<< . .

. 7
( : 20)



. . >>

TOM n p e A n o n a r a m T , TO n p o n y K - r b l noc-rynam-r B K a M e p y pamo-
llpu
M e p H o B T e q e H u e CYTOK, a n p 0 A y K - r 3a 24 s y c n e s a e T o x n a A n T b c R - A o T e M n e p a -
T Y P b I B K a M e p e . H a q a J I b ˜ a R e M I I e p a T y p a I I p O A y K T O B I I p H H H M a e T C R no A a H H b I M
T
m. 5. i
'

C Y T O ˜ HI IO C T y n J l e H U e
O˜ IIpOAyKTOB B K a M e p b l X p a H e H U R P a C n P e A e J I H -
T e J I b H b l X U nPOM3BOACTBeHHbIX XOJIOAHJIbHUKOB C O C T a B J I R e T 8% BMeCTHMOCTH
'

K a M e p , ecnu oqa M e H e e 200 T n 6% - K a M e p 6onbmeii BMeCTHMOCTH. B
XOJIOAUJIbHUKaX, n p e A H a 3 H a q e H H b I X AJIR X p a H e H U R @PYKTOB, C Y T O q H O e I I O C T y n -
J I e H U e I I P U H U M a l O T P a B H b I M 10% BMeCTUMOCTU K a M e p .
T e n n o n p s ˜ oO˜ n p o ˜ y Q,,,/ ˜( Bo B˜ ) n p n X O J I O -
˜ KT
T
n u n b ˜ o f io 6 p a 6 o ˜ ˜ e a ˜ e p o x n a x ˜ e H 3 a˜ ˜ 0 ˜u
B˜ ax -
p a x u ˜ a ˜ e p ˜u o ˜ u ˜ e c ˜ o r˜ o˜ ˜ C T B OU p RA e J r H m T no
nu A ne
˜˜PMYJI˜



rue 1,3 - K O ˜ $ $ U U N ˜ H T , y ˜ N ˜ b l ˜ a I O l 4HF P a B H O M e P H O C T b T ˜ ˜ J I o B o ˜ a r ˜ MnP CYTO'I-
˜ ˜3˜˜ i
-
ei ˜
a
i - P ˜ ˜ H O C n e ˜ b m x 3 ˜ ˜ a n b n n pno n y K T a
yT n
H o e n o c T y n n e H n e n p o n y K T a B K a M e p y , T/CYT; u
A 0 N n O C J I e O ˜ P B ˜ O T K K & K / K T ; To6p - n p O n O J l X H T e J I b H O C T b X O J I O & U J I ˜ H OO ˜ P ˜ ˜ O T K U ,
N, ˜ 'I/CYT

m. 5) ( O ˜ H ˜ HOO a M e H b U l e ˜ p O n O J l X U T e J l b H O C T U U N K n a ) .
H
(CM.

T e n n o n p u ˜ o ˜O n @ ˜ ˜ K T O Bo ˜ o m e i ih p u c c n b r x a -
T H
H U U>> Y 4 U T b I B a l O T TOJIbKO H a C I I e 4 H a J I U 3 U P O B a H H b I X XOJlOAHJIbHHKaX AJIR
A 0˜0l4efiU B T a K U X Xe K a M e p a X p a C n p e A e J I U T e J I b H b I X
X p a H e H H R @PYKTOB
XOJIOAMJIbHUKOB.
KBT) M O X H O no a o p ˜ y n e
(B
T ˜ I I J I o I I ˜ M T o KQ5 OnpeAeJIUTb

+ 0,9qxp) (9.10)
= BK(0,l qn
Q5

me BK--B M e c T u M o c T b q , , - ˜ e n n o ˜ b ˜ n e n e ˜nu ˜n o B npu T e M n e p a T y p a x
K a M e p b l , T; q,, no
n o c T y n n e H n f l H x p a H e H n f l , o n p e n e n R e M b l g no npnnoxesnlo 8, BT/T; S H ˜ ˜ ˜ HT N M u e p a T y p
eH
CM. B m. 5.

T e n n o n p u ˜ o T ˜ a p Q,, ˜ ( B KBT)
O˜ b
,
103
- (9.11)
- f2)
QZr= M7cT ( f˜
24 3600
me,M, - CyTO1lHOe n O C T y n J I e H H e T a p b l , n p N H M M a e M O e ˜ p O ˜ O p l l N O H a J l b HCYTOqHOMY n O C T y n J I e -
0
KHX/ K) ; ft H f p - H a -
H N l o n p O n y K T a , T/CYT; C, - Y n e J I b H a f l T e n J I O e M K O C T b T a p b I , (KI'.
q a n b H a R N K O H e V H a f l T e M n e p a T Y P b I T a p b I ( ˜ p k i ˜ ˜ ˜ aP a BoH b I M Nf H a q a J I b H 0 ˜U K O H ˜ ˜ H O H
l ˜˜ l
T e M n e p a T y p a M n p o n y ˜ ˜ a"C. ),
Macca T a p b I C O C T a B J R e T OT 10 A 0 20% MaCCbI T P Y 3 a r a AJIR C T ˜ K J I R H H O ˜ ˜
T a p b t - 100%. Maccy A e p e B R H H b I X RIQNKOB AJIR @P)'KTOB I I P U H H M a l O T pas-
20% MaCCb1 @PYKTOB.
˜0fi
KAX/ K)]
Y ˜ e J I b ˜ y lTo n J l O e M K O C T b T a p b I [ B
e (KT. IIPUHUMalOT B 3 a B U -
CUMOCTU O T ee M a T e p H a J I a : AJIR A ˜ ˜ ˜ B R H U K ˜˜ ˜ O H H OT a˜p M C, = 2,3,
H O PT ˜
M ˜ T ˜ J I J ˜ u ' I ˜ cC, o ˜ ˜0,5, a C T ˜ K J I R H H OC, ˜= 0,8.
x= ˜




T ˜ ˜ J I o ˜ ˜ M T o K a p y X H O T O B 0 3 A y X a I I p U BeHTUJIRILHH C J I e A y e T y q U T b 1 -
OT H
B a T b TOJIbKO n p U n p O e K T U p O B a H U H C n e l l U a J l U 3 U p O B a H H b l X XOJlOAHJIbHHKOB
M K a M e P RJIR X p a H e H H R @ ˜ Y K T O B .
T e n n o n p n ˜ o T ˜ a p y x ˜ . o r o0 3 ˜ y x 3a ( B KBT) pac-
˜
O˜ Q
C q U T b l B a D T no @ 0 p ˜ y J I e
(9.12)
= MB3 - in),
(i,,
Q3
M a c c o s b r i i p a c x o n s e ˜ ˜ u n ˜ u u o ˜ o˜s o y xo aM,
˜ nr
( B K T / C ) O n p e A e J I R l O T , .UCXOAR N 3 H ˜ O ˜ X O A N M O C T O ˜ ˜ C ˜ ˜ Y K˜ a H HH CR U
H pT O T
B O ˜ A ˜ X O O ˜ HMC˜ O n ˜ K U X 0 6 ' b e ˜ o ˜CyTKU:
e KH b B




Ha I I p e A l l p N R T U R X T O p r O B J I U H @ ˜ ˜ U ˜ C T B ˜ H nH T a˜ O R K a M e p b I X p a H e H U R
UO HU
KP˜THOCT˜
@ ˜ Y K T O BU 0 ˜ 0 4 e f 0 6 0 p y ˜ y l O ˜ ˜ U T O ˜ H O - B ˜ I T H XBH O ˜ ˜ J I R U W ˜ ˜ .
i ˜ ˜HTH
B O ˜ A ˜ X O O ˜ M 6˜ lH H b 1 ˜ a M e p a X XOJlOAUJIbHUKOB AJlH @ P ˜ K T O B3 - 4 06'6e-
B0 b q˜ K
M a K a M e p b I B CYTKH. B K a M e p a x c perynupye˜oii rasoaoii cpenoii B e H T u n R u u l o
H e I I p e n y C M a T p U B a l o T . O A H ˜ KB 3TU K a M e p b I I l O A a e T C H r a 3 O B a H C M e C b ,
O
TenJIOIIpNTOK OT K O T O P O ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ X O A U MYqUTbIBaTb B K a 4 e C T B e Q3. K a ˜ e p a
H O
I l U u e B b I X OTXOflOB A O J l X H a H M e T b B b I T R X H Y D BeHTUJIRUUlo, 0 6 e ˜ n e r 1 U B a l o -
LUyW K P a T H O C T b ˜ 0 3 ˜ ˜ ˜ 0 0 6 0 10 ˜ 6 ' 6 e ˜ 0 ˜q a C .
A M e 0a B




˜ T H e n J I O n P N T O K U B 0 3 H U K a l O T BCJIeACTBUe O C B e U e H k i X K a M e p , npe6b1-
T
B a H H R B HUX n l o ˜ e f i ,p a 6 0 ˜ b I ˜ J I ˜ K T ˜ O A B U ˜ ˜ O T K PJb I B˜ H U R ˜ B e p e f i .
U T˜ a˜
T ˜ ˜ J I O ˜ ˜ H T o n K eBn e n H l o T OT K a m n o r o u c T o q H u K a ˜ e n n o ˜ b ˜ n e n e ˜ ueinib -
Op oTn
HO.
u
T e n n o n p u T o K o T o c B e e H u R ql ( B KBT) P a c c q u T b I B a l o T no
@OPMY˜˜
ql =AF. (9.13)
rAe A - TennoTa, BMnenneMaR wcTosHwKaMw OcBeueHwR enwHwqy BpeMeHw Ha 1 nnouann
B M˜
nona, B T / M ˜F - nnouanb KaMepM, M ˜ .
;




m e 0,35 - TennoabIneneHwe onHoro senoaeKa npn ˜ R x e n o f i +wswsec˜ofi p a 6 o ˜ e ,KBT; n -
swcno nlonefi, pa6o˜a1o˜uwxnaHHoM noMeueauw.
B

Yucno nloneii, p a 6 0 ˜ a l o u u xB n o M e u e s u u , n p e H u M a m T B s a ˜ u c u ˜ o c ˜ u
OT nnouanu K a M e p b r : npu nnouanu K a M e p H no 200 M˜ - 2 - 3 q e n o B e K a ;
npu nnouanu K a M e p b I 6 0 n b ˜ e 200 M˜ -- 3 - 4 q e n o B e K a .
T e n n o n p u ˜ o O˜T . p a 6 o ˜ a r o u u x 3 n e ˜ ˜ p o n ˜ u r a ˜
n e ii q j ( B KBT) npu p a c n o n o m e H u u s n e ˜ ˜ p o n ˜ u r a - t e n e i io x n a x n a e M o M
B
n o ˜ e u e ˜ u n p e a e n f i l o ˜no @ o p ˜ y n e
on I

q 3 = N,, (9.15)
m e N, - cyMMapHan M O U H O C T ˜ s n e ˜ ˜ p o n e u r a ˜ e n e f i ,
KBT.
B n p e A B a p U T e J l b H b I X P a C q e T a X MOUHOCTb YCTaHaBJIHBaeMbIX 3JleKTPO-
˜ ˜ U r a T e J I e f( i KBT) M O X H O OPUC!HTUPOBO˜HO I l P H H U M a T b n0 A a H H b I M , n p U -
B
BeneHHblM HUXC:
.
l ti43 - 3 129 = 0,0735 Kr/c,
-
Mes =
24 3bUU
Tennonpap6˜OT eosnyxa r r p ˜BeHTunnuuu OnpenenReM no a o p ˜ y n e(9.12)
-
43 = 0,0735 (78 8.5) = 5.1 KBT.
f l p ˜ ˜ e3. O n p e & e ˜ & iTeIInOnpHTOKH qepe3 HeH3O˜HpOBaHHble IlCIJlbl B KaMePY XpaHe-
p ˜b
ymoean. P a s ˜ e p b n n m a 24 M , runpuHa 12 M.
Hun oxnaxneHHblx npoayltroe. K a ˜ e p a ˜:
nnotuanb nona nepeofi n s y x ˜ e ˜ p o e o i f
OHM, n p u ˜ ˜ ˜ a r o u e f yrny ˜ a p y w c ˜ t .CTeH,
Ki 1˜
Y'IATblBaeM RBaXnbl, T.e. no HanpaBAeHUD o6eux HaPYXHbIX CTeH, COCTaBJIRlOULHX YrOn




T e ˜ n e p a ˜ y p ˜ ycnoean Tame me, KaK B npe˜b˜nyureii
ble sanaqe.
n o + o p ˜ y n e(9.5) nonyqaeM
+ .+ .
. .
0,07 132) (33 - 0) = 1,9 KBT.
QI = (0.47.72 0,23 44 f 0.12 44


BblEiOP CMCTEMbl OXJlAXAEHMfl
M TMnA ˜ 0 , l l O f l M J l b H O R YCTAHOBKM
nocne o n p e ˜ e n e ˜ e n˜n o ˜ o˜f ia r p y H a ˜ o˜ n p e c c o p N K a M e p H o e o6opy-
u 3KM
A O B a H H e ˜ b 1 6 M p a I O CHCTeMy O X J I a X A e H U R , ˜ a u 6 o n e ep a U U O H a J I b H y I O BAR
˜
06'be˜˜a.
AaHHOrO
npM 3TOM H ˜ O ˜ X O A U M O e U I U T b , I l P O e K T U P O B a T b . JIM CMCTeMy U e H T P a -
P
n U 3 0 B a H H O r O X O J I O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H MUJIU A e u e H T p a n U 3 0 B a H H y I O , H e n O C p e n C T B e H -
R
H O r O O X J l a X A e H U R UJIU C I I P O M e X y T O Y H b I M X n a A O H O C H T e J I e M ( ˜ ˜ C C O J I ˜ H ˜ I' O ) ,
a M M U a q H y W UJIM XJIaAOHOByIO, ˜ ˜ ˜ H ˜ c o c MJIM I HaCOCHO-UUpKyJIRUUOHHyIO,
H˜ O
K a K y I O I I p e A f l O ' 4 e C T b CMCTeMy O X J I a X A e H U R K a M e p : 6 a ˜ a p e f i ˜ y IUilU B 0 3 A Y U I -
O
HYIO. H ˜ K O H H ˜U ˜ X O A H MPO U I M T b , KaKYIO B b 1 6 p a ˜ b
˜ O, e CACTeMY O T B O A a T e n J I O T b I
KOHAeHCaUMU: B 0 3 n Y X O M , B O A O ˜ P O B O A H O ˜B O A O ˜ ˜ B O A O ˜ ˜ 3 CUCTeMbI 060-
˜ , N
P O T H O r O B O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H I I C , nOMOUlbIO MCIIapMTeJlbHbIX K O H A e H C a T O p O B U T. p..
R
u
Kax3-a˜ nepewcJIeHHbIx c u c T e M M M e e T CBOU n p e u M y u e c T s a
k13 Heno-
CTaTKU. I ˜ O ˜ T O M Y H ˜ ˜ T
OKO ˜ J I b 1H 0 pI CUCTeM M O X H O C A e J I a T b
˜˜ 6˜ ˜˜ TOJIbKO
oco6e˜-
H a OCHOBaHUM TeXH03KOHOMMZIeCKOrO C P a B H e H M R B a P M a H T O B M Y q e T a
˜ o c ˜ e3 ˜ c n n y a ˜ a a u u .
fi
O A H ˜ K eKOTOpbIe
HO P e K O M e H A a u A M no B b 1 6 0 p y CkiCTeM O X J I a X A e H M R M O r y T
6 b l ˜ b A e J I a H b I H a OCHOBaHMU H a K O n J I e H H O r O O n b I T a I I p O e K T H p O B a H M R .
C
Ha ˜ b 1 6 0CMCTeMbI O X J l a X A e H M R OCHOBHOe BJIMRHMe O K a 3 b I B a I O T CJIe-
˜
-B
A y I O W N e @ ˜ K T O P ˜ I ZIMCJIO M BUA O X J I a X A a e M b I X O ˜ ˜ ˜ K T O I I o ˜ p e 6 U ˜ e J I e f i
:
xonona; p a c s e T H a R T e M n e p a T y p a B 0 6 ' b e ˜ ˜ a x e n n o s a R ˜ a r p y s ˜ a K a x -
T; OT
nor0 0 6 ' b e ˜ ˜Ua P a C Z I e T H a R C y M M a p H a R . X O A O A O H a r p y 3 K a ; T ˜ ˜ ˜ O B ˜ THXM R e-
M
HMKM ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ ˜ C H O a J IT q M;e C ˜ P U ˜ ˜ B bOI I y C K a e M O r O O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H U R n p U -
HC U U HI
6opo˜ aBTOMaTMKM C T P ˜ ˜ Y ˜ M ˜ X aMa K T e p M C T M K a M U .
IpM
B u e H T p a J I U 3 0 B a H H b I X CMCTeMaX O X J I a X A e H M R C O 3 n a I O T o6qee MaLUMHHOe
o T A e n e H u e n n R B c e x K o M n p e c c o p o B m u ˜ o ˜ n p e c c o p ˜ b rrpx r a T o B , a T a K x e
a e
xonona (ox-
npyroro O ˜ O P ˜ A O B ˜ H U F I˜,C J I Y X U B ˜ ˜ O U U X PRA n o ˜ p e 6 u ˜ e n e i i
O
JIaXAaeMbIX KaMep, KOHAUUUOHepOB, OXJIaXAaeMOrO TeXHOJOrMqeCKOrO
KOH˜˜HT˜˜˜UR O ˜ O P Y A O B ˜ H M R 0 6 ˜ 3 e J I ˜ o6nersae.r ero
060pyno˜a˜n˜). B ae
0 6 c ˜ 1 y x u ˜ a ˜ uans sop B T e q e H u e pa6oqero A H R , ecnu ˜ p e 6 y e ˜OcC˜ O R H -
ue ˜ T
H o e H ˜ ˜ J I I O A ˜ H˜Uo˜ c. J I ˜ A MMeeT O C O ˜ ˜ H H 6O n b u r o e 3 H a ' i e H U e AJIR a M -
H˜˜ o
M M a q H b I X XOJIOAMJIbHbIX YCTaHOBOK. ˜ O ˜ T O M H a K P Y n H b I X XOJIOAMJIbHUKaX
Y
BMeCTMMOCTbIO 1000 T M 6onee C a M M M a r I H b l M N CMCTeMaMN O X J I a X A e H M R
HPMMeHRIOT U e H T p a J I M 3 0 B a H H O e X O A O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H Up˜ 3 M e I U e H k i e M B o 6 q e ˜
Ca
K H e A O C T a T K a M I ˜ e H T p a J I U 3 0 B a H H O r O X O J I O ˜ O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ ' H C JR e A y e T OTHeCTU
UI
C J I O X H O C T b U flJIUTeJIbHOCTb M O H T a X a X O A O A M J I ˜ H OYCTaHOBKU, H a J I U l l U e
˜˜
6 o . n b u 1 o r o KOJIUqeCTBa P a C I l p e n e J I U T e J I b H b l X Y C T P O ˜ C T B , P ˜ ˜ B ˜ T B J ˜ H H O ˜ ˜CeTU
T ˜ ˜ ˜ O ˜ ˜ O B O3A n 0B ˜ 0 ; a p M a T y p b 1 . K p o ˜ eT O r O , B Y C T a H O B K a X cpen˜efi
aO p,
˜ P O I i 3 B O ˜ U T e ˜ b H O C T UHTpaJIll30BaHHbIe MaIUUHHbIe OTAejleHUR 3 a H U M a m T
Ue
CJIUUJKOM 6 0 ˜ b ˜ y I mJ I O U a n b no C p a B H e H U W C n J I O U a n b l o XOJIOAU.rlbHb1X
I
K a M e p : 35% B XOJIOnUJIbHUKaX BMeCTkiMOCTblO 125 T M 50% B XOJIOjl.UJIbHUKaX
BMeCTMMOCTblo 12 T .
I ˜ O ˜ T O B n o c . n e A H w e r o n b r B c e Gonee m u p o K o e p a c n p o c ˜ p a ˜ e ˜ e -
MY Hae
XOART CUCTeMbI A e U e H T p a J I I i 3 0 B a M H O r O X O J I O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H C R U nOMOIl&hfO a B T O -
HOMHbIX IIOJIHOCTbm a B T O M a T U 3 U P O B a H H b I X XJIaAOHOBblX XOJIOAklJbHbIX M a I U U H
C B M C O K O ˜ ˜ T e I I e H b l O ˜ ˜ B O A C K TOTOBHOCTII. n p U ˜ e ˜ e ˜n eU . e H T p a J I U 3 0 -
O˜˜
C U
B a H H O r O X O Z I O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H M lR 3 B O J I R e T C O K P a T U T b CPOKU M O H T a X a XOJIO-
I0
n U J I b H b I X YCTaHOBOK, CHM3MTb P a C X O n b I H a UX O ˜ O ˜ ˜ A O B U C K J I l q q a e T ˜HU˜,
H ˜ O ˜ X O A M M O CB ˜Y C T P O ˜ ˜ C T B ˜ A e J I b H O r O M a U I U H H O r O O T A e J I e H U R , a npM
T OT
M C n O J I b 3 0 B a H U U M a U I U H C B 0 3 A y U I H b I M K O H A e H C a T O P O M - U CMCTeMbI 0 6 0 ˜ 0 ˜ -
H O r O B O A O C H ˜ ˜ X ˜ H U R . Y M M ˜ P H O U H O C T b XOJlOflMJlbHbIX M a U l U H n p U
C M˜ R
A e U e H T p a J I k i 3 0 B a H H O M X O J I O ˜ ˜ O C H ˜ ˜ X 6 0H 1 b M e , q e M npM U e H T p a J I U 3 0 B a H -
˜ ˜M w
HOM, O A H a K O AJIR YCTaHOBOK cpen˜efi X O J I O A O ˜ p O U 3 B O A U T e J I b H O C T U 3 T 0 H e
UMeeT CyUeCTBeHHOrO 3HaqeHUR.
n p U T e n J I O B b I X H a r p y 3 K a X no 20 KBT, K O T O P b I e X a p a K T e p H b l AJIR XOJIO-
AllJIbHUKOB I l p e ˜ I I p U R ˜ k i f iO p r O B J I U U O ˜ I ˜ & ˜ C T B ˜ H nMTaHMFI, I I P U M e H R t O T
T HO˜O
K O M n J I e K C H b I e X O A O n U J l b H b l e MaIUMHbI ˜ a J I 0 f i llPOM3BOAMTeJIbHOCTU, pa6o-
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