i - B ˜ H T H A R U U U o a ˜ a n u 3 a ˜ o p a c ou T a s a
a˜ ˜c
BO3AYXa B I I O M e ˜ e H k l H .
B Y C T a H O B K a X , p a 6 0 ˜ a m q u xH a X J I a f l O H a X , n p e n y C M a T p U B a l o T B b I T R X K y
B O 3 A Y X a U 3 H E i X ˜ e f i 3 0 H M MaLUHHHblX O T A ˜ J ˜ ˜ H B ˜ ˜ . c M B ˜ ˜ K HQ Mc˜ O˜ a u˜
pacnonaram y nona ( H a B b l c o T e H e 6onee 1 M ) .




$ 8 . 1 . PAC'IET KOB@@MlJ.MEHTA TEnAOflEPEAA'IH




me Ro - odluee c o n p o T u a n e H l 4 e T e n o n e p e n a y e ˜ ˜ o r o c n o f i ˜ o f i
orpaxnaloulel K O H C T P Y K ˜ H H , M ˜ X
XK/BT; RH - C O i I P O T U B J e H H e T e I I J l O O T n a r l e COOTBeTCTBeHHO C H B P Y X H O ˜ ˜ U,lU donee
1




,.-
An3
% - K O ˜ I $ @ U U U ˜ H TT e˜n i l O O T n a q U C H a p y X H ˜ f i H B H ˜ T P ˜ H CTOPOHM O r p a X A e -
H˜˜˜
-
U ˜
HHR BT/ ( td2 K ) ; 6i - TOJIULUHB C T p O H T e J I b H M X CJlOeB KOHCTfYKUUH, hl; A, - K O ˜ + + U U W ˜ H T
. K ) ; tiH3 - TOdlLUUHP T e n J I O U 3 0 -
T e n J I O n p O B O ˜ H O C T H T p O U T C J b H b I X C ˜ & BKOHCTpYKUI1U. BT/ ( M
C
AH, - K O ˜ ˜ $ @ M U U ˜ H T
M;
JlRUHOHHOrO CJIOR, TeXJlOnPOBOAHOCTU U30nRUHOHHOrO C.'lOR,
M˜ .
K)
BT/ (
P ˜ C Y ˜3T H ˜ e K O u@ @ H U M ˜ H T OTB n J I O O T A a Y U
˜as I˜˜ ˜ ˜ a 6 n8.1.
.
e nPRBeAeHbl B



-
KO˜@@HUH˜HT CO˜˜OTHB˜˜HM?
llosepx˜oc˜u. TennooTjlaqH rennoornase R .
. M' . K/BT
a. BT/(M' K )
H a p y m ˜ ˜noaepxaocru cren H 6 e c s e p a a s n ˜ x ˜ O K D ˜ I T H B
e 23 0,043
B H ˜ T ˜ ˜IIOBepXHOCTH nouemenufi 6e3 ˜ ˜ H H V A U T ˜ J ˜ H O ˜
HHM˜
unpnynRuHn eo3nyxa (npu 6arapeRHom oxnaxaeHnH ˜ a m e p )
CTeHY 0,125
8
nonbl H n o ˜ o ˜ ˜ h u 6-7 0,167 - 0.143
B H ˜ T ˜ ˜IlOBepXHOCTH ˜ O M ˜ U ˜ H H ˜ I
HHH˜ C yMepeHH06 UHPKY-
nnuneA sosayxa ( x p a ˜ e ˜ n x n a x n e ˜ ˜ b trpy30n)
e x 0.1 1 1
9
RHYTPCHHH˜ flOBFPYHOfTH ˜ I O W ˜ U ˜ H H T˜ H C H B H O UHPKY
C HH ˜? ˜
II
nnuneh s o s l y x a ( ˜ a ˜ e p oxnimneann H s a ˜ o p a x & ˜ ˜ a ˜ u n )
tr 0,09 1
Y˜M
6onbme s ˜ a ˜ e ˜ O ˜ e @ U U M ˜ H T e˜n n O n e p e A a q n ko
Kn@ T OrpaXAeHnR,
T e M 6 0 J I b l l l e T e n J I O T b l 6 y ˜ e l˜ O H M K a T b B ˜ ˜ J l a X ˜ a e ˜ b l b e ˜
0 6 ' f i XOJIOAHJIbHMKa.
IP
TO nPHBOAMT K H ˜ O ˜ X O A H M O C T NB 6onee M O U H O ˜ ˜ , a C J l e A O B a T e J l b H O , N
YCTaHOBKe. Y M ˜ H ˜ T˜ n n O nT A˜ O K M O X H O
eH pT
6onee ˜0p0rofi X O J I O A N . J I ˜ H O ˜ ˜
n p M M e H e H N e M 6onee
I I y T e M Y M e H b W e H H R 3 H a q e H M R k,, q T O AOCTUraf?TCR
HJIH y B e n k i Y e H M e M ee T O J I U H H b l
˜ @ $ ˜ K T N B H OTelI.JtOM30JIRUHN ( M a J l b l e A,,)
˜˜
(6onbmne 3 H a Y e H M R 6,,). O A H ˜ KIIpM 3TOM B 0 3 P a C T a l o T 3 a T p a T b I H a
O
TenJlOM3OJIRUMlo. ˜ O ˜ T O M I YH IIpOeKTMpOBaHHM O r p a X A a l o U k i X K O H C T ˜ Y K U M ˜ ˜
Ip
X O J O A M n b H H K a U e ˜ e ˜ 0 0 6 p a 3 I I P A H U M a T b T a K Y l o T e n J I O k i 3 0 ˜ R U M I OM, CJIeAO-
˜0
B a T e J I b H O , T a K O e P a C Y e T H O e 3 H a Y e H H e k,, q ˜ 0 6 b 1O A O B b I e I I e p B O H a Y a J I b H b I e H
r
3 K C n J I y a T a U M O H H b I e 3 a T p a T b l 6b1nn MHHHMaJlbHbIMM. TO 3 H a Y e H H e ko H a 3 b I -
B a l o T 3KOHOMNYeCKN U ˜ J I ˜ C O O ˜ ˜( :˜ ˜ . P˜ ˜ I c M ˜kg" A o C T a T O Y H O C J I O X e H ,
k) H Y T
T a K K a K AJIR 3 T O r 0 H ˜ O ˜ X O A N M OH a T b CTOMMOCTb O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H N RT e n n o - ,
3
M3OJlRUHH, 3JeKTpO3HeprHki, IIpOAOJXMTeJlbHOCTb p a 6 0 ˜ b 1 XOJOAHJI˜HO˜˜
YCTaHOBKH M T. A. ˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H3TNX BeJlMYMH p a 3 J I N Y H b I AJlR XOnOAWJlbHMKOB
HH
p a 3 ˜ 0 f iBMeCTNMOCTH H H a 3 H a q e H N R . ˜ O ˜ T O MB Y J I N Y W H O k ˜ B H a C T O R U e e
:
˜ ˜
B p e M R IIOJIb3YloTCR n p H TeXHHKO-3KOHOMHYeCKOM C p a B H e H H H pa3.JIMYHbIX
3 ˜ a ˜ M X O J I O A M ˜ ˜ H U K O B , npki 0 6 6 1 Y ˜ b l xP a C q e T a X T O n U H H b I T e n J l O M 3 O J R ˜ M N
a
fi
n O J l b 3 y l o T C R HOPMaTMBHbIMM ( T ˜ K Ha3blBaeMbIMI-i < T ˜ ˜ ˜ Y ˜ M ˜ I 3HaYeHNR.MN MH%)
k:', K O T O P b I e B C P e A H e M ˜ J I N ˜ K K k y M B T O Xe B P e M R OAHHaKOBbI AJIR
N
XOflOAMJIbHHKOB BCeX BHAOB M p a 3 M e p O B .
Ta6nuya 8.2
KO˜@@HUH˜HTH Tennonepenasn HapyxnHx cTeH H ˜ O K P H T H A k;P
C p e n ˜ e r o n o e a n˜ e m n e p a ˜ y p a
[ B BT/(M . K ) ] n p B H Y T P ˜ H H˜˜e˜˜ n e p a ˜ y "C .
˜ pe
sosnyxa B p a f i o ˜ e ˜ p o ˜ ˜ e n b -
c
CTBa. " C + -30-25+ 4
-20-15+ -10 -4 0 12
-40




- -
0.19 023 0.28 0,30 0.35 0,52
+ 9 H eblue 0.21
- -
- -
0,17 0.20 0.23 0.26 02
.9 0,33 0.47
fl p H M e r a H H R: 1. B sucnnsene npnseneno s ˜ a r e ˜ O ˜ @ @ H U H ˜ H T ˜
K˜ e Tennonepenarn nnn HapymHHx cTeH,
I e s ˜ a u e ˜ a r e nM U
-e 6ecsepnarHHx ˜OKDHTHA.
2. n n n qepnaqsHx ˜ O ˜ ˜ H TKOB@˜$UUH˜HT Tennonepenarm cnenyeT npHHHMaTb Ha 10% 60nbiue. qeM nnn 6ec-
HA
qepnaYHHX I ˜ O K P H T H ˜ ˜ .
H T H R 3KPaHHPylOTCR IlaHenbHHMH bar ape nu^. K O ˜ @ @ H U H ˜ H T
TenJlOnepena'lH ˜ O K P H T H ˜
CneAyeT


˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H P AJIR H a P Y X H b I X C T e H W 6 e ˜ q e p ˜ d 9 ˜ O K P ˜ I TI lWk i B˜ A e H b I
k: H H ˜b1˜ P˜e
B ˜ a 6 n 8.2. AJlR BHYTPeHHHX C T e H H I I e p e r O p O A O K , O T A e J I R l o U M X O X J I a X A a e -
.
M b I e n O M e U e H H R OT H e O X J l a X A a e M b I X M H e O T a n J I M B a e M b I X , a T a K X e AJlR
0 6 0 r p e B a e M b l X n 0 n O B H a r p y H T a X - B ˜a6j-1. 8. 3. ˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H O ˜ R @ M U N ˜ H T O B
KN @
k t P AJIR n o ˜ e u e ˜ uc iT e M n e p a T y p a M n , H e ˜ K ˜ ˜ ˜ H H ˜T I˜ M JNI . 2 n 8. 3,
i ˜ 8.
B
H H T ˜ P I I O J I F I U M ˜ ˜ ˜˜ H ˜ Y ˜ H ktP AJIR
IIPHHHMaloT . NR IIeperOpOAOK MeXAy
O X n a X A a e M b l M H I I O M e U e H M R M H n P H B e A e H b l B ˜ a 6 n 8. 4.
.

Ta6nuqa 8.3

I K O ˜ @ @ H U H e nH o n˜ p e n a r nk ˜ pe Br/ ( M ˜ .K)]
˜˜ nT e l


1,
(
Temoepa˜ypaeo3nyxa s BliyTpen˜ne H neperopoa˜n.
OxnaxnmMOMnoMelueH**. m n e n n a u w e o x n a u a e M u e no*eueHmn O6orpr˜ae˜re non. na rpynrr




l l p H M e r a H H e. l l p ˜ PacnonoxeHHH nona Ha rpyHTe c ˜ a p y x n o RCTOPOHH K O H C T P Y K U H H He+ n e ˜ x y ˜ u e f i c n
cpenbl, nosToMy K O H B ˜ K T H B H H ˜ e n n o o 6 ˜ e ˜
˜ OTcyTcTnyeT H TepMHrecKoe ConpoTneneHHe nepexony TennoTH OT rpynTa
K K O H C T P Y K U H H paeHo nynm (I/?, = 0).
Temneparypa sosnyxa B K03cpcpnune˜˜bl rennonepenaw kTP[a B T / ( m 2 . K ) ] PAR BHyrpennHx creti, nepero-
donee rennom nomewennu, ponoK H memnysram˜bix e p e ˜ p u r h
n mexny oxnamnaemmn noMeueHHnmH npn remne-
"C "C
parype ˜ o a n y x aB 6onee xonon˜omn o m e u e ˜ ˜ h .
1 1 1 1 I
-30 -20 -10 12
-4 4




3 ˜ k',P, H ˜ O ˜ X O A U M Y HT) O J I q U H y
a˜ Te˜JIOU30JlR˜UOHHO˜0
CJlOR MOXHO
onpenenwb no + o p ˜ y n e


(8.
nonysae˜oiiu3 QOPMYJILI 1 ) .
n 0 c J I e P a C Y e T a T O J l I 4 U H b I U 3 0 J I R 4 U O H H O ˜ OCJIOR, B C J l y Y a e U C n O J I b 3 0 B a H U R
IlJlMTHblX M a T e p U a J l O B , M O X e T O K a 3 a T b C R , YTO P a C Y e T H a R B e J I U Y U H a H e
C O O T B e T C T B y e T C T ˜ H A ˜ P T HTOJIlrlUHe B b l n y C K a e M b I X IIJIUT. B T a K O M C J l y q a e
O˜˜
H ˜ O ˜ X O A H M n p U H R T b T O J l q U H Y U 3 0 J I R q U O H H O r O 'CJIOR K P ˜ T H OC˜ T ˜ H A ˜ ˜ T H O ˜ ˜
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