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ropon pacnonoxes B IOXHOA ˜ n u ˜ a ˜ n q e c3˜ o fei.
(CM. n p u n o x e H H e 1 ) . C n e n o e a ˜ e n b ˜ o , o˜
T O J I I U U He˜ J l O A 3 0 J I R U H O A H 0 T 0 C n O R 0 r p a X C n e ˜ H f iP a C C ' I H T b I B a e M T O j l b K O AJlR ABYX K a M e p :

M O ˜ O ˜ H J I ˜ H OX p ˜ H e H H R M O P O X e H b I X TPY3OB. Tennon30n˜unm B Y H H B e P C a J l b H b I X K a M e p a X
H ˜a
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n p U H H M a e M T ˜ K O ˜ K a K U B K a M e p a X X p a H e H U R M O P O X e H b I X TPYBOB, T a K K a K O H a P a C -
B OCTanbHblX K a M e p a X
C q H T b I B a e T C R H a P e X H M C H a ˜ 6 0 n e eH H ˜ K O ˜ ˜ n e p a T y p o f I (-2O0C)
Te ˜
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n
H a p y m ˜ a ucreua mopo3nnssoii ramepu. C o c ˜ a e T e H H n o ˜ a 3 a ˜˜ a 6 n8.5. T e ˜ I I e p a ˜ y p a .
B
c
˜ o a n y x aB K a M e p e tn = -30°C, o x n a x n e H u e o c y m e c T e n R e T c R ˜ 0 3 n y x o o x n a n u ˜ e n cnenoaa- ˜˜u,
T e n b H o , U u p K y n R u u R eo3nyxa y c w n e H H a R . Tpe6ye˜oe ˜ a s e ˜ u e ˜ @ @ N L I U ˜ H T ˜ n n o n e p e n a q u
3 KO Te
n n R K a M e p b l C t = -30°C X O n O n H J I b H H K a , p a C n O J l O X C e H H O T 0 B W X H O ˜ I˜ M ˜ T H Y ˜ C K3O ˜ ˜ ,
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kip K)
= 0,19 BT/(M' C O r n a C H O ˜a6Jl.8 2. K O ˜ @ @ H U U ˜ H T H e n J O O T f i a l l H n p H H H M a e M "0
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.
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a, = 23 BT/ ( K) .

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K0HCTP)'KUHU




˜ ˜ U H U M O˜ l U H M y U30JIRLIHOHHOrO CJIOR 250 MM (ABB C n O R no 100 MM H OAHH 50 M M ) .
Tn˜H
˜ O C K O J I ˜ KI l P U H X T a R T O J l I U H H a T ˜ ˜ J ˜ O H ˜ O J I R O T J U q a e T C F l OT T p e 6 y e M o f i 6onee Y e M H a 10 MM,
Y UH
no @ 0 p M y n e (8. 3) O n p e n e J R e M n e f i c ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ e 3˜ a Ybe H Hoe e K O ˜ @ @ H U U ˜ H T e˜ ? J l O n e p e n a Y H :
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H a p y m ˜ a u C T e H a K a M e p U X p a H e H H R M O P O X e H U X r Y30B. T p e 6 y e ˜ t ˜ fK O ˜ @ @ M I I N ˜ H T
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K) . K O ˜ @ ˜ Y L L H C H T
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, T B K K a K K a M e p a O X J I a X n a f 2 T C R 6ara-
B H Y T P ˜ H HIIOBepXHOCTH ˜ ˜ H H A M ˜ = 8 BT/ (M'
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P e R M H npe e c ˜ e c r a e ˜ ˜ uupicynauun ˜osnyxa.C y ˜ ˜ a p T e p Me s e c K o e c o n p o T u e n e n l i e cnoeR
ofi ˜o u
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B n y ˜ p e n ˜ ncre-
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i[nH I I O A A e p X a H M R 3 a ˜ a H H o h e M n e p a T y p b I B O X n a X A a e M O M n O M e l 4 e H U M
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i
T e J I R M U (PNC. 9.1).
˜ P OnpeAeJleHMM 3 ˜ 0 HaTPY3KU yrlUTMBaK)T C J I e A Y l O 4 N e TenJIOIIPATOKA:
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K a x f l b 1 f i U 3 3 T U X BAAOB T e n J I O n p k i T O K O B , K a K I I p a B U J I O , H e n p e p b l B H O
H 3 M e H R e T C R , I I P H q e M UX M a K C H M a J I b H b l e 3 H a q e H H R H e C O B n a A a I O T no B p e M e H H .
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nepnon, )
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M AUnJIOMHOrO IIPOeKTHPOBaHUR nOJIb3yIOTCR M ˜ T O A H K O ˜ ˜ r e T a , l l p H K O T O P O ˜ ˜
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H a n e ˜ ˜ nepnon rona. ni
H a r p y s ˜ y H a K a M e p H o e 0 6 0 p y n o ˜ a ˜ noen p e n e n m o T K a K CYMMY B c e x
T e n J I O n p H T O K O B B A a H H y l O K a M e p y , T a K K a K K a M e p H O e 06opynosa˜ue O J I X H O A
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06ecnesa˜b


P e ˜ o ˜ e ˜ n a u u uo n p e n e n e H n i o ˜ a r p y s ˜Hu K o M n p e c c o p CM. B 9 9.7.
no a
H a r p y s ˜ y H a 0 6 o p y n o ˜ a ˜ nB y H e s e p c a n b H b r x K a M e p a x ( ˜ a n p n ˜ e p ,
e
c t, = 01-20°C) onpenenrrm pa3nenb˜onpa o6enx p a c q e T H H x T e M n e p a T y -
pax ˜ o s n y x a B K a M e p e (npn 0 n -20°C). n o ˜ a r p y s ˜ e t, = 0°C npn
˜osnyxooxnann˜enu, no ˜ a r p y s ˜ e t, = -20°C - non6n-
non6npa10˜ npn
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B X O J I O A H J I b H n K a X C ˜ O ˜ ˜ W qMCJIOM K a M e p n 0 J l H b l h P a C q e T T e I t J l O -
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K a M e p , a AJlR OCTaJlbHbIX K a M e p T e n J I O n p H T O K N M O X H O p a C C q W T b I B a T b I t 0
Y n e J l b H b l M H a r p y s K a M , O T H e C e H H b I M H a 1 M2 Ilona, n O J I y q e H H b I M B p e 3 y J l b -
TaTe PaCqeTa XapaKTepHMX KaMep.
˜ A H O B ˜ ˜ M ˜ H H ˜O ˜ J ˜ ˜ H cT e n J l O n p k i T O K O B H M e e T M e C T O H 6 a n a ˜ c
C oM
˜ n a r o n o c ˜ y n n e ˜ n f iK a M e p y n B n a r o o T B o A a n 3 H e e B B n A e pocb˜ AJIM
B
C H ˜ ˜ O B O ˜ 6 6 B b I ˜ a A a l O t Q I I X H a ˜ e I I J I 0 I I e p e f i a I O t Q e f i IIOBepXHOCTM n p n 6 o p o ˜
˜1 ˜ 1,
o x n a x n e H n n . B n a r o n o c ˜ y n n e ˜ n Y q n T b l s a l o T B OCHOBHOM n p e n p o e K T n p o -
n
B a H H H YCTaHOBOK KOHAUIlNOHHPOBaHUR B 0 3 A y X a . O A B ˜ K T 0 6 b l B a e ˜ 3O ˜eo6xo-
AMMO 1.1 n p M n p O e K T A p O B a H H H XOJIOAMJlbHMKOB AJIR (PPYKTOB M 0 ˜ 0 t Q e 8 .
Tennonparo˜uzrepes orpaxnamuue KoHc'rpyKuuu QI OnpeAenRmT KaK
CYMMY T ˜ ˜ J ˜ O I T P U T O K O BY e p e 3 C T e H b I , I I e p e r O p O A K U , I l e p e K p b l T M R U n U I I O K p b l -
(
T U R , Y e p e 3 IIOJlb1, 3arJly6Jle˜˜b1ee H b I I I O A B a J l b H b I X ˜ ˜ ˜ e ˜ e ˜ B b I i B a H -) , k 3f i
CT
HbIX HaJIH'lUeM Pa3HOCTH T e M I I e p a T y p C H a P Y X U OrPaXAeHI.iR U BHyTPU
n o M e u e H n R Q,,, a T a K x e - r e n n o n p u T o K o B B p e 3 y n b ˜ a ˜ e
oxnamfiaenforo
B O ˜ A ˜ ˜ ˜ C T c o n ˜ e q ˜ oP aiA k i a U U U Q l c Y e p e 3 n O K P b I T M R M H a P Y X H b I e C T e H b l :
f
BUH
+ Qlc. n e p e r o p o n ˜ n ,n e(9. e2)-
= Qlr
QI
T e n n o n p u ˜ o ˜ ˜ ip
˜e es p
C T˜H˜!,
( B . KBT) P a C C Y U T b I B a I O T
p b T U R U Jl U n 0 K p 61 T U R Q,,
I
K @0p˜yJIe




n p u p a c q e T e nnouana n o B e p x H o c T M c T e H n n e p e r o p o n o K n n u ˜ y a p y x - H
HbIX C T e H H e y r J O B b I X n 0 ˜ e ˜ e ˜ O I Ifp i ˜ e J l R m TK a K P a C C T O R H U e M e X f l y OGRMU
U e
BHYTPeHHUX C T e H ; YrJlOBbIX I ' I ˜ ˜ e L I l e ˜ t- K a K P a C C T O R H U e OT ˜ a p y X ˜ 0 f i
ifi
AJIMHY
n O B e p X H O C T H H a P Y X H b I X C T e H A 0 OCW BHj'TPeHHWX. BHYTpeHHUX CTeH
O n p e A e J l R m T K a K P a C C T O R H U e M e X n y B H Y T P ˜ H H n˜ ˜ e P X H O C T b I 0 H a P Y X H b I X
OB˜
C T e H U O C b m B H Y T P e H H U X , a BbICOTY C T e H - K a K P a C C T O R I I U e O T Y P O B H R
q n c T o r o nona A a H H o r o m a x a no YPOBHR Y U C T O ˜ O nona abrruenexaruero
w a x a n n 1 4 AO sepxa s a c b ˜ n ˜ u K P ˜ I T U Rn. n o u a ˜ b o T o n K a w 110na onpeae-
˜O n
JTRmT K a K n p O U 3 B e A e H U e A J U H b I K a M e p b I H a U I U p U H y , K O T O P b I e U 3 M e P R m T C R
M e X n y OCRMU B H Y T P e H H U X C T e H UJIU O T B H Y T ˜ ˜ H O B e p X H O C T U H a P y X H b I X
nH ˜ ˜ ˜
C T e H A 0 OCM B H Y T P e H H U X .
c A O C T ˜ T O Y H O c T e n e H b m TOYHOCTU B c e pa3Mepb1 n o ˜ e u e ˜ n B i n n a H e f
˜˜
M O X I I O O I I p e A e J l U T b M e X A Y K O O P A U H a u U O H H b I M U O C R M U (T. e. 6e3 Y q e T a
T O J l u U H b I C T ˜ H ) .˜ P TOM I I O r P e U I H O C T b n p U O I I p e & e J l e H U U n J l O U a f l I 4 O r p a X -
M
A a l o u U X K O H C T ˜ ˜ K U n0 ˜C˜P a B H e H U I O C 6onee T O Y H b l M M e T O A O M , y K a 3 a H H b I M
M
B b I U I e , H e I l p e B b I C U T 5%. n k i ˜ e f i ˜ b lpea 3 M e p b I I I p U H U M a m T C O K p y r J I e H U e M
t,
A 0 0,l M, a I ' I J l O U a A b - C O K p y r J e H U e M A 0 0,l M ˜ T. e ˜ I I e p a ˜ y p y R P M H M M a l o T
B C O O T B e T C T B U N C P e K O M e H A a U U R M U ( C M . M. 5 ) .
n p n p a c Y e T e T e . n n o n p n T o K o B zrepes H a p y x H b I e o r p a x n e H a R T e M n e p a T y p y
t,,
H a p y x H o r o ˜ o s n y x a n p u H M M a m T no n p m o x e H u m 1. n p u p a c q e T e T e n n o -
IIpUTOKOB Y e p e 3 B H y T p e H H U e O r p a X n e H U R ( C T ˜ H ˜ II I e p e r ˜ p ˜ n ˜ k OTneJlRK3-
11 i),
u u e OAHO n o M e u e H l 1 e OT npyroro, T e M n e p a T y p a K o T o p o r o U ˜ B ˜ C T H M e c T o B˜ ,
T e M n e p a T y p b I H a p y X H O T O B O 3 A y X a I I p U i i U M a t o T T e M n e p a T y p y A a H H O r O no-
MeUleHMR.
n p U PaCqe're TenJIOnpUTOKOR Y e p e 3 B H y T p e H H U e O r p a X f l e H U R , BbIX0)JRuUe
B H e O X J l a X A a e M b I e n O M e u e H M R ( K O P M A O P ˜ I , B ˜ C T M ˜ ˜ ˜ J M , ˜ Y P ˜T Ie ) ,n e p a -
T˜M M
T Y P H ˜ IH˜a ˜ O p 8 I I p U H U M a l O T K a K Y a C T b P ˜ C Y ˜ T H P a 3 H˜ C T M T e M n e p a T y p
O˜ O
n
A J R H a P y X H b I X C T e H : 0,7 (t, - t,), e C J I U 3 T U n O M e L I e H U R C O O ˜ U ˜ I O T C R C
(t,,
- t,), e C J l H H e C O O ˜ U ˜ ˜ ˜ O T C R .
H a P Y X H b l M B 0 3 n y X O M , U 0,6
T e n n o n p u T o K Y e p e 3 n o n ( B KBT) p a c n o n o x e ˜ ˜ b H ai i r p y ˜ ˜ ˜ e
,
n u ˜ e m u a i i0 6 0 r p e ˜ a ˜ e n ˜ ˜ c ˜ e o f i c ˜ 0˜n a e n e n R m - r no @ o p ˜ y n e
ybr p p,

Q I T= k,F (t, - t,) (9.4)
nona; f r - c p e a i l ˜ ˜ T e M n e p a T y p a
k,-
rLe ˜ O ˜ @ @ N U W ˜ HTTe n n o n e p e a a w i KOHCTPYKLIUH
n O B e p X H O C T U ˜ C T ˜ O ˜ ˜ n J T B0 ˜ 0 r p e t ˜ a I P y H T a ( I I ˜ U ! J J e K ' T p 0 0 6 0 r p e ˜ e r p y H T a n P H H H -
CR 6
1°C. n p U 0 6 0 r p e B e r0pfl'iEiM B 0 3 A y X C h 1 , n p o X O A R U ! U M no K a H a i I a M D LUaHUeFJOM
MalOT t , =
n o n y , t , = 3°C).


56
a
Ptic.9.2. Pa36we˜aH a YCJlOBHbIe 3 0 H b l :
a - onouianw eonos; 6 - wapyxwux orpamnewmii B nonsane

E c n ˜IIOJIb1, paCnOAOXeHHb1e H a r p y H T e , H e UMeloT 0 6 0 ˜ p e ˜ a ˜ e J I b H b l ˜
Y C T ˜ O ˜ ˜ C TTB , T e I I J I O n p U T O K qepe3 HMX O I I P e A e J I R I O T CYMMUPOBaMMeM TCIIJIO-
O
n O T e p b Y e p e 3 YCJIOBHbIe 3 0 H b 1 I U M P U H O ˜ 2 M (PNC. 9.2, a ) IIO @ 0 p ˜ y J I e
˜



-
me kycn - Y C ˜ O B H ˜ O S @ @ N U N ˜ H T T e n n o n e p e n a q e c o o ˜ o r ˜ c ˜ e y l o l u˜ i i H nona, BT/(M' K )
eO ˜ I
KI ˜
[ A d l R I I O J l a 6 ˜ TenJlOI130JIRUMti &JIB 1, 11, 1 1 3 0 H k y c , p a B e H COOTEIeTCTBeHHO 0 , 4 7 , 0 , 2 3 ,
1
3
0.12 BT/ ( h l 2 - K ) , a 0 c T a J I h H 0 f i ,301lbl n O d a ( I V 3 0 l i a ) k y r n = 0 , 0 7 B T ( v ˜ . K ) ] F - n J l 0 l l l d f i b
,
C O O T B ˜ T C T B Y H ) U ˜ ˜ H L I n O J l a . M L , I l J I O U a n b Y q a C T K a n O A a P a j M P p O M 2x2, n p M M b l K a l o U C l 0
30 ˜
H B P Y X H b I X C T e H ( ˜ ˜ I U T P M X O B ˜ H H ˜ Ic ˜T˜ o K ) ,
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